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"1 



>.V^'A?^*^^- 





fJ^-Wl**^^'* 




SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



AND ITS 



MINES, 



HISTOEICAL SKETCH OP THE COLONY, 



UNDER ITS SEVERAL ADMINISTRATIONS, 



THE PERIOD OF CAPTAIN GREY'S DEPARTURE. 



BY 



FRANCIS DUTTON. 



i 



LONDON : 

T. AND W. BOONE, NEW BOND STREET. 

1846. 



:: 






\ 



TO THB 

HON. CAPTAIN STURT, 

MBHBER OP THE LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL, 

ASSISTANT RESIDENT COMMISSIONER, REGISTRAR GENERAL, EIC, 

ADELAIDE. 



My dcar Captain Sturt, 

In dedicating this volume to you, I trust you 
will, in the goodness of your heart, overlook the 
insignificance of the offering, and accept it as a 
proof of the esteem and admiration for your cha- 
racter, which is felt for you by every Colonist of 
South Australia, as well as by 

Yours sincerely, 
THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 



Thb great interest latterly excited, and the 
attention, now very generally drawn, to the highly 
prosperous and flourishing colony of South Aus- 
tralia, added to the absence of any recently pub- 
lished general information regarding it, induced 
me to devote the past winter to the compilation of 
this volume. 

In acknowledging its many imperfections of 
style or language, I beg to claim the indulgent 
consideration of the reader ; my object has been 
rather to give a plain matter-of-fact description 
of the present state of the colony, than to aim at 
any literary merit ; and I have striven to fulfil the 
maxim of Saussure, " qu'on peut etre utile, sans 
atteindre a la perfection." 

Lower firook Street, 
£afiter, 1846. 




^^. < ■ 



Viii CONTENTS. 

PAQ] 

■abject of great complaint— Statement of the Case-— Oar GrIeTances 
— Importance of Emigratlon^Qradnal bat steady improyement la 
the Affairs of the Colony— Abolition of the Port Daes '-Address of 
the Colonists to the Governor on the occasion— Gofernor's Reply- 
Captain Grey appointed Governor of New Zealand->His Character 
and Tftlents— liegret of the Colonists in losing their able Governor . 3S 



CHAPTER I. 

Lack of information in England on the Anstralian Colonies— Geogra- 
phical Description of Sonth Aastralia— Bztent— and General Fea- 
tares — Moan tains — Park-like Scenery— Trees— Sapply of Water — 
Agriealtaral Districts south of Adelaide— Ditto, north of Adelaide 
— Lynedoch Valley— Angas Park— The Light River— Port Lincoln 
-Mr. Eyre's opinion of it— More country continually being made 
available—The RIvoU Bay District 79 

CHAPTER II. 

Climate— Absence of Droughts— Medical Profession unprofitable- The 
Seasons, properly speaking, only Spring and Sammer— Meteorological 
Tables — and Kain Guage— Heat of Summer— Sadden Atmospheric 
Changes— Sharp bracing Air of our Winter • . .100 



CHAPTER III. 

Ae Harbour cr Port Adelaide— Depth of Water— Wharfs, badly 
constracted — Supply of Fresh Water for Ships— Port Road — 
Proposed Railway— Encouraging Prospects of the Scheme— Situation 
of Town — ^Judgment displayed by Colonel Light in selecting scite — 
Monument erected to him — Extent of the Town — Pretty Views from 
it— Frome Bridge — Public Buildings — Jail unnecessarily large, a 

[ Libel on the Colony— Handsome Private Edifices- Theatre converted 
into a Court House— Width of the Streeto— Places of Worship and 
Schools — Cemetery — Means of Education wanted— Supply of drink 
Water for the Town— Short-lived Corporation— Club-house .112 

CHAPTER IV. 

Public Hoases — May be still further reduced— Improvidence of the 
Working Classes, and their addiction to Drink — Compared with 
German Settlers — Population— Rapidly increasing — ^The German 



CONTEHTt. IX 

PAOl 

CommmiitiM— Tliftir Indnstrloiu eafefbl HaMto— If umber of tf anu- 
&etoiies — ^Banks— Other Poblie Bodies— Newepapert-^AmiaiemenU 
and Society — Pieniei — Ooneerts — Hospitality— Honting—Baciag— 
BleMings of a Free BmigratloD, compared with the Con?ict System— 
Ho Baahiangeie— -Great Security of Life and Property— Loyalty of 
the Sonth Anstnllans 180 



CHAPTER V. 

The Moniit Barker and Hill Oistrlets— Mr. Bobert DaTeaport's aeeomit 
of this District— The several Special Sarreys^-Oeneral remarks • 160 



CHAPTER TL 

Hie Gof e mment of the Colony, Ciril and Jodielal Bstablishments— 
LeglsIatiTO Cooneil— Bepfeeentative Assembly very desirable — Co- 
lonial Secretary— Treasury — Auditor-General — Customs — Surrey 
Department— Post Office— Medical— Harbour Department— Police^ 
their great Efficiency— Aborigines Department— Commissioner of 
Public Lands— The Law Officers— Income of the Colony— Statistical 
Tables 166 



CHAPTER VII. 
Bqsulatlons for the disposal of Land in the Colony .184 

CHAPTER VIII. 

Agriculture-^ Soil of the Colony — Absence of Droughts— Crops never 
failed — ^Application of Manures desirable— Produce of Land — Fer- 
tility of SoU-^Land wants little olearing— Fencing of Land— Plough- 
ing— Seasons for Sowing and Harresting— High Prica the Wheat 
has fetched hi England— Blight and Smut in Wheat— Ststistical 
Tables of Land caltivated- Prospects of farmers, ImproTing— Agri- 
cultural Produce largely exported — Scarcity of Labour* caused the 
Invention of a Beeping Machine by Mr. Bidley— Description of it 
— ^Work performed by it — Horticulture — Proceeding of the Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society's Meeting, showing the Tarious Pro- 
duce of Garden and Fieid-BeautifulGardens— Vineyards eztensirely 
planted— Dr. Ure's Analyses of Soil— Extraordinary result— His 
Analyses of South Australian Wheat— Count StneleeU's Analyses 
of Tan Diemen's Land Wheat .106 



X COKTBNTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The PMtoral Intereet— Inveitineiita in Sheep profl table— Table of In- 
crease of Stock — Number of Sheep In the Colony— Valoe of Wool in 
the Engllih Market, ae compared with that of other Goloniet-«De» 
paaturing Regolations — Settlers require large Traets of Country- 
Bosh Fires— Diseases of Sheep — Large number of the Flocks— No 
Artificial Food required— Batter and Cheese made in South Aus- 
tralia in high repute ....... 298 

CHAPTER X. 

The Mining Interest— Introductory Bemarks— Mineral Localities long 
remained undiscoTered — ^The cause of this — The importance of 
Mining undertakings soon impressed on all — Geological Formation 
of the Hills— The Rock System and Classification of Minerals— Great 
abundance of Iron Ores ...... 354 

CHAPTER XL 

The Copper and Lead Mines-^The Kapunda Copper Mine — Montacote 
Copper Mine — Mukurta Copper Mine — Yattagolinga Copper Mine — 
South Australian Company's Copper Mine — Mr. Angas's Copper 
Mine — Bnrra Creek Copper Mines — Glen Osmond Lead Mine. — 
Wheal Watkins' Lead Mine— Y^heal Gawler Lead Mine, &c. . 266 

CHAPTER XII. 

Prospects of South Australia becoming an extensive Mining Country- 
Accessibility of the Country — Abundance of Transport — Means of 
Shipment at moderate Freight— Supply of Labour— Prospects for 
Smelting— Prospects of finding Coal— Cheapness of living in South 
Australia— The British Copper Trade— General Summary of the 
Sutject 301 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Natives— Captain Sturt's Exploration . . . .321 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 



Lately published, in 2 vols. 8vo* with Maps and numerous Plates, 
JOURNALS OF EXPEDITIONS OF DISCOVERY 

IHTO 



and Overland from Adelaide to King Greorge's Sound, in the years 
1840-1 ; sent by the Colonists of South Australia, with the sanction 
and support of the Government. 

BY EDWARD JOHN EYRE, 

XBSIDBNT MAGI8TRATB, MURRAY RIYBR* 

The Founder's Medal of the Royal Greographical Society was 
awarded to Mr. Eyre for the discovery of Lake Torrens, and explorar 
tions of far greater extent in Australia than any other traveller, a 
large portion never having been previously traversed by civilized man. 



T. & W. Boone, Publishers, 29, New Bond Street. 



lying DCTween uape Jervis and Cape Howe, was 
known only by the vague infonnation obtained from 
navigators — ^who being principally occupied in sur- 
veying the shores, had no opportunity of ascertain- 

B 



'Z HIBTORICAL SKETCH. 

ing the nature of the country inland. So late as 
1822, Capt. Philip Parker King, R.N., gravely 
stated before the Philosophical Society of New South 
Wales, that "the south coast of Australia is barren, 
and in every respect useless and unfavourable for 
colonization/' 

Now it unfortunately happens for this sweeping 
assertion, but fortunately, for the many thousands 
of human beings now located there, that this same 
south coast of Australia, is not alone the best por- 
tion of the whole continent, but also perhaps unsur- 
passed by any land in the world — ^and it has always 
been a matter of surprise to those, who have had an 
opportunity of witnessing the rapid growth of the 
Port Phillip and South Australian settlements, that 
these fine districts should have so long remained 
unknown and uninhabited. As far as South Aus- 
tralia is concerned, this is however not to be re- 
gretted, for we have thereby escaped the taint of 
convictism, our greatest pride being that ours is, 
and always will remain, a free colony. 

Captain Sturt's surveys of the country through 
which the lower part of the Murray flows, were very 
limited, owing to his having unfortunately lost by 
accident a portion of his provisions, thus obliging 
him to hurry upon his far more arduous and difficult 
return up the river, and against the current.* 

* Colonel Napier says, in reference to Captain Stnrt's explora- 
tion :— '^ It is impoflsible to read the account of Captain Stnrt's 
expedition down the Mnrray without feeling much admiration 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. O 

In his report to the Governor he said : " Cnrsory 
<< as my glance was, I could not but think I was 

for our coaQtiyman, and bis companions ; who, casting them- 
selTes upon a great river, with little besides their courage to 
sustain their efforts, allowed the stream to bear them, reckless, 
and resolved, into the heart of the desert : an intrepid enter- 
prise ! unanimated by the glory of battle, yet accompanied by 
the hardfihips of a campaign— without splendour, and without 
reward. This little band of undaunted men well knew that 
aevere tziala awaited their bold adventure : perils from men, and 
from water, and from starvation ; and, if they fell amidst these 
dangers, no fame would attend their memory; their courage 
would be unheard of; and their death only mourned by a few 
friends ! Nor was the fortitude, with which they extricated 
themaehrea from the dangers of the desert, less to be admired, 
than the boldness with which they entered these wilds. It is 
not easy to express the anxiety with which we read of the deter* 
mination taken by Sturt, to retrace lis steps, and return by the 
sources of the Murray, and the Morumbidgee. A thousand 
miles had he floated down these rivers, encompassed by many 
dangera: he had, at last, reached the sea, with the strength, and 
the provisions, of his party nearly exhausted ; they were also 
aurrounded by tribes, threatening hostility. In this fearful 
crisis Captain Sturt formed the hazardous resolution to remount 
the river ; to repass thousands of the natives, who had, certainly, 
exhibited much kindness of nature i but, also, on various oeca- 
aiona, such promptitude for war, as to preclude all confidence in 
their friendship : they might repent of their former hospitality, 
and seize the returning opportunity, to destroy the adventurous 
strangers I If to dueend with the current, was an enterprise of 
difficulty; what must have been the labour of tucendingf It 
was descended in the foil enjoyment of physical strength, and 
ample supplies of food : it was ascended with the increased 
difficulty of an opposing current, under severe privations, and 

B 2 



^ HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

" leaving behind me the fullest reward of our toil, 
" in a country that would ultimately render our 
" discoveries valuable. 

" . . . • Hurried as my 

** view of it was, my eye never fell on a country 
" of more promising aspect, or of more favourable 
" position, than that which occupies the space 
" between the Lalike and the ranges of St. Vincent's 
" Gulph, and continuing northerly, stretches away 
** without any visible boundary." Captain Sturt then 
proceeds to recommend a further examination of the 
coast, from Encounter Bay up St. Vincent's Gulph^ 
and he ventured to predict, " that a closer survey 
" of the interjacent country would be attended 
" with the most beneficial results." 

General Sir Ralph Darling without hesitation 
acted upon this recommendation, and determined 
to avail himself of the services of Captain Barker, 
39th Regiment, who, being about to be recalled 
from King George's Sound, was ordered to proceed 

with exhausted mascnlar powers. The sufferings which these 
men experienced, produced temporary insanity in one of them, 
and hlindness in Captain Sturt himself ! Eighty-eight days of 
incessant exertion were expended in the execution of this ardu- 
ous, and successful achievement. 

'* I am fully conscious that no words of mine can he of any 
service to these intrepid explorers ; but it gratifies my own 
feelings, to express the admiration that I entertain for their 
conduct, and to spread the record of their names, in the small 
circle of my readerB/* -^Colonization ; particularly in Southern 
Australia: by Mafor^ General Sir Charles James Napier, 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 5 

to St Vincent's Gulph, to satisfy himself as to the 
correctness of Captain Sturt's views* 

Captain Barker arrived in the Oulph in April, 
1831, and was engaged in exploring the country as 
far as Lake Victoria, when he was unfortunately 
killed by the natives. One of the finest districts in 
South Australia, with the mountain which occupies 
so prominent a situation in it, is named after Captain 
Barker, thus perpetuating the name of its amiable 
and unfortunate explorer.* 

Although the result of this last disastrous under- 
taking was not productive of much additional infor- 
mation, the views taken by Captain Sturt were fully 
corroborated by the report of Mr. Kent, who formed 
one of Captain Barker's party. Mr. Kent stated : 
<< that the soil was rich, there was abundance of the 
*' finest pasturage, no lack of fresh water, and that 
^* it was a spot in whose valleys the exile might 
" hope to build for himself and for his &mily a 
" peaceful and prosperous retreat." 

* " Captain Barker was in disposition^ as he was in the close 
of his life, in many respects similar to Captain Cook. Mild, 
affable, and attentive, he had the esteem and regard of every 
companion, and the respect of every one under him. Zealous 
in the discharge of his public duties, honourable and just in 
private life; a lover and a follower of science; indefatigable 
and dauntless in his pursuits ; a steady friend, an entertaining 
companion ; charitable, kind-hearted, disinterested, and sincere 
— the task is equally difficult to find adequate expressions of 
praise or of regret. In him the king lost one <3f his most va- 
luable officers, and his regiment one of its most efficient mem- 
bers.'* — SturCs Expedilians, Vol. 2. p. 243. 



6 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

For some years previous to this period, much 
attention had been devoted to the subject of rescuing 
some portion of the Australian Continent from the 
inundation of felons, relentlessly poured into other 
parts of it by the mother country, by establishing 
new settlements formed only of free emigrants. The 
first experiment was made in 1828, on the west 
coast, by founding the colony of Swan River, or as 
it is more generally known. Western Australia; 
but having been injudiciously planned, so were, 
and still are, the consequences, full of disaster and 
disappointment to those who embarked their for- 
tunes in that Colony. The land was almost given to 
all who chose to ask for it, every one was, or wanted 
to be master, nobody would be servant ; — without 
unity of purpose, the population spread itself over 
the country, and up to the present day, drags on 
a precarious existence — every one who can, emi- 
grating to the more fortunate sister colony, and in 
spite of many excellent natural qualities, added to a 
very favourable geographical situation. Swan River 
will probably remain for many years the abode of 
only a dozen or so of Government officials, and a 
handful of inhabitants. 

The result of Captain Sturt's explorations, con- 
firmed as his reports were subsequently, again re- 
vived the interest already felt in England to form 
free settlements in Australia. Here, then, was a 
new field opened to try another experiment ; a por- 
tion of country, sufficiently extended in its limits, 



HISTORICAL 8KBTCH. 7 

to hold a large population, possessing all requisite^ 
of good soil, plenty of water, and a most genial 
climate, nothing was wanted but to guard against 
fiJling into those errors which had been productive 
of so much disaster in the Swan River settlement. 

In 1831, the first committee was formed to carry 
out this new plan, but was again broken up, with-* 
out, however, abandoning it. It was remodelled 
in 1834, and composed of thirty-two influential 
gentlemen,* under the Chairmanship of W. Wool- 
ryche Whitmorc, Esq. M. P., who has ever since 
continued to take the same unabated interest in the 
progress of the colony. 

A new colonization-theory had about this time 

* A. Beanderk, Esq. M.P. George Grote, Esq. M.P. 

Abraham Borredaile, Esq. Benj. Hawes, Esq. M.P. 

Charles BuUer, Esq. M.P. J. H. Hawkins, Esq. M.P. 

H. L. Bnlwer, Esq. M.P. Rowland Hill, Esq. 

J. W. Childers, Esq. M.P. Matthew D. HiU, Esq. M.P. 

William Clay, Esq. M.P. ITiUiam Hutt, Esq. M.P. 

Baikea Carrie, Esq. John Melville, Esq. 

William Gowan, Esq. Colonel Torrens, M.P. 

Samuel Mills, Esq. Daniel Wakefield, jun. Esq. 

Sir W. Molesworth, Bart. M.P. Henry Warbnrton, Esq. M.P. 
Jacob Montefiore, Esq. Henry G. Ward, Esq. M.P. 

George Warde Norman, Esq. John Wilkes, Esq. M.P. 
G. Poulett Scrope, Esq. M.P. Joseph Wilson, Esq. M.P. 
Dr. Sonthwood Smith. John Ashton Tates, Esq. 

Edward Strutt, Esq. M.P. 

Treasurer— George Grote, Esq. M.P. 

Solicitor-* Joseph Parkes, Esq. 

Honorary 8ecretary-*Kobert Goug^r, Eaq. 



8 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

been broached, and its merits much canvassed by 
different writers. The originator of this scheme 
was Mr. Edward Gibbon Wakefield, after whom it 
has been called, " Wakefield's Self-Snpporting 
System/' The peculiar principles upon which it is 
founded, are based on the theory, that land, without 
labour, is valueless ; it proposes, therefore, to create 
a revenue by the sale of the waste and unappro-* 
priated lands of the province ; to employ the whole 
of the revenue thus created, as an emigration Amd, 
and to fix the price of waste land sufiSciently high^ 
to ensure a constant supply of labour for its culti- 
vation. A writer on this subject states: — "The 
" grand object of the improved system, in the dis- 
'^ posal of waste lands, was to regulate it in a 
" way so as not to have it too cheap or too dear ; 
" and it was soon understood, that the due propor- 
" tion between people and land might be constantly 
" secured, by abandoning altogether the system of 
" grantSj and requiring an uniform price per acre 
" for all new land without exception. If the price 
* be not too low, it deters speculators from obtaining 
" land with a view of leaving their property in a 
" desert state, and thus prevents injurious disper- 
" sion ; it also, by compelling every labourer to 
" work for wages, until he has saved the only means 
" of obtaining land, insures a supply of labour for 
*' hire. If, on the other hand, the price be not too 
" high, it neither confines the settlers, within a 
** space inconveniently narrow, nor does it prevent 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 9 

" the thrifty kbourer from becommg a landowner 
" after working some time for wages." 

The South Australian landowner was therefore 
not supposed to be paying for the land, but for the 
means of making that land productive, viz. labour. 

That this system was a sound one, and worked 
successfully, is now not a matter of doubt, but of 
historical record — but it is equally certain that its 
early operations were fraught with difficulty and 
trial. Difficulties there were in abundance — and 
faults not a few ; — taking into consideration the fal« 
libility of jail human endeavours, this is not to be 
wondered at — but whatever faults there were in the 
machinery, upon which the successful developement 
of the plan rested, there were none in the principles 
themselves. These have been put to a test, severe 
beyond any example in this world; had they not been 
sound, they must have given way under them ; for a 
time, the errors committed by the " powers that be," 
retarded the progress of the Colony, but no sooner 
were its financial difficulties overcome and placed 
on a sound basis by an able Governor, no sooner 
were the resources of the Colony brought into ope* 
ration by the vigorous and energetic industry of its 
free inhabitants, than South Australia became, not 
alone a self-supporting, but a debt-paying Colony. 

Those very difficulties now happily long since 
overcome, and administrative errors, committed by 
persons, who no one doubts had the best interests of 
the Colony at heart, and wished it weU, may serve 



10 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

as guiding beacons for future years, and prevent their 
recurrence. 

For more than three years did the gentlemen 
composing the South Australian Association labour 
assiduously to eflTect their object — keeping in view 
the essential principle of the Colony, that the lands 
should be disposed of according to a prescribed and 
undeviating system, they proposed as the surest 
means of effecting it, that the administration of the 
government, and the disposal of the public land, 
should not be placed in separate hands, but should 
be vested in one and the same incorporate body ex- 
ercising sovereign power, by delegation from the 
Crown. This proposition, not being in consonance 
with modern usage, although some of the first Bri- 
tish colonies formed in America were cited as pre- 
cedents, was refused. 

The British Government was doubtless right in 
refusing it, but it ought not to have stopped here ; 
having once admitted the principle, and deemed it 
expedient that its practical applicability should be 
tested by actual ^experiment, it should not have been 
left to the doubtful fate of a half-supported measure. 
With ill-judged and cheese-paring economy they 
deemed it necessary, at first starting, to clog that 
experiment with conditions which entailed from the 
first a heavy debt on the colony ; tlie ministry might 
have known then, what they afterwards were com- 
pelled to admit, that they were virtually responsible 
for any mismanagement which might occur in a 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 11 

province, which although it formed, by virtue of an 
Act of Parliament, an integral portion of the British 
empire, they left to the unsatisfactory working of a 
divided authority, without positive and direct con- 
trol from themselves. 

By the persevering exertions of Messrs. Whitmore, 
Grote, Angas, Hutt, Torrens, Montefiore, Currie,*' 
&c. &c. (whose names will always be gratefully re- 
membered in the colony), and aided by the friendly 
assistance in tfie House of Lords of his Grace the 
Duke of Wellington, whose comprehensive mind at 
once seized the importance of the measure in a poli- 
tical point of view, difficulties, which at times ap- 
peared insuperable, were overcome, and on the 15th 
of August, 1834, an Act passed the Imperial Par- 
liament, 4 and 5 William IV. c. 95, erecting South 
Australia into a British province. This Act " fixes 
" the boundaries of the colony, provides for the ap- 
" pointment of a board of commissioners to carry 
" the Act into efiect, as well as a resident commis- 
" sioner to act under them in the colony, fixes the 
" minimum price of land, and ordains that the pro- 
" ceeds of such land shall be applied to the sending 
" out of free emigrants ; gives commissioners powers 
" to borrow money to pay the expenses of the colony 
" as a charge on the revenue. Provides that con- 
" victs shall at no time be transported there, and that 
" whenever the population amounted to 50,000, 
" a constitution was to be granted. The Act was 
" not to be considered in force until the sum of 
" £36,000 had been raised by the sale of land. The 



12 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

" commissioners were further required to raise 
" £20,000 by the issue of bonds to be called South 
" Australian revenue securities, and invest this sum 
" in the funds as a guarantee that the colony would 
" at no time be a charge on the mother country/* 

These were hard conditions ; the money had to be 
borrowed at an enormous interest* whilst, with the 
guarantee of the government, it might have been 
done at 3^ per cent. ; in order to raise the £35,000 
by the sale of land, the first purchasers were entitled 
to receive at the minimum price for the sum of £81, 
one acre of town land and 134 acres of country land, 
which latter were called preliminary sections. It 
was on this occasion that the South Australian Com- 
pany came forward, and settled the matter, by buy- 
ing land to the amount which was required to make 
up that sum. 

Owing to these delays the Commissioners did not 
receive their appointment till May 1835, and con- 
sisted of the following gentlemen : — 

Colonel Torrens, F.B.S., Chairman. 
W. A. MACKINNON, Esq. M.P. 
Jacob Montbftore, Esq. 
W. HuTT, Esa. M.P. 
Geo. Palmer, Jun. Esq. 
John Wright/ Esq. 
Geo. Fife Angas, Esq. 
Samuel Mills, Esq. 

The Commissioners published the following illus- 
tration of the new system, which is given entire, in 
order to put the reader in possession of the peculiar 



HISTORICAl. SKETCH. 13 

and important advantages we possess over the other 
Australian Colonies, with regard to the tenure of our 
lands and the component parts of our population. 

1. The characteristic feature of the plan of colonization laid 
down by the Act of Parliament ia a certain means for securing a 
sufficient supply of free labour. 

2. This is accomplished by requiring every applicant for 
colonial land, in order to entitle himself to a grant, to pay a 
certain sum per acre to a general fund to be employed in car- 
rying outkbourers. 

3. The Emigration Fund thus raised is placed under the 
management of the Commissioners, whose duty it is to regulate 
the rate of payment, so as to obtain neither too large nor too 
small a number of labourers, and, by the selection of young, 
healthy persons of good character, and of both sexes in equal 
numbers, to render the fund as efficient for the purposes of the 
colony as possible. 

4. Thisanangement secures many very important advantages:— 
First, baring prorided a sufficient supply oifree labour, the Act of 
Parliament declares that no convicts shall be sent to the settlement, 
and thus the Colonists are protectedfrom the enormous erils which 
result from the immorality and profligacy unavoidable in a penal 
settlement. Secondly, as the labourers will be carried out at the 
common cost of the landowners by means of the emigration fund, 
and as they will be sufficiently numerous, it is not necessary that 
they should be tiufeii<i«re(2toany one. Both employers and labourers 
will be perfectly free to enter into any arrangements which may 
be mutually agreed upon, a state of things which expwence 
has shown to be mucb more conducive to contentment and pros- 
perity than any other. Thirdly, the contributions to the emi- 
gration fund being a necessary preliminary to the acquisition of 
land, labourers taken out cost-free, before becoming landowners, 
and thus ceasing to work for others, will furnish the means of 
carrying out other labourers to supply their places. This 
arrangement, the fairness of which must be obrious to every one, 
is really beneficial, not only to those who are landowners in the 



14 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

&nt inBtimce, but to those also who may become such by a 
course of indastry and frugality ; for vhile it diminiBhes the 
injurious facility with which, in most new Colonies, a person 
with scarcely any capital can become a petty landowner, or 
cottier, a temptation which few have sufficient strength of mind 
to resist, notwithstanding the state is one of incessant care and 
toil» — it holds out a prospect of real independence and comfort 
to those who will patiently wait the very few years which are 
necessary to enable any one with colonial wages to acquire suf- 
ficient capital to purchase land and become a master. Fourthly, 
as those who will cultivate their land, and thus require many 
labourers, will contribute no more to the emigration fund than 
those who may leave it waste, the non-cultivation of extensive 
appropriated districts — one of the chief obstacles to the progress 
of every colony hitherto established— will be greatly discouraged, 
if not altogether prevented. 

5. In determining the amount of contribution to the emigrant 
fund, the Commissioners are required, at any given time, to 
make a uniform charge per acre, whatever may be the situa- 
tion or quality of the land granted, and in no case to fix the 
charge at less than twelve shillings per acre. The payment is 
made once only, namely, when the party receives a grant of the 
land, which grant gives him an absolute and unconditional title 
to the estate ; the Crown making no reserve whatever.* 

* It is right to observe here, that the tenure by which land 
is held in South Australia is very muck superior to that hy 
which land is held in the other Australian Colonies. In them 
the Crown reserves to itself the right of mining, of cutting 
timber or stone for public works, and of making roads across any 
estate it chooses, while in South Australia the land is sold in un- 
conditional and absolute fee, without any reserve to the Crown 
for any purpose. This is the more important, as it has been 
satisfactorily ascertained that in some districts there are found 
limestone, iron, slate, granite, &c. 

[Little did the writer of the above dream that to the meagre list 
of minerals cited by him, were so soon to be added, all the most 
valuable of the metals ! ^Author.] 



HISTORICAL SKBTCH. 15 

6. As the contribution to the emigrant fand is the sole con- 
dition of obtaining land, the amount of contribution is described 
in the Act of Parliament and in the regulations as to its price. 
It is vorthy of remark, howeyer, that as the Commissioners are 
required to expend the emigration fund, without any deduction 
whatevert in carrying out labourers, the whole contribution is 
returned to those who make it in the form of passage money for 
their labourers ; and therefore, strictly speaking, it is not land, 
but the facility of obtaining labour, which is bought. It is im- 
portant that this principle should be steadily kept in view by 
those who may desire to understand the plan on which the 
colony is formed. 

The regulations of the Commissioners for the sale of land, 
and for the selection of emigrant labourers, being framed in 
accordance with the preceding plan of colonization, it as clearly 
evident that no fears of a want of labourers need be entertained. 
The more capitalists who emigrate, the more land wiU be sold ; 
the greater the amount of land sold, the greater the accumula- 
tion of the emigration fund ; and the larger the emigration fund, 
the more labomrers can be sent from England. A constant 
supply will be kept up, according to the wants of the prorince, 
and it may therefore fairly be said, that the colonist who pur- 
chases land purchases also labour. The money he pays for his 
land is expended in supplying him with the means of making his 
purchase valuable; as land merely, it is not worth a farthing an 
acre, however naturally rich it may be ; but, possessed of 
labourers to cultivate the soil, its value rises immediately to the 
full sum he has paid for it. It is labour therefore, not land 
alone, that the South Australian Colonist purchases ; and herein 
consists the grand advantage which this Colony possesses over 
all others, and upon which it rests its hopes of prosperity. 

In the month of May, 1835, the Commissioners 
recommended Colonel now General Sir Charles James 
Napier for the Governorship of South Australia, who, 
on the 20th of that month stated, that he could not 



16 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

accept of it, without " some troops and without power 
to draw upon the Home Government in case of 
necessity/* These conditions being at variance 
with the self-supporting system, upon which the 
Colony was established, were not acceded to by the | 

Government, who were consequently obliged to 
make another choice. 

It is much to be regretted that this very judicious | 

first choice of the Commissioners could not have I 

been carried into effect; his superior rank would 
have kept down all jealous bickerings in the other 
officers of -the Government, his energetic mind 
would have led him to set an example to the 
colonists how to overcome difficulties which were 
sure to beset him as a Governor, as well as the 
emigrant and colonist ; and the views he expressed ; 

in his interesting work on Colonization, with 
regard to the duties of both Governor and Colonists, 
experience has proved to be so substantially correct, | 

that there can be no doubt that the early destinies { 

of the colony would have been in his hands suc- 
cessfully treated. 

Under the provisions of the Act of 15th Aug. i 

1834, the Home Government appointed a Governor, ' 

to whom was confided the executive powers, and | 

the Commissioners appointed a Resident Commis- 
sioner for the Colony, who was to have the exclusive i 
direction of the disposal of the public land ; these 
two offices being quite distinct one from the other, 
and the authority divided. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 17 

Another clause in the Act which gaye rise to a 
good deal of mischief was, that the whole of the pro- 
ceeds of the land sales, before any revenue could 
possibly be raised, were devoted to emigration, with- 
out applying a portion of those funds in the first in- 
stance to defray the surveys, and execute some indis- 
pensable public buildings, the necessary funds for 
which were entailed as a debt at a ruinous rate of 
interest on the colony. 

The Act also required a quantity of land to be 
sold before it could be in force, which was attended 
with great subsequent inconvenience, for those who 
had bought the land, and in consequence made their 
arrangements to leave England, never waited till 
they were apprised of that land having been sur- 
veyed, so that a large body of emigrants not only 
actually arrived in St Vincent's Gulph at the same 
time with the Surveyor-General, who at that moment 
had not the least conception where he was to fix the 
site for the first settlement, but arrived also several 
months before the Governor. 

The ofl[icer recommended by the Commissioners 
for the appointment of Governor, after Colonel Na- 
pier's reftisal, was Captain Hindmarsh, R.N., who 
had served with distinction under Lords Howe, 
Cochrane, and Nelson. J. H. Fisher, Esq. was 
nominated Resident Commissioner, and Colonel 
Light, Surveyor-General. 

Captain Hindmarsh landed in Holdfast Bay on 
the eastern coast of Gulph St. Vincent on the 



18 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

28th of December, 1836, and issued the procla- 
mation establishing the government of the pro- 
vince — the first body of emigrants having arrived in 
the month of July preceding. 

Colonel Light had fixed upon the site of the 
town prior to Governor Hindmarsh's arrival, which 
he was specially empowered to do, and the Governor 
as particularly ordered not to interfere with, it hav- 
ing been distinctly stated to the Governor by the 
Commissioners, that he must be " content to receive 
" and to hold his appointment, subject to the con- 
" dition of non-interference with the oflBcers ap- 
" pointed to execute the surveys and to dispose of 
" the public lands." 

Captain Hindmarsh unfortunately thought fit to 
deviate from the line of policy laid down for him by 
the Commissioners^ and this soon produced such 
endless controversies between himself and the other 
officers that, to use Lord Glenelg's own words, " all 
'^ his despatches were filled with the narration of 
" them." 

By the injudicious and unauthorised interference 
with Colonel Light's duties,* he having repeatedly 
ordered him on service quite foreign to his office, 
the surveys were necessarily retarded, and many 
settlers having by this time arrived, who, as living 
was very dear, were clamorously demanding to be 
put into possession of their land, in order to begin 
operations, great discontent was created, and much 
ill feeling arose amongst all parties. 
* ParliameDtary Papers. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 19 

Daring Governor Hindmarsh's short administra- 
tion, Kttle or nothing was effected towards the pro- 
gress of the colony; the harbour was found and 
made available, the site of the town fixed, and 
streets named ; the town lots were selected in March 
1837, and the country lands in May 1838. Captain 
Hindmarsh does not appear to have had any control 
over the angry feeling excited even amongst his own 
government officers, as they seem to have played a 
prominent part in all the dissensions of that period, 
two of them actually resorting to the " argumentum 
ad baculum " in the public street, to settle their dif- 
ferences ! 

This state of afiairs could last only a sufficient 
length of time for the Home authorities to be apprised 
of it; on the 22d of December, 1837, one short twelve 
months after Captain Hindmarsh's assumption of the 
government, we find the Commissioners addressing a 
very lengthy despatch to Lord Glenelg, full of com- 
plaint against the Governor (the particulars of which 
however can have no interestfor the general reader), in 
consequence of which, on the 21st of February, 1838, 
Lord Glenelg notified to Captain Hindmarsh his 
recall, at the same time signifying to him '* his deep 
'* regret that any circumstances should have rendered 
'' unavoidable the dissolution of his official relations 
^* with a gentleman whose claims to respect, both on 
*^ public and private grounds, he should be ever 
" ready to admit" 

c2 



20 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The Resident Commissioner having also given 
cause of dissatisfaction, Lord Glenelg concurred 
in the opinion of the board, that he should be re- 
moved from that office. 

Colonel Gawler, K.H., late 52nd Regiment, was 
the successor appointed by Lord Glenelg, on the 
recommendation of the Commissioners, who selected 
him in preference to many other candidates* He 
was a distinguished officer of the Duke of Welling* 
ton's army in the Peninsula, and present at many of 
the great sieges and battles, Badajoz, Vittoria, Nives, 
Nivelles, Orthes, Toulouse, and lastly at Waterloo, 
where he commanded the right flank company of 
the 62nd during the great charge on the imperial 
guards. Gallant in the field, he was also possessed 
of those virtues which distinguish a man in private 
life, with high intellectual attainments, and being a 
good Christian, his appointment gave the fiurest 
hopes of being productive of lasting benefit to the 
colony. 

He arrived in the colony on the 12th of October, 
1838, uniting in himself the two offices of Governor 
and Resident Commissioner, the separation of which 
had worked so unsatis&ctorily in the preceding ad- 
ministration. On the 31st of July of the same year 
an Act passed the Imperial Legislature, 1 and 2 Vict, 
cap. 60, to amend the Act 4 and 5 W. IV,, and 
empowering the Commissioners, or their representa- 
tives in the colony, with their consent, to borrow 



HISTORICAL 8KBT0H. 21 

such sums from the fiind derived from the sales of 
public lands, as might be necessary to carry on the 
government of the colony efficiently. 

" The board of Commissioners, with the previous 
'* sanction of the Lords of the Treasury, issued very 
*^ careful instructions on the subject of expenditure, 
« to the Governor on the 9th of November, 1838/'* 
In a subsequent despatch, of 8th February, 1839, 
** the Resident Commissioner was allowed, on account 
'' of some additional charges, to increase his expen- 
" diture altogether to £16,500 per annum."t 

Later in the same year they intimated that they 
would be ready to ** afford the necessary pecuniary 
** assistance to any moderate extent, in erecting 
** wharfs at Adelaide, approving also of the erection of 
** a government house and public offices, the total 
** cost of which was not to exceed the estimate of 
" £25,162."J 

In addition to these, a ^' general authority " was 
given to Colonel Gawler to deviate from his instruc- 
tions under circumstances of undoubted necessity.^ 

Colonel Light, the first Surveyor-General, had 
resigned, and was succeeded in that office by Cap- 
tain Frome, of the Royal Engineers, who was accom- 
panied to the colony by a party of sappers and 

« Commimonen' Letter to Lord J. Biusell of 7th Jaly, 1840. 
f Idem. 

{ Idem. fU mpra. 

§ CommieiioneiB* letter to Capt. Frome, &• B.» of llth May, 
1839. 



22 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

miners. With an efficient and powerful staff, the 
surveys were now rapidly proceeded with ; the colo- 
nists were put in possession of their land, which by 
directing their attention to agricultural operations, 
put an end to those discontents, which had been 
engendered by the delay in the surveys. 

Up to August, 1839, 7412 settlers had arrived in 
the colony, and 250,320 acres of land had been 
sold, producing 229,766/., the colony having been 
in existence two and a half years. 

In justice to Colonel Gawler, to show that diffi- 
culties of no ordinary magnitude beset him on his 
arrival, the following extract of his despatch to Lord 
Glenelg, of 23rd January, 1839, is given. It fur- 
nishes at the same time a commentary on the way 
in which matters were conducted under the pre- 
ceding administration : — 

*' The affairs of the proYince at thia moment are involved in 
most aggravated and complicated difficulties. I do not wish to 
make my situation appear worse than it is when I say, I do not 
think it possible that a governor of a colony could be placed in 
more trying circumstances than mine. On arriving here about three 
months ago, I found the public offices with scarcely a pretension 
to system ; every man did as he would, and got on as he could. 
There were scarcely any records of past proceedings, of public 
accounts, oi^ of issues of stores. The non-fulfilment of one of 
the leading principles on which the regulations made for the dis- 
posal of land were based, that the * surveys should be in advance 
of the demand/ had produced a number of complicated questions 
with regard to leasing of pasturage, order of selection, and so 
forth, which the letter of the law, as it stood, could not rectify. 
Sections for occupation were only laid out in the plain about 



HISTORICAL 8K ETCH. 23 

Addnde, in a district not exceeding a aquare of ten miks on the 
dde. Seven other districta, of about the same average dimen- 
sions, remained to be marked out for the choice of preliminary 
porchaaers, who will occupy the greater part of the good land in 
them. The Su'rYcy department was reduced to the deputy sur- 
▼eyor-generaly one draughtsman, and one assistant surveyor ; its 
inatrmnenta to a great extent unserviceable, and its office with 
scarcely any maps of the country, and totally without system, 
reoorday or regulations. Scarcely any settlers in the country, no 
tillage, very little sheep or cattle pasturing, and this only by a 
few enterprising individuals risking their chance as squatters. 
The two landing-places. Holdfast Bay and the Old Port, of the 
most indifferent description ; the expense of transport to and 
from them to Adelaide most ruinous. The population, shut up 
in Adelaide^ existing principally upon the unhealthy and uncer- 
tain profits of land-jobbing. Capital flowing out, for the neces- 
saries of life, to Sydney and Van Diemen*s Land, almost as fast 
as it was brought in by passengers from England. The colonial 
financea in a state of thorough confusion and defalcation. Up 
to this day, my written orders, given on the 18th October, 1839, 
have not obtained for me from the treasurer abstracts of receipts 
and expenditure for the first three quarters of the year 1838. 
Almost all that I have been enabled to discover definitely of the 
finances of this period is, that the whole regulated expenditure for 
the year, 12,000/., was drawn and expended in the first quarter. 
''This, my Lord, is certainly not a complete, and I can 
oonacientiously affirm, to the best of my judgment, not 
an overdrawn statement of the difficulties in which I found 
the colony. If to these your Lordship will add those serious 
dangers which must accompany a new population of persons 
unreatrained by mutual acquaintance, or old habits and as- 
sociations, flowing in with what may be called fearfhl rapidity, 
upon a colony which stands alone at the breadth of the world 
from its only point of assistance or reference, I think that 
your Lordship will justify the persuasion that is on my mind, 
that, of human agency, nothing but a strong and steady 



24 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

hand at the helm of goTenunent can guide this colony thcongh 
its early dangers/' 

The above gives a pretty good idea how much 
and what was wanted ; and the colony certainly did 
receive a mighty impetus in the way in which those 
wants were supplied, for many public works were 
undertaken during Colonel Gawler's administration : 
everything for a time flourished, and everybody was 
making money. But this was only for a time ; it 
was nothing more than a fictitious state of pros- 
perity, produced by the presence of a large amount 
of money in the colony, caused by the Government 
expenditure. Nobody, however, seemed to have 
had the least suspicion that there was any possibility 
of an early period being put to this influx of foreign 
capital. 

South Australia was producing nothing at the time, 
and immense sums were obliged to be sent to the 
neighbouring colonies for the necessary articles of 
daily food, an expense which was heightened by the 
failure of the crops there, which brought the article 
of flour alone, in 1840, to my knowledge, up to 
£90. and £100. per ton. As long as the Govern- 
ment circulated such large sums in the colony this 
dearness was not felt; Colonel Gawler, actuated 
doubtless by an ardent wish for the rapid advance- 
ment of the province, undertook too much at once ; 
an immense population was centered in the town of 
Adelaide and immediate neighbourhood, which may 
be gathered from the fact that in 1840 there were 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 25 

no less than seventy public-houses in the munici- 
pality alone ; the working classes scouted the idea of 
proceeding into the country, when they were sure 
of employment at large wages on the Government 
works, and the country settler was thus prevented 
from producing those very articles of food, which, by 
keeping the money in the colony, would have laid 
the sure foundation of future wealth. The colony, 
therefore, did not receive any further benefit from this 
large Government outlay beyond the possession of a 
number of handsome buildings, necessary, may be, 
but all the profits of whose erection went to the 
neighbouring colonies in exchange for food. Captain 
Grey subsequently ably illustrated this subject in 
one of his despatches to Lord John Kussell : — 

** Whilst so many persons in England are maintaining that an 
extravagant Government expenditure is necessary and beneficial 
in the early days of a colony, I trust I may be permitted to record 
my dissent from this opinion, and to detail briefly the reasons 
on which this dissent is founded. 

** In the early stage of a colony (ss has been the case here up 
to a very recent date) there are no producers either of the neces- 
saries of life or of articles of export. Under such circumstances 
a large outlay upon extensive public buildings and town improve- 
ments is no further benefit to the colony, than that these buildings 
and improvements are obtained. 

** The whole of the sum expended in labour is carried out of 
the colony^ to purchase every article of consumption and 
clothing. 

'* The colony thus depending altogether upon imports, and the 
demand being uncertain, the necessaries of life fluctuate extraor- 
dinarily in Tshiey and are generally extremely high. This cir^ 



26 HISTORICAL SRfiTCH. 

cumstADce, combined with the great employment of labour by 
the Government, raises inordinately the price of labour. The 
country settler can thus not become a producer of food or articles 
of export. His agricultural operations are limited, his capital 
eaten up by the high price of wages, and, unless the necessaries 
of life retain an exorbitant Talue^ he is soon mined. It is 
impossible, under such drcnmstances, for the settler to compete 
with other colonies, where the price of labour and of provisions 
is only half what it is in the colony where he resides. He could 
not do this even if his farm was actually broken up and enclosed, 
so that, in this respect, he stood on an equality with agricul- 
turists in other colonies ; much less then can he do it, when he 
has a farm to create from an untrodden wilderness. If this, at 
all times an expensive and difficult operation, has to be performed 
when the price of labour is inordinately high, no profits can 
ever repay the sacrifice of capital which has been made, and the 
disappointed agriculturist is compelled to abandon his legitimate 
occupations, and to betake himself to speculations in land and 
buildings. Experience in this colony has fully and lamentably 
exhibited these facts. 

** It appears, therefore, that in order to gain the advantage of 
having public buildings in a colony at an early period, of a mag- 
nitude altogether unnecessary, not only is a sort of prohibition 
placed upon agricultural pursuits, but it must be recollected that, 
from the high price of labour and materials, the public buildings 
themselves cost, at least, double what they would have cost at a 
period only a year or two subsequent to their erection ; and, 
from the difficulty of procuring proper materials, and efficient 
superintendence at so early a stage of a colony, they are also 
generally very badly executed." 

I have carefully waded through the mass of Par- 
liamentary Papers relative to South Australian 
affairs, and extracted every word that I could find 
contained in them, showing how far Colonel 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 27 

Gawler was authorized in this immense expendi- 
ture. I have heard it stated that he had almost 
a carte blanche from the Commissioners. Indeed 
something of the kind appears in Mr. Rowland 
'Hill's letter as above quoted, when he speaks 
about Colonel Gawler having a " general power " 
to deviate from those instructions, but unless it can 
be satisfactorily shewn that he had that frill authority 
for his subsequent expenditure, he will never cease 
to be blamed for having been, although unwillingly, 
the cause of the disasters which followed. Far and 
wide has been the censure meted out to Colonel Gaw- 
ler for the mismanagement of the Colonial finances, 
nor were ministers themselves backward in adding 
their mite of disapproval in Parliament, on a state of 
things which they themselves had the means of pre- 
venting from the commencement. In the colony, Col. 
Gawler was, and is, much respected ; I believe I am 
justified in saying, that even amongst those who have 
been severe losers by his policy, a feeling of esteem for 
his character is predominant ; but it is idle to set 
up in his defence, as I have heard it, that " his ad- 
ministration ought to be judged by his motives, 
and not by its results.'' As long as the world has 
existed, and to the end of the chapter it will be the 
same, men will be judged by results, nor can I 
see how a defence of this point of Colonel Gawler's 
administration can be set up, much less sustained. 

" The consideration of where the money was to 
** come from, seemed to have escaped every person 



28 ' HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

" of amthority in the colony/'* Was there not an 
Act of Parliament, by the provisions of which, the Go- 
yernor might have satisfied himself that the Commis- 
sioners were only able to raise a certain sum by way 
of loan, even supposing they had allowed him to draw 
to the full extent of that sum. The Commissioners 
declare positively, in their letter to Lord J. Russell 
of 26th of August, 1840, that *' the limit of their in- 
^^ structions had been exceeded nine or ten times in 
" amount ;" they then go on to state that, " as no 
*^ further sale could at that moment be commanded 
" of bills on the Commissioners, £15,000. had been 
*' borrowed of the bank of South Australia, in viola- 
^^ tion of the standing instructions of the Commis- 
^^ sioners, to prevent any delay in settling all salaries 
^* and other claims upon the public on the 1st of 
^ January, 1840. It is distressing to perceive the 
^' blindness to the real difficulties of the colony which 
" the arguments employed in favour of this measure 
^' betray. Much stress is laid on the discredit which 
" would ensue, if every amount due at the begin- 
" ning of the year, could not be paid off punctually 
^' to the day ; but not a thought is bestowed on the 
" far more serious, and possibly fatal discredit to 
'^ the colony, if drafts from its Government being 
*^ presented in this country, there were no assets to 
** meet them. The only limit to drawing bills on 
" the Commissioners is shewn to have been the pos- 
** sibility or otherwise of getting rid of them in the 
« Gommiwionen' Papen. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 29 

•* colony ; the idea of the Home funds being ex- 
" hausted seems never to have occurred to any one." 

It may here be said, why did the banks, why did 
the colonists countenance such an expenditure, the 
latter by taking the Governor's bills, the former by 
cashing them ? I would not for a moment allude to 
such an absurd argument, did I not know that there 
are in England many people who are disposed to 
take this wrong view of it, and even in Parliament, 
this very unfair mode of. reasoning was made use of 
against the colonists. The answer is obvious : the 
Governor of a British province, holding his ap- 
pointment under the sign manual of the sovereign, 
is the representative of the Crown : as such, every 
Englishman places implicit reliance and fisiith in all 
his acts, nor was it the place of any man in the 
colony to ask the Governor what the nature of his 
authority and instructions was. 

Why, even the Colonial Treasurer of those days, 
Mr. Jackson, " a gentleman,'' to use Colonel Gawler's 
words, of " clear perception, sound judgment, and 
" sterling integrity of character," who had to counter- 
sign all the Governor's drafts, must have been himself 
quite in the dark as to the Governor's instructions, for 
he never doubted the propriety of issuing the bills, 
and only in December 1839, he was obliged to re- 
commend taking a loan from the banks, ^^ because 
'* there were no purchasers for the continued large 
** number of Government bills circulated." To use 
such an argument therefore is wrong in any one, but 
very reprehensible in our legislators. 



30 HISTORICAL SKETCH. 

The colonial revenue was at this time about 
£20,000. per annum, and the expenditure may be 
given as follows ; during the first quarter x)f 1839 it 
was £?,960* ; it doubled itself in the second quarter, 
£16,000 ; this more than doubled itself in the next 
six months, the last quarter's expenditure of 1839 
being £34,000, This again doubled itself in 1840, 
during the last quarter of which it amounted to 
£60,155. 14^. 4rf., or at the rate of £240,000. per 
annum ! 

The amount of land under cultivation in 1839 was 
2,500 acres; in 1840 it was 6,722 acres. 

The amended Act of Parliament having given the 
Commissioners authority to raise temporary loans for 
colonial purposes from the emigration fund, this had 
been acted upon ; by August, 1840, the amount due 
to this fund was upwards of £90,000. — adding to the 
ilemma of the Commissioners, who were expected 
to replace the amount by the end of the year, " the 
** public fisdth having been pledged to all persons 
" purchasing lands in the colony, that the whole of 
'^ the purchase-money should be soonejr or later ex- 
'^ pended in emigration."* The land sales had been 
gradually falling off, whilst there appeared to be no 
prospect of the cessation of the excessive expenditure 
in the colony, which on the contrary was increasing. 

In August, 1840, the Commissioners were forced 
to lay a statement of their difficulties before Lord 
John Russell ; they state, " that if they raised a fur- 

* Gommissioiiera* despatch to Lord J. Russell, 26thof August, 
1840. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH. 31 

" ther loan, to the limit of the sum authorised by 
" Parliament, it would be inadequate for the amount 
** required, and if the bills were refused acceptance, 
" no loan would be able to be effected at all." 

Lord John Russell therefore determined to insti- 
tute a Parliamentary inquiry into the financial state 
of the colony, awaiting which, no other expedient 
could be adopted but to refuse acceptance to Governor 
Gawler's bills. This was accordingly done, and 
Colonel Gawler himself was, on the 26th of Decem- 
ber, 1840, recalled, the reason assigned by Lord J. 
Russell being ^^ his haying drawn bills in excess of 
*• the authority received from the Commissioners." 

The Commissioners state that, although com- 
pelled to " object strongly to several of Colonel 
" Gawler's proceedings, they acknowledge the high 
'* character he has always borne. In his government 
'* he displayed many qualities deserving of great 
^ respect. He shewed in trying circumstances, both 
*' firmness and moderation, he put an end to dis- 
'^ sension and exercised a beneficial influence over 
'* the public mind ; he appeared to be animated with 
*• a sincere desire to improve the organization of the 
'^ public departments ; but that upon subjects of 
" finance, it was not to be concealed he had fatally 
** erred in judgment." 



SECTION IL 

CAPTAIN grey's ADMINISTRATIOTT. 

The gentleman appointed to succeed Colonel Gaw- 
ler was Captain Grey, late of the 83rd Regiment. He 
was gazetted on the 18th of December, 1840, and 
arrived in the colony on the 10th of May, 1841. 
He is said to have attained high honours at the 
Military College of Sandhurst, and has further re- 
commended himself to Government by the difficult 
and arduous explorations he undertook under their 
auspices, on the north-west coast of New Holland 
in the years 1837, 1838, 1839.* Captain Grey 
liaving also resided some time in South Australia, was 
familiar with every particular regarding the politi- 
cal and financial position of the colony ; the ministry, 
therefore, once they had determined upon Colonel 
Gawler's recall, could not have selected a fitter per- 
son to succeed him ; the result of his administra- 
tion has fully justified the confidence placed in him. 

When Captain Grey left England for South Aus- 
tralia, the financial afifairs of that province had occu- 
pied the attention of the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies so seriously, that an inquiry was deter- 
mined upon, immediately on the reassembling of 

* Journals of two EzpeditionB of Discovery in North-west and 
Western Australia in 1837, 8, and 9. By Capt. G. Grey, Goyemor 
of South Australia. 2 vols. 8vo. with map and numerous plates. 



ADMINISTRATION. 33 

Parliament. Meanwhile, the most stringent orders 
were issned to Captain Grey that he was not to draw 
upon the Lords of the Treasury excepting for mat- 
ters of the deepest emergency. 

On the 19th of March, 1841, the House of Com- 
mons temporarily voted a sum of £155,000. towards 
the liquidation of bills drawn by Colonel Gawler, 
but for the payment of which the Commissioners 
had no funds. 

When Captain Grey arrived in the colony in May, 
1841, he found that the Government expenditure 
had not been as yet reduced, as he had antici- 
pated ; he found the revenue decreasing, with 
a balance of only £700. in the treasurer's hands 
— the anticipated expenditure for the quarter dur- 
ing which Captain Grey assumed the Government, 
was £32,000.— and nearly £3,000. more was due 
from last quarter. The claims left unsettled by 
Colonel Gawler, which were either immediately or 
shortly after Captain Grey's arrival clamorously 
pressed upon his notice for liquidation, amounted to 
near £35,000. more. 

It was not possible to make any extensive reduc- 
tions in the Government establishments and expen- 
diture all at once ; to make those reductions perma- 
nent, they needs must be made advisedly. The 
revenue decreasing, sales of land all but ceased, 
where were sufficient funds to come from to carry 
on the Government ? Foreseeing these difficulties 
Captain Grey had asked and obtained permission 



34 CAPTAIN OREY^S 

from the Govemment, before be left England, to 
di8pose of those properties belonging to the Crown 
in the colony, which might conveniently be dis- 
pensed with. On his arrival he however found that 
the derangement in the money market, caused by 
the non-payment of Colonel Gawler's bills, had 
made such a step quite impossible, as not the fourth 
part of their value would have been obtained, owing 
to the depreciation in every species of property. On 
applying to the bank for a loan, he was offered 
£10,000. at 12 per cent, interest on his personal 
security — a sum which would have been instantly 
absorbed, by the heavy claims upon Government, 
leaving him without any means to defray the 
legitimate expenses of his own Administration. 
Captain Grey, therefore, came to the determination 
not to liquidate any debts contracted by Colonel 
Gawler^s Government, until he should have heard 
of the result of the Parliamentary inquiry then 
going on, which he expected to do in a few 
months. 

This determination once known, a deputation 
representing the most respectable and influential 
interests in the colony waited on the Governor to 
represent to him, ^' that the money had been spent 
" by the representative of the Queen, without their 
" consent or control, and that they therefore deemed 
" the Home Government liable for his acts ; they 
" urged the Governor to settle those claims, to pre- 
*^ vent the distress likely to ensue from a refusal.'' 



• ADMINISTRITION. 35 

Captain Grey, however, refused to accede to their 
request. 

The next difficulty, and one of no ordinary mag- 
nitude, was what to do with the many emigrants 
who had been employed on the Government works, 
which the necessary reductions in the expenditure 
had in a great measure suspended, thus throwing 
them out of employment. A pledge had been given 
to them by the Commissioners prior to their leaving 
England, that whenever they should be unable to 
procure employment from the settlers, it was to 
be presented to them at reduced wages, by the 
Government. Eighteen months before, the settlers 
might have employed them easily enough before all 
their funds were exhausted. During those eighteen 
months, labour in the country was so high, owing 
to the large Government expenditure, that the 
settlers could not profitably employ the emigrants. 
Now things were again altered ; the settlers had 
been gradually impoverished, the money drained out 
of the colony, and when the Government works 
were stopped, it was found that there was no em- 
ployment for them. The emigrants were indeed in 
no hurry to seek work out in the country; that 
** which had been at first conceded to them as an 
" indulgence they now demanded as a right."* 
Captain Grey describes the situation of these people 
as infinitely more comfortable than that of a hard- 
working labourer in England, adding, that " he was 
* Parliamentary Papers. 
d2 



36 CAPTAIN grey's 

*• not responsible for an order of things which he 
" found established on his arrival, and that as the 
" engagements of the Commissioners had been tem- 
" porarily broken with all persons for want of 
" fiinds, they must necessarily be so with them 
** likewise." 

The Governor, therefore, would not allow them 
to consider themselves entitled to a continuation of 
the same rate of wages they had been receiving 
before his arrival ; he determined not to let them 
starve, but at the same time, to grant them no indul- 
gence* He hoped by this means to induce them 
to find their way into the country, and to engage 
themselves to the settlers at a fair rate of wages, 
by which agricultural pursuits would be encou- 
raged. 

The Lords of the Treasury in issuing peremptory 
orders to Captain Grey on no account to draw on 
the Home Government, made an exception for cer- 
tain unavoidable expenses. The Government works 
which he found in progress on his arrival, could of 
course not be left half finished, without the risk of 
their early dilapidation ; he was therefore authorised 
to complete them so far as was necessary to prevent 
this; for which purpose he obtained a temporary 
loan from the New South Wales Government of 
£3,000. — the support of the pauper emigrants and 
the indispensable police establishment being de- 
frayed by drafts on the Lords of the Treasury. 

Captain Grey began his system of retrenchment 



ADMINISTRATION. 



37 



now with ah unsparing band; unmindful of the 
clamour it gave rise to, disregarding the unpopu- 
larity it created, he met the Legislative Council on 
24th July, 1841, with the estimates he had pre- 
pared for the following year's expenditure, by 
which it was reduced at once from £94,000 to 
£34,000.* 

These financial measures were greatly approved 
of by the Home Government, as expressed in the 
despatch of the Lords of the Treasury to Lord 

* The following are amongst' the principal redactions that were 
effected : — 



Bxpenditnre in 


1841.. 


1842. 




£ 


£ 


Survey and Land Department . 


14,850 


3,635 


Emig;ration Department 


6,927 


390 


Storekeeper's Department 
Police^Moonted and Foot 


23,748 


340 


16.109 


9,112 


Costoms ... 


9,769 


2,478 


Harbour Master's Department . 


3,944 


1,612 


Oaol Department 


2,141 


1,034 


Port Lincoln 


1.299 


572 



With a variety of minor reductions^ and the abolishment of su- 
perflnous offices. 

The system of supplying stores under Colonel Gawler's ad- 
ministration was a radically bad and extravagant one ; GoTcm- 
ment officers having been in many cases allowed to supply the 
articles required in their departments themselves, whilst the ex- 
amination of the accounts did not take place for two months 
after they had been paid.^Vide Auditor OeneraVs Report^ 
p. 8, of Pari. Papers. 



38 CAPTAIN grey's 

Stanley, of 26th April, 1842, in which they state 
that they are satisfied " of the Governor having ac- 
" quitted himself in an able and satisfeictory man- 
** ner of the important trust which had been placed 
" in him." 

To the colony at large, however, this reduction in 
the expenditure was for a time necessarily full of 
trial ; it may well be likened to a young fruit tree, 
which had been allowed to shoot up with straggling 
branches of luxuriant growth, but barren of fruit. 
The careful gardener saw, that to make it produce 
fruit, it was absolutely necessary to apply the prun- 
ing knife with an unsparing, though kindly hand. 
Stripped of its gaudy and unprofitable branches, the 
spectator looked with pity and contempt upon the 
bare stump which was left; he not knowing the 
power left in the roots, thought the poor tree ruined 
by such rough treatment, and was inclined to think 
ill of the gardener for his reckless destruction 
of its leafy branches ; but behold that self-same 
tree once more ; the resources, concentrated in its 
healthy roots, in time throw forth branches as luxu- 
riant as ever, covered with smiling blossoms and 
golden fruit ; whilst to the gardener this result ap- 
peared as a matter of course, he now received praise 
for his foresight from him who at first felt inclined 
to censure him. 

The immediate effects of this reduction was an 
enormous depreciation in every description of pro- 
perty ; this was a very natural consequence. The 



ADHINI8TKATION. 39 

presence of so lai^ an amount of capital as was 
constantly kept in circulation during Colonel Gaw- 
ler's administration, engendered a degree of unheal- 
thy speculation, which could not but be followed 
by disastrous consequences, for there was no legiti- 
mate foundation for it. Land of every description 
in town and country obtained a fictitious value, and 
changed hands over and over again, and always at 
a profit, but without making the land productive ; 
whilst the value of stock rose so high, that people 
could not at last invest money in it, with any 
prospect of its producing a fair interest on the capi- 
tal. To some few these changes brought much 
gain, and the lawyers in particular reaped a rich 
harvest from the rapid succession of legal convey- 
ances of property called for. 

The true state of things soon appeared. As the 
value of property fell, many people were necessarily 
losers, and bankruptcies were neither few nor far be- 
tween ; the labouring classes found it more and more 
difficult to obtain employment from the impove- 
rished settlers; and in the latter part of 1841, we 
find Captain Grey with the enormous number of 
nearly two thousand men, women, and children, 
thrown upon his hands for support, as absolute 
paupers.* 

This support could, as a matter of course, only be 
obtained from the mother country ; the question for 
the Governor to consider being, whether he would 
* Parliamentary Papers. 



40 CAPTAIN grey's 

let two thousand British subjects starve, or support 
themselves by rapine and pillage, which they threat- 
ened to do in very intelligible language.* Adelaide 
was the place into which they all crowded, the popu- 
lation of the town having at one time reached 8,600 
souls, or nearly one half of the whole population 
of the province. Out of many schemes proposed at 
this time, as to the best means of providing for the 
unemployed emigrants, none found so many sup- 
porters amongst the colonists as that which advised 
the perfecting of the Government works.f 

The Governor, however, would not listen to these 
petitions. He stated in the despatches of that period, 
that to have gone on with public buildings in the 
town would have been unjustifiable, as all his ex- 
ertions were directed to wean the people from the 
notion they entertained, that the Government was 
bound to provide for them in that way. His motive 

* Parliamentary Papers. 

t " The great majority of the commanity were interested in 
« the maintenance of the lavish Government expenditure. Daring 
^* the twelve months preceding my arrival^ ahoat ^150»000. had 
*' heen procured by drawing bills, which were ultimately paid by 
*' the British Treasury ; and had been distributed in the form of 
'* salaries, allowances, and lucrative contracts, amongst a popu- 
"lationof 14,061 people, who only contributed ^30,000. to- 
^< wards their own support; that is, the British Treasury paid 
** annually to every man, woman, and child in South Australia, 
*< upwards of £\0. per head per annum; and if only the males 
•'of twenty-one years and upwards are considered, more than 
** £32, each per annum was paid to them by Great Britain for 
'Uhe support of themselves and their families.*' — Oovemor 
Orey's Despatch to Lord Stanley, of 3Ut Dec. 1842. 



ADMINISTRATION* 41 

was not alone to withdraw them from the town, but in 
employing them to undertake only works of general 
and undoubted utility ; he therefore, in giving them 
sufficient support to supply their legitimate wants, 
directed their labour to the opening of the great 
lines of internal communication, by which easy 
access was obtained to valuable agricultural dis- 
tricts. Amongst these, .in addition to numerous 
bridges and minor roads, the Great Eastern Road, 
across the Mount Lofty Range, is to be particularly 
mentioned, by which a lasting benefit was conferred 
on the colony, in laying open the Mount Barker 
District, one of the most valuable in the colony. 

Captain Grey reduced the wages of these emi- 
grants from Is. 6d. per diem, with rations, which 
they had been receiving under Colonel Gawler's ad- 
ministration, to Is. 2d. per diem, without rations. 
It was not to be expected that this extensive reduc- 
tion was to be carried out without creating great 
discontent amongst them. Tumultuous meetings 
were held, seditious language was used, on one 
occasion several hundred men in an organized body 
marched up to Government House, threatening per- 
sonal violence,* and a popular outbreak was more 
than once anticipated, which the total absence of a 
military force would have made very serious. But 
whilst Governor Grey behaved throughout this try- 
ing period with undaunted firmness, let it not be 
supposed that he did not feel for the distresses the 
* Parliamentary Papers. 



42 CAPTAIN grey's 

poor people were forced to suffer. His ExceUency 
was ever foremost in the work of charity. To his 
honour be it recorded, that in one year, out of his 
narrow official income of £1,000. per annum, he 
contributed near £400. towards charitable purposes ; 
nor was it in this year alone that he liberally added 
his mite wherever it was wanted; it is a well known 
fact that real poverty and distressed merit never in 
vain sought relief at Governor Grey*s hand. 

The spirit of speculation having received so rude but 
salutary a check, the town gradually became relieved 
from its superabundant and idle population. The set- 
tlers soon perceived, that the more permanent benefits 
were to be derived, not from profits obtained at the 
expense of their less experienced and unwary fellow 
colonists— a system but too general in those days — 
but by the developement of the great natural re- 
sources of the soil of their adopted country ; they 
began to grapple manfully with their difficulties, 
and the colony having been also blessed with a most 
bountiful and abundant harvest, the first step to- 
wards a permanent improvement was obtained by 
having provisions of every description cheaper than 
they were in the neighbouring colonies. Not alone 
was a stop, put from that period to the present day, 
to the ruinous expedient of having yearly to send 
large sums out of the colony to procure a supply of 
the necessaries of life,* but a commencement was 

* Id the year 1840, the immense sum of ^277,000. sterling, 
was sent out of the colony, for the porchase of the necessaries 
of life. 



ADMINISTRATION. 43 

made the following year in exporting those very ar- 
ticles; a trade which has gone on increasing ever 
since to a most surprising extent. 

In November, 1841, Captain Grey heard from 
England, that Colonel Gawler's bills were in the 
course of payment, by means of the Parliamentary 
grant, voted as a temporary assistance to the colony 
during the session of that year. On ascertaining 
this fact, and consistent with the determination he 
came to on his arrival in the colony, looking also to 
the justice of the still unsatisfied claims which had 
arisen from the faith placed by the colonists in the 
representative of her Majesty, whose acts they had 
no right to question, Captain Grey determined to 
relieve the distress consequent upon the non-fulfil- 
ment of those claims, and drew upon the Lords of 
the Treasury for the amount which was properly 
substantiated by proof of being due. Governor 
Grey's despatch, announcing his having done so, is 
given at length, so that his motives for incurring a 
responsibility, which he was aware at the time had 
been the cause of his predecessor's recall, may be 
properly appreciated. 

** Oovemment House, 
** Adelaide J November 14, 1841. 

** Mt Lord, — I have on several occasions stated to your Lord- 
ship, that on my arrival in the colony I found that a variety of 
daims against the Government still remained unsatisfied, and 
that the late Oovemor had not drawn bills upon England for 
the payment of these accounts, having been advised by the Colo- 
nization Commissioners that no further funds remained in their 
hands. 



44 CAPTAIN grey's 

" Upon the receipt of this iDtelligence, Colonel Gawler publicly 
notified his intention of drawing upon the Lords of the Trea- 
sury, in his capacity of Governor, for the purpose of defraying 
the current expenses of the Government ; and under this expec- 
tation, storekeepers and others continued to furnish the Govem- 
ment with such supplies as were required. Debts were thus 
contracted in the broken portion of the quarter ending the 1 5th 
May to a considerable amount. 

** The sum which I found due to the local creditors amounted 
to about jE 1 1,000., exclusive of the new gaol, for which building 
alone a balance of ^19,000. was claimed — ^13,000. having been 
already paid to the contractors. 

" I did not, on my arrival, feel myself justified in carrying 
out Colonel Gawler's plan of drawing upon the British Treasury 
for so large an amount. A variety of reasons led me to form this 
determination, which are detailed at length in my despatch 
to -your Lordship of June 5, 1841. (No. 6.) The principal of 
these was, that the amounts remaining unpaid were of a precisely 
similar character to those which were represented in England by 
the late Governor's bills, which the Lords of the Treasury would 
not pay without legislative sanction ; and that until their Lord- 
ships commenced paying these bills, I should not be justified in 
drawing on them to obtain funds to liquidize precisely similar 
accounts in the colony. 

*' A great deal of distress necessarily resulted from the non- 
payment of these bills, and this was more severely felt from the 
limited nature of the mercantile community in this province. 
The situation of these Government creditors was also peculiar. 
They had seen the supplies, furnished by them, appropriated to 
the uses of the Government ; they had had a pledge given to them, 
which neither the late Governor nor myself had yet fulfilled, and 
they were not even in so good a position as the holders of 
the biUs ; if they had been so, their claims would have been 
settled at the same time as those of the other creditors in Eng- 
land. 

" When, therefore, I ascertained that all the bills drawn by 



ADMINISTRATION. 46' 

Colonel Gawler were in the conne of payment in England^ and 
found that had Colonel Gawler drawn hills for these precisely 
similar claims remaining unpaid in the colony, that then the 
crediton here would have heeu placed in the same position as 
those elsewhere ; when also I saw the distress which the non- 
payment of these accounts was creating, I felt that I should he 
no longer justified in refraining from putting all the Go?em- 
ment creditors upon an equal footing. I accordingly have com- 
menced drawing drafts upon the Lords of the Treasury for the 
payment of these outstanding claims ; and I trust that the line 
of policy I ha?e pursued may meet with the approbation of her 
Majesty's GoYernment. 

'* In order that your Lordship may be fully informed on this 
subject, I have enclosed copies of the letters of advice which I 
have forwarded to the Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's 
Treasury. These contain detailed explanations of the nature of 
these outstanding claims. 

*•! have, &c. 

(Signed) " G. GREY. 

'* The Right Hon. Lord John Russell." 

At the end of 1841, such was the activity with 
which the surveys had been conducted by Captain 
Frome, that all the claimed special surveys, thirty- 
five in number, 4,000 acres each, had been completed, 
and the quantity of land open for selection to new 
comers amounted, moreover, to 306,000 acres, the 
cost of surveying which had been reduced to 7id. 
per acre. Captain Frome also very handsomely 
consented to perform the duties of Colonial Engi- 
neer gratuitously, by which the colony was not only 
saved the expense hitherto attending the supervision 
of that department, but secured the talent of which 
he is very generally allowed to be possessed. 



46 CAPTAIN OREy's 

The year 1841 was also fertile in geographical 
discovery, Mr. Eyre having succeeded in traversing 
the whole coast line between Port Lincoln and 
King George's Sound, one of the most arduous ex- 
plorations on record, during which he underwent 
privations, which it appears almost incredible a 
human being could have withstood. His under- 
taking reflects the greater credit on him, as he bore 
himself the largest proportion of the expense at- 
tending its outfit ; the good of the colony, and the 
advancement of science in developing the geogra- 
phical features of part of that vast unknown conti- 
nent, having been his principal aim. The Royal 
Geographical Society awarded to him the Founder's 
Gold Medal, and it is to be hoped that a more per- 
manent reward will be shortly bestowed upon him 
by her Majesty's Government, by giving him a 
lucrative colonial appointment; for who deserve 
such appointments better than those who have 
adventured their lives and fortunes for the benefit of 
the Colony, particularly where, as in Mr. Eyre's 
case, his personal qualifications are of a nature to do 
honour to any civil colonial appointment it may 
be in the power of the Secretary of State for the 
Colonies to confer upon him? 

On the 5th July, 1842, Lord Stanley brought for- 
ward in the House of Commons the consideration 
of the aflairs of South Australia, and it is to be 
regretted that a whole year was sufiered to elapse 
before the recommendations of the Select Com- 



ADMINISTRATION. 47 

mittee of the preceding year were acted upon — 
during which time the want of the relief now 
afforded caused so much distress* In introducing 
his three resolutions, the intimate acquaintance of 
Lord Stanley with the affairs of the colony enabled 
him to put the case in a very clear point of view. 
After alluding to its early history, and to the 
defects in the system upon which it was established, 
the noble Lord entered into a detail of the liabilities 
incurred by the colony, which may be shortly 
stated thus : 

1. Parliamentary Grant advanced last year . ^155,000 

2. Bilk of €k)l. Gawler remaining unpaid . 27>290 

3. Bills of Capt« Grey on account of the 

emigrants maintained at the puhlic 

expense . . . < 17>646 

4. Amount borrowed by Commissioners 

bearing interest at from 6 to 10 per 

cent. ..... 85,800 

5. Outstanding debts of Col. Gawler's 

GoYermnent .... 35>000 

6. Amount borrowed from Land and Emi- 

gration Fund . . 84,697 

Amounting in all to . ^6405,433 



These liabilities he proposed to dispose of in the 
following manner. He would call upon Parlia- 
ment to forego the repayment of the first sum of 
£155,000 ; would submit the expediency of making 
good the £27,290 for Col. Gawler's unpaid bilb (2) 
and sanctioning the £17,646 expended by Capt. 



48 CAPTAIN grey's 

Grey in supporting unemployed emigrants. The 
Bonds (4) by an understanding with the holders, 
would remain outstanding at an interest of 3^ per 
cent., guaranteed by the British Treasury, and for 
which he should propose provision out of the Con- 
solidated Fund. The outstanding debts of Colonel 
Gawler and the sum due to the Land and Emigra- 
tion Fund he could not now call upon Parliament 
to make good. The former of the two (5) he 
stated to be sums advanced to Government, " under 
a full knowledge of the peremptory orders which 
Col. Gawler had received, not to draw any further."* 
Governor Grey had however been authorized, to 
issue in the colony Debentures bearing interest not 
exceeding 5 per cent., on account of these claims. 
In addition he notified his intention of moving in the 
estimates a vote of £15,000 to carry on the Govern- 
ment during that year, expressing his hope and 
belief that with this assistance it would make sure 
advances to prosperity. 

Lord Stanley's resolutions were agreed to by a large 
majority, and a Bill was immediately introduced and 
passed on the 16th July, 1842, entitled "An Act 
for the better Government of the Province of 

* The noble Secretary for the Colonies was in error in stating 
this. A considerable portion of these claims were for contracts 
famished before the prohibition to draw had arrived, bat were 
not due till after that period; and a large sum was, at that time, 
stated to be owing on account of public buildings in the course 
of erection ; the remainder being for absolute necessaries. 



ADMINISTRATION. 49 

South Australia " of which an epitome will be 
found in the Appendix. 

Another Act was passed on the 22nd June, 1842, 
and was entitled '^ An Act for regulating the sale 
of Waste Lands in the Australian Colonies and in 
New Zealand." * One of the principles of this 
colony had hitherto been, that all its lands should 
be disposed of at the uniform price of £1. per acre, 
and that all the proceeds of lands so sold should 
be employed in bringing out labouring emigrants 
to the colony ; but this new Act requires that all 
pnblic lands, except blocks of 20,000 acres, shall be 
put up to public auction at a minimum price of not 
less than £1. per acre, and stipulates only for the 
certain application of one half of the proceeds of 
such land sales to the purpose of emigration.* 

Up to October 1842 the news of these measures 
did not reach the colony; the ^^Taglione" having 
sailed before the passing of the above Acts, only 
brought out the disastrous news of the dishonour 
of Captain Orey's drafts ; but although she sailed 
six weeks after Captain Grey's bills were pre- 
sented, and refused acceptance, there was not a 
single despatch for the Governor on board an- 
nouncing this fact oflBicially. Whilst I distinctly 

* For thiB Land Sale Act — vide Appendix. 

* Lord Stanley's despatch announcing the passing of these 
two Acts is dated 15th September, 1842 : thus two whole 
months are suffered to elapse without informing the GoTemor of 
these important measures. 

B 



50 CAPTAIN QREY's 

« 

disclaim any intentional disrespect to the authorities 
of the Colonial Office in making these remarks, I 
have been thus particular in alluding to this want 
of punctuality on a subject which so deeply affected 
the welfare of the colony, as it illustrates the almost 
total impossibility there seems to exist, for the Prin- 
cipal and Under Secretaries of State for the Colonies, 
from the multifariousness of their duties, to attend 
to the important interests of the numerous colonies 
with that promptitude which their several interests 
require. 

Not so with the unfortunate holders of those 
bills; they had all received the notarial protests by 
the "Taglione," with all the celerity usually attend- 
ing upon the transmission of bad news; and Captain 
Grey's most unpleasant situation may be easily 
imagined, being without a word of explanation from 
the Home authorities why these bills were not paid, 
or instructions how to act with regard to them. He 
says in his despatch of 18th October, .1842, on this 
subject : '^ The disappointed claimants have not 
** only abused me in the most violent manner in 
^^ the public prints, and harassed me in every pos- 
*^ sible way, but they threaten me with an 
" appeal to your Lordship, and even with impeach- 
'^ ment. Here, therefore, I am attacked as neg- 
** lecting altogether the interests of the colonists 
" and regarding only that of the Home Govem- 
" ment ; whilst, from the feet of my bills having 
" been dishonoured, I fear that I am regarded in . 



ADMINISTRATION. 51 

** England as having erred in the contrary extreme. 
" Whilst I am on this subject I think it of impor- 
" tance to call attention to the fact, that Colonel 
•* Gawler, in contracting these debts, led the colo- 
** nists to understand that they would be paid by 
" the British Treasury ; and nothing appears to 
'' have taken place which could have led them to 
^ suppose they would have been entailed as a 
" burden upon the colony." 

His financial difficulties increased very materially, 
the banks refused to negotiate any more of his 
drafts, and he was obliged to have recourse to a 
loan from the Commissariat Chest of £1800. to 
carry on the Government. 

On the 24th December, 1842, Governor Grey 
at length received Lord Stanley's despatch an- 
nouncing the dishonour of his drafts in May pre- 
ceding, of which the following is an extract : — 

" The justificatioii which yon have urged for the coane taken 
by yon is in sobstanoe this,-^that yon nnderstand that all the 
bills drawn by yonr prodeceaBor were to be accepted and paid, 
and that tbe daima in latia&ction of which yon were abont to 
draw these bills were similar to those on account of which 
GoTemor Oawkr drew his bills. 

''It is tme that, in order to sustain the credit of the Colonial 
Gorermnent, the Home Government ultimately consented to pro- 
vide for the payment of all Governor Gawler^s bills ; but you 
ajppear to have overlooked the fact, that Governor Gawler's 
eendnet in drawing those bills was strongly disapproved of, and 
that it formed one of the principal grounds of his recall. Tou 
wece warned not to dmw any bills without having previously 

E 2 



52 CAPTAIN GRET's 

reoeiTed aathority to do bo, and not to take any meaanres on 
your own authority for the settlement of the debt. 

'< On that Bubject the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury 
expressed themselYes in the following terms : — 

'* ' My Lords cannot anticipate any circumstances which 
should make it either necessary or advisable that the Local 
Government should adopt any proceedings with respect to that 
debt until the determination of Parliament is made known.* 

^' It does not appear that these biUs were drawn by you on 
account of any exigency of the public service of the colony. 
All the bills drawn by Oovemor Gawler were attempted to be 
justified on this ground. Bills have likewise been drawn by you 
for the same reason to the extent of i61 6,000. which bills were 
duly accepted, and others may be expected of the same kind, 
particularly on account of the pauper emigrants. 

" Her Majesty's Government are very unwillingly compelled 
to come to the conclusion, that the bills now under considera- 
tion OQght not to be accepted. They were drawn, not only 
without authority, but also contrary to the express letter of your 
instructions. When the very liberal assistance which is pro» 
posed to be given to the colony at the expense of the mother 
country, and the steadily improving condition of the South Aus- 
tralian finances are considered, there can be no reason to doubt 
the ability of the Colonial Government to provide, in conformity 
with the arrangement which has been agreed upon between the 
Treasury and the Secretary of State, for the debt, in satisfiustion 
of which these bills were drawn. Neither will the non-accep- 
tance of the biUs injure that just and necessary credit which is 
indispensable to enable the Colonial Government to carry on its 
functions. No apprehension need be entertained, for instance, 
of your being unable to get bills cashed for the support of 
the pauper emigrants, in case you should find it necessary to 
draw i^n for that purpose after the adoption of the arrange- 
ments which you have been directed to make, with a view to the 
diminution of the number of persons supported at the expense 



ADMINISTRATION. 5S 

of the Colonial Oovemmentp and to the equalisation of the 
levenue and ezpenditnre of the OoYemment. If there were 
any doubt aa to your being able to get bilk cashed which you 
might find it necessary to draw for this purpose, the case might 
be provided for by the issue to you of instructions specifically 
authoiicing you to draw bills for the support of the pauper 
emigrants. 

** Her Majesty's Oovemment are still of opinion that the assis- 
tance which it has been already proposed to afibrd to the colony 
is the utmost which can be expected from the liberality of this 
country, and they see nothing in the present case which should 
induce them to throw upon the British public expenses for 
which it had been determined, upon mature consideration, that 
the colony should be left to provide. 

" It only remsins to convey to you the instructions of Her 
Majest/s Government, respecting the line of conduct to be 
adopted by you upon the bills being returned to you disho- 
noured. The obligation of the Colonial Government originally 
consisted of certain unsettled claims, which it was the intention 
of the authorities in this country should be investigated and 
reported upon, and be converted, so far as they were founded 
upon justice, into debentures, bearing interest at five per cent., 
and payable at the discretion of the Colonial Government. You 
have now drawn bills upon the Treasury in discharge of these 
claims, and these bills have been dishonoured, and will be re- 
turned to you, chargeable with interest from the date at which 
they would have become payable, if they had been accepted. 
The obligation of the Colonial Government is therefore now 
represented by the amount of the bills, with the addition of the 
charge for interest firom the date at which they expired. 

" Under these circumstances Her Majesty's Government are 
of opinion that the debentures to be issued under the previous 
instruction should be delivered to the holders in exchange for 
their bills, and should bear interest from the date at which the 
bills drawn by you upon tBe Lords Commissioners of the Trea- 



64 CAPTAIN grey's 

«ary would have become dae if they had been aoeepted, the biDs 
bMag returned to the Colonial Goyernment by the holders pre* 
Tioualy to the delivery of the debentnrea. Ton will be fdr- 
niahed with a statement of the dates at which the bills shall be 
presented at the Treasury. ♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

^ In communicating to you this decision, I think it right to 
convey to you the assurance that, although her Majesty's 
GoTemment have seen reason to disapprove of this particular 
proceeding, yet, in othbr respects, the tenor of your administra- 
tion, so far as it has ftllen within their cognisance, has been 
such as to leave unimpaired the confidence of the €k>vemment 
in the prudence and discretion of your measures. 

** I have, ftc. 
(Signed) " STANLBT. 

" Governor Grey, &c. &c." 

Lord Stanley gives no good reason for refusing to 
pay those bills beyond that they were drawn without 
special authority. He says that Captain Qrey ought 
to have recollected, that although Colonel Gawler's 
bills were ultimately paid, his having dr&wn them 
was the cause of his recall. But the views expressed 
in Lord Stanley's despatch do not justify the course 
he pursued in refusing to place those few additional 
thousand pounds on the same footing as the re- 
mainder of the grant; an attentive perusal of 
Governor Grey's despatch clearly showing, that 
those claims were composed of precisely similar 
ones which the British Government had thought it 
incumbent upon themselves to pay ** to support 
the credit of the Government". The thanks of the 
colonists of South Australia' will always be due to 



ADMimSTRATIOK. 55 

Lord Stanley for the way in which he on these 
occasions of the Parliamentary inquiry supported 
our necessities; and the statesman-like views he 
expressed at this and a former period, redound not a 
little to his honour, but unfortunately, whilst his Lord- 
ship advocated our interests this time, he acted no less 
unjustly to the Colony at other times. The British 
Parliament acknowledged the liability of the Home 
Government for the acts of the Representative of the 
Crown, by granting so large a sum as they did ; the 
£35,000. not included in that grant, were precisely of 
a similar nature, in contracting which debt. Colonel 
Oawler led the colonists to understand that they 
would be paid by the British Treasury.* Why then 
should this sum be entailed as a burden on the 
colony? Lord Stanley, representing the British 
Government on this occasion, stands in the position 
of debtor to the colonists for certain sums ad- 
vanced by them for the service of Government ; to 
the greater part of these creditors his Lordship 
gives 20^. in the pound, to the remainder, whose 
claims are just as well substantiated (some of them, 
those for surveys for instance, much more legiti- 
mate) only 10*., by ordering them to be paid in 
colonial debentures at five per cent, interest. To 
parties in England not conversant with the subject 
this may appear a very satis&ctory arrangement ; a 
very few words will, however, convince them of the 
contrary. 

* Parliamentarj Papers. 



56 CAPTAIN GRBT's 

In the first place, the colonists are kept waiting 
for eighteen months before they get any settlement 
at all ; their claims are then arranged by the Gover- 
nor's bills on the Lords of the Treasury, to get 
which cashed they were obliged to pay the banks 
five per cent« discount. The bills are sent to Eng-^ 
land and refused acceptance ; now the lawyers get 
hold of them ; in addition to the expense for noting 
protest there is the charge of twenty per cent, for 
re-exchange, which, according to the commercial 
laws of the colony, every endorser of a bill on Eng- 
land is liable for, if that bill is not paid. The 
lawyers in the colony are then instructed by the 
banks to request an early reimbursement from the 
unfortunate endorsers, which they have it not in 
their power to do, further than by handing over the 
debentures bearing five per cent, interest, whilst the 
current rate of bank interest in the colony was then 
from ten to twelve per cent., and is now eight per 
cent A child might guess the consequences to nine 
out of ten of the holders of these bills — the expenses 
on the returned bills being nearly half the amount 
of the bills themselves, are finally settled by an ad- 
vertisement of the sherifi" in the public papers, an- 
nouncing the property of A., B., or C, for peremp- 
tory sale ! 

Is this way of settling the just claims of her 
Majesty's subjects upon the Government in conso- 
nance with English custom ? Is this act of injus- 
tice worthy of a great nation ? No, it is not ! And 



AO1IINI0TRATION. 57 

as the hardship of the case has been repeatedly 
brought under Lord Stanley's notice by the sufferers, 
he cannot plead ignorance of these facts. But the 
invariable answer has been :— "It is a hard case, 'tis 
" true, but we have already given so much, we can- 
" not give more." Surely, if as Lord Stanley in 
the above-mentioned debates stated, the country was 
at that time not in a fit state to grant this £30,000. 
and the £84,000. due to the emigration fund, he 
might at a subsequent period have completed the 
measure of his benefits to the colony by even a 
tardy act of common justice. Had he again come 
before Parliament and stated, that there was still a 
number of British subjects — far enough away, it is 
true, to prevent the voice of their complaint being 
heard — who were either entirely ruined or greatly 
distressed by the non-fulfilment of the engagements 
of the Queen's representative, over whose acts they 
never had any control, there might have been a little 
more grumbling-- a few more narrow-minded men 
like the hon. member for Coventry, of 1842, might 
have possibly preferred sacrificing the political ex- 
istence of an integral portion of the British Colonial 
Empire, by abandoning it to its fate, as he proposed 
to do, for the sake of a few paltry thousands, — but 
that spirit of seeing justice done, which is engrafted 
in most Englishmen's hearts, would have carried 
the day, all claims would have been settled, and the 
minister's name would have been engraved in letters 
of gold in the history of the colony. 



68 CAPTAIH grey's 

It is difficult, nay, impossible to allude to these 
financial affairs of the colony, the most eventful 
period of its past history, without in some measure 
reflecting upon those erroneous yiews which led 
Colonel Gawler intd expending sums, which he 
ought to have known could never have been forth- 
coming in England. But I am far from joining in 
that sweeping and wholesale abuse with which 
Colonel Gawler has been on all sides assailed in 
consequence. A few words which fell from Lord 
Stanley, in his speech above alluded to, go &r to 
soften the blame belaid himself open to, which were, 
" That Governor Gawler, having two masters, (the 
** Government and the Commissioners,) received in- 
" structions of a very conflicting nature, which he 
** knew not how to execute/* 

During the year 1842, no less than 136 writs 
were passed through the sherifi^s court, and 37 fiats 
of insolvency were issued. In one important respect 
the disastrous consequences of the losses sustained 
in the colony by the non-payment of the Govern- 
ment debts, had a beneficial influence ; out of 1,915 
houses that had been built in Adelaide, 642 were in 
Dec. 1842, totally deserted, from the number of 
people who had found their way into the country, 
and by their means 19,000 acres were brought under 
cultivation, the produce of which was estimated at 
£98,000. His Excellency, in his despatches, pays a 
high compliment to the energetic manner in which 
the country gentlemen were exerting themselves to 



ADMIHISTRATIOV. 59 

retrieve their losses, adding his regret that their 
means and energies were, in the first instance, so 
much misdirected. 

In alluding to the inhabitants of the colony gene* 
rally, after commending their high moral state and 
the great security to life and property which pre* 
vails throughout the province, he adds, " That con- 
*' sidering the degree of political excitement which 
''prevailed^ and the distress which his reduction 
^ caused, their conduct must, on the whole, be re- 
** garded as highly creditable to themselves ; and 
*^ now, looking back upon the great changes through 
" which they so suddenly passed, he felt rather in- 
*^ clined to estimate than to blame any intemperate 
^ language or conduct which some few individuals 
" may have been guilty of." 

^' Nothing contributed so much to this desirable 
state of things, as the fact of Governor Grey 
having taken upon himself the responsibility to 
pay the outstanding claims. Had he not paid 
the numerous Government creditors of all ranks 
of life, who were hanging about Adelaide in ex- 
pectation of the payment of the just debts due to 
them by the Government, they never would have 
been induced to abandon the town for the coun- 
try."* And the man who writes to the Home 
Government in this strain, is he, who was at that 
time, to my knowledge, made the object of the 
most unjust and violent -attacks at larg public 
meetings in the colony^ called ostensibly for the 

* Parliamentary Papeis. 



60 CAPTAIK GRBy's 

insane purpose of petitioning her Majesty's Oovem- 
ment for his recall. 

By the end of 1842, a perfect system of tenders for 
the Government service ^as introduced, an Emigra- 
tion and Audit Board were established, internal illicit 
distillation was for the first time put an end to, and 
the revenue thereby protected, and in all the Govern- 
ment offices a perfect system of regularity and effi- 
ciency was introduced. This latter was by no means 
an easy task, as shortly before Governor Grey's ar- 
rival, the old Government House had been burnt 
down, with the letters and public documents it con- 
tained, thus cutting off all his means of reference. 
Provisions of all sorts continued low, and the only 
articles which were rising in price were " ploughs 
and harrows ;" indeed, when the harvest was ready, 
there was a great scarcity of hands to reap it, and 
so great was the emergency and the danger of 
losing a large portion of it, that the Governor 
allowed the soldiers, and all Government employes 
who could for the moment be dispensed with, to 
offer their assistance to their friends wherever it 
was wanted. 

Governor Grey also made an arrangement this 
year with the South Australian Company regarding 
the Port Road. This road had been constructed by 
the Company at an expense of £13,400., under an 
agreement with Colonel Gawler, by which they 
were entitled to receive from the Government inte- 
rest at the rate of twelve per cent, on the capital 



ADMINISTRATION. 61 

expended, or else to levy a toll. Captain Grey com^ 
pounded for the capital sum, by giving the Com- 
pany 12,000 acres of land, to be selected out of 
the surveyed districts, in full of all claims on this 
account. 

With the beginning of 1843, a pleasanter duty 
devolved on the Governor, namely, that of report- 
ing to the Home Government the gradual improve- 
ment which was taking place in the aspect of the 
affairs of the province. 

Every able-bodied man had now found employ- 
ment ; none but the sick and infirm were receiving 
the aid of Government, and inordinate speculation, 
that bane of the Australian colonies, had nearly 
ceased. The colonists, it is true, were poor, but they 
were fast getting out of debt, and the banks assisted 
wherever it was practicable, by affording liberal 
fecilities to those who were still embarrassed. The 
surveys were now far in advance of the demands ; 
tens of thousands of acres were ready for selection, 
and liie efficiency of this and all other departments 
went fax to prove, that the enormous reductions 
which had taken place, so far from impairing, had 
greatly increased it. 

In his endeavours to raise a revenue. Governor 
Grey had created a great deal of dissatisfaction by 
the imposition of exorbitant port dues. This was 
certainly a bad measure, and not in consonance with 
the liberal and enlightened view which Captain Grey 
took on all subjects relating to the welfare of the 



62 CAPTAIN ORBT's 

province. It could answer no purpose of revenue, 
as it was calculated to prevent every vessel from re- 
turning to Port Adelaide which had once incurred 
those charges ; they were, it is true, shortly after- 
wards reduced, and are now finally abolished alto- 
gether ; but it is a pity that Captain Grey should 
have resorted to this obnoxious tax, crowned, as all 
his measures were, with success, and tending to the 
advancement of the colony. 

The whole of the land sales during 1843 did not 
comprise more than 698 acres, amounting to £613. 
I3s. 9d. Amongst this small quantity of land there 
was one section of 80 acres, on the river light, 
which deserves to obtain special mention here, as 
it contained the first copper-mine worked in 
the colony, thus taking the lead in a branch of 
industry which bids fair to make South Australia 
outstrip all its competitors, in wealth and consider- 
ation. 

From this time forward. Captain Grey continually 
urged upon the Home Government the propriety of 
renewing emigration, as labour began to be very 
much wanted, and with an increasing demand, the 
settlers were now put to great straits for want of 
farm labourers and shepherds. Lord Stanley, how- 
ever, would not consent to resume emigration to 
South Australia, as he had no funds at his disposal 
for that purpose, and persisted in not recognizing 
the liabilities of the British Government to return 
the £87^000. abstracted from the emigration fiind 



ADMINISTRATION. 63 

diiriBg the monetary derangement of the colony, 
notwithstanding the recommendation of the Select 
Committee, of which he wafi himself a member. A 
partial renewal of emigration took place to New 
South Wales during the latter part of 1843, where 
it was not wanted, I myself having been in Sydney 
early in 1844, and witnessed the utter destitution 
to which the emigrants were exposed on their ar- 
rival, from want of employment 

Strange enough, South Australia benefitted by it 
in an indirect way, as all those who could possibly 
manage it, found their way down to our colony; so 
that in one year we obtained an increase of nearly 
900 souls to our population, all able-bodied and free 
emigrants, without having entailed a farthing's ex- 
pense on the province. 

The large amounts of money abstracted from the 
land revenues and emigration funds to meet Colonel 
Gawler's unauthorized expenditure never having 
been refunded, is another standing subject of just 
complaint by the colonists against the mother coun- 
try ; and whilst the whole of England has for some 
years been heapingabuseon theUnited States of North 
America for repudiating the engagements entered 
into by some of the States with foreign capitalists, 
we have here the no less glaring case of the British 
Government breaking the &ith solemnly pledged to 
the colonists by virtue of an Act of Parliament, 
strengthened and confirmed, as our just claims are, 
by the recommendation of a Select Committee of the 



64 CAPTAIN QREY's 

House of Commons,* that the amount should be 
made good by the British Government and applied 
to the legitimate purpose of emigration. The fol- 
lowing clear statement of the case is extracted from 
the Colonial Gazette : — 

" It is veil known that the colony of South Australia was 
founded on the principle that the whole of the proceeds of the 
land sales should be applied to the purposes of emigration. 

*^ By the Report of the Colonization CommisaionerB for South 
Australia, dated July 29th» 1842, it appears that the amount 
realised from sales of land was £277»119. 9s, By the blue 
book, entitled '^ Papers relative to South Australia, 1843/' it 
appears that of this sum there had been applied to other pur- 
poses than emigration, previous to August, 1840» ^56,746 14 8 
''Besides varioos quarterly advances in the 

colony from the emigration fund, up to the 

quarter ending March, 1841 . . 24,851 

** In addition to which, it appears, by the Go- 

vemor's financial returns for the year ended 

September 30th, 1842, that there had been 

received in the colony for land sold . . 6,830 3 

je87,427 17 8 

* On the 8th of March, 1841, the Select Committee, con- 
sisting of — 

Sir Geo. Grey, in the chair. 
Lord Howick, Lord Eliot, 

Mr. y. Smith, Mr. Raikes Currie, 

Mr. G. W. Hope, Mr. Parker, 

Lord Stanley, Mr. G. W. Wood, 

Sir W. Molesworth, Mr. Sotheron, 

Lord Mahon, Mr. Gladstone, 

Lord Fitzalan, Captain A'Court, 

resolved in the affirmative, *' that provision ought to be made 
to repay the sum due to the Emigration fund.'' — Parliamentary 
Papers. 



ADMINISTRATION. 



65 



"There hl» thus been withdrawn, from the purpose to which 
the prooeeds of lands sales were devoted by Act of Parliament, 
upwards of biohty-seten thousand pounds. As to the 
first snm in the above statement (^56,746. 14«. Sd ), the Select 
Committee of the Honse of Commons, of which Lord Stanley and 
6. W. Hope, Esq., were members, declared that it should be repaid 
and applied to emigration— but not one penny of it has 
8EBN REPAID. When such a glaring violation of plighted faith 
occurs, plain honest men ask, what reason is assigned. It is 
alleged, that the original scheme on which the colony was founded 
has fidled, that Parliament has been called upon to advance two 
hundred thousand pounds to relieve the colony from its financial 
embarrassments ; and that, therefore, it is not proper ** that the 
amount should be swelled by the payment of sums due from one 
branch of the service to another." This may be a very good 
reason, as between Downing-street and Park-street ; but there 
is another party^ and that the party which paid the money. Has 
dieir consent been obtained ? Oh ! no*-it was never asked. We 
have had Select Committees, and Committees of the whole House, 
plenty of blue books on the subject, bat no communication with 
the persons who paid the cash. Their rights have been disre- 
garded, because the public finances of the oolonj became em- 
barrassed. Is it not absolutely necessary to inquire who iovolved 
the colony in these embarrassments 7 Who spent the £87 fiOO T 
Who is to blame ? Does any portion of that blame attach to the 
landowners ? Not a particle of it. . Over the expenditure they 
have not the shadow of a control. Shall their rights, then, be 
effected by the conduct of others ? 

" Is the British Parliament prepared to sanction the principle, 
that the terms of a bargain may be altered to suit the convenience 
of one of the parties, the other being quite innocent of any act 
or deed affecting their rights, and refusing their assent all the 
time? 

"We have stated the case on the broad general principle, 
which every part of the official documents brings out ; but there 
is a peculiarity attaching to about ^25,000. of the above amount, 

F 



66 CAPTAIN GRETAS 

which makes the case stiU worse. The amoiint was paid hy 
parties who^ at the time of purchasing the land, told the com- 
missioners that the money was paid> not so much for. the land» 
as for the purpose of affording poor labourers the opportunity 
of emigrating. 

''The character of the Imperial Parliament is invohed in 
this matter. The Colonial Minister pleads that it is not neces^ 
sary that the sums due from one branch of the service to another 
should be paid. Does the Parliament sanction this ? 

'' The debt is not due merely from one branch of the senrice 
to another: it is due by her Majesty's Oovemment to a deserr* 
ing class of her Majesty's subjects ; it is due by the Imperial 
Parliament to a portion of their constituents. The situation of 
the landowners of South Australia, as creditors of the British 
Goyemment, in respect to the sums appropriated to emigre- 
tion, differs from the holders of Three per cent. Consols only 
in this — that the former axe not in possession of a voucher, 
whilst the latter are* But shall thb affect their claim for pay- 
ment?" 

It is no doubt at all times a disagreeable duty for 
the Minister of the Crown to ask the British Par- 
liament for votes of money out of the regular 
course, particularly in cases where explanations of 
an unpleasant nature would be required. It is in-, 
comprehensible to me why it is so difficult to 
interest the attention of Parliament on subjects 
relating to the far distant colonies, until, as in the 
case of New Zealand, mismanagement and disasters 
come so thick, that the national honour is involved 
in the issue ; then, indeed, do the halls of West- 
minster ring long and loud with angry discussion, and 
there is no lack of prompt determination to remedy 



ADMrNISTRATION. 67 

the evil at enormous sacrifice. But why always 
wait till things are brought to such a crisis ? The 
British colonies, although one of the mainstays of the 
British Empire, have no direct voice in Parliament ; 
is it then unreasonable to expect that at least some 
degree of attention may be paid to our grievances 
and redress given when required ? We have here 
a body of 20,000 free British subjects, who on the 
faith of Acts of Parliament, leave the mother 
country with their fortunes and families to add 
new links to the chain of British dominion, already 
encircling half the globe ; to open fresh outlets for 
British manufactures, for the employment of British 
labour, increasing the wealth and the strength of 
the mother country, besides affording abundant 
means of personal patronage to ministers them- 
selves. The Government make laws for us which we 
obey, without having had the least voice in their 
conception ; we are ruled by Governors, in whose 
nomination and over whose acts we have not the 
least control ; and then, when one of these Gover- 
nors plttnges the colony into an ocean of debt and 
difficulty, the Home Government pays a portion of 
the debt, and tells the remaining creditors, " Oh ! 
" you must look to the future resources of the colony 
" to pay the remainder ; we have given already so 
** much, we cannot give any more," and other like 
reasonings. Our plains are broken up by the 
plough ; a bountiful Providence blesses the land with 

f2 



68 CAPTAIW OREY*9 

immense crops of gram, we have thousands and thou- 
sands of bushels of corn more than we require, and 
although a loyal offspring of the same parent stem, 
the mother country shuts her ports upon us, and de- 
mands from one of her provinces an import duty 
which forbids us to send our com to England, whilst 
another province, which has waged war in open re- 
bellion, is allowed to send its surplus produce to 
England duty free 1 By Act of Parliament, the 
produce of the sales of our waste lands is pledged 
to provide free labour to make that land available ; 
instead of that, a large sum is squandered away for 
other purposes, and the Colonial Minister justifies 
his refusal to recommend the refunding of that 
sum to its original destined application, on the 
plea, ^* that it is a debt due from one branch of the 
service to another/' At the foundation of the colony, 
on the strength of powers given by an Act of Par- 
liament, the fee-simple of lands in South Australia 
is vested in the purchasers, without reserve, " with 
everything above, and everything below the sur- 
face/' And have we not seen last sessioh a bill 
brought into Parliament by the Colonial Minister, 
to reserve the lately discovered mineral resources of 
the colony to the Crown? to clog an important 
branch of colonial industry, which can only iSourish 
when unfettered by Government- interference— an 
attempt, which if it is persevered in this session, 
will again crush the rising prosperity just beginning 
to dawn upon the colony,will prevent British capital 



ADMIlfI8TRATION« 69 

findiBg its way to South Australia, by the sale 
of the land, thereby again putting a stop to emi- 
gration, without which our endeavours would 
be rendered nugatory ? Is there a word misstated 
in the above ? Let him gainsay me who can. 

The subject of emigration on an extended and 
liberal scale, to all those British colonies where 
most desirable and necessary, is one, which is well 
worthy the serious attention of our greatest states- 
men.* The accounts of the misery, wretchedness, and 
want, so prevalent in many parts of England, but 
particularly in Ireland, with which the papers have 
teemed, are fresh in the memory of every body ; 
the enormous expense of the JSnglish workhouses, 
the destitution in Ireland, amongst a class of 
people who would be welcome to us in the colony, 
as the blessed dew which refreshes the earth : are 
these not sufficient reasons, to turn the attention 
of our legislators to the means of assisting these 
poor people to reach a land where plenty and 
independence will be their portion, where a beggar 
is unknown, a land producing food for tens of thou- 
sands, whilst there are only scores to consume it ? 

It is indeed to be hoped that this important 
subject may soon receive that attention from Par- 

^ Laing» in his elaborate prise essay on "The causes aod 
remedies for the existing distress in the coantry/' says, — " It is 
a subject most important and the most intimately connected 
with the destinies of the English nation.*' 



70 CAPTAIN grey's 

liament which it deserves, and that tardy justice 
may be done to our colony, by appropriating 
as soon as possible the amount due to our emigra- 
tion fund for the last three years, to furnish us with 
the labour so much required, and which will be 
sure to bring a tenfold return to Great Britain in a 
very short space of time. 

The several valuable statistical tables contained 
in this volume, compiled under the authority of 
the Government and published officially in South 
Australia for general information, are a strong 
and undeniable commentary on the immense re- 
sults attained during the period of his Excellency's 
administration. From the commencement of 1843, 
that is eighteen months after his assumption of office, 
a gradual, but steadily increasing improvement took 
place in the affairs of the colony, which has con- 
tinued up to the present day without interruption, 
until South Australia has attained a degree of pros- 
perity, in vain to be sought for to the same pro- 
portionate extent, in any other foreign dependency 
of the British Crown. Every department of the 
Government is in a most efficient state ; the revenue^ 
of the colony e:i:ceeds the expenditure ; the value 
of the exports, those of the imports ; and the Go- 
vernor has commenced paying off the deben- 
tures so unjustly entailed upon our colony by the 
Home Government. 

In July of 1845, his Excellency thought himself 



ADMINISTRATION. 71 

justified, irom the satisfactory state of the revenue, 
to confer the immense boon on the colony, of abo- 
lishing the whole of the port charges on ships of all 
nations without exception ; all the ports of South 
Australia are now declared free ports in the most 
extensive sense of the word ; vessels may put in any 
where, without having to incur a single farthing of 
expense, (for even the pilots are furnished to the 
vessels gratis.) To the Members of Council who so 
cordially seconded his Excellency in passing this 
wise measure, the thanks of every friend of the 
colony are in a like manner due.* 

So great a benefit was not received by the colo- 
nists without a corresponding degree of gratefiil 
acknowledgment. Under the chairmanship of the 
sheriff of the colony, a public meeting was held in 
the Supreme Court House at Adelaide, which was 

• An Adelaide paper says on this subject :— 

'< GoTernor Grey stands in the proud position of being the 
fint in the Australian colonies to follow the enlightened policy 
originally adopted by Sir Stamford Raffles at Singapore, and 
which has there proved to be so triumphantly successful. With 
one voice the colonists here will bless him for what he has done, 
and bis name will go down to posterity as a benefkctor of the 
country. To us it gives peculiar pleasure, because we have for 
ihe last three years unremittingly spoken and written in favour 
of some such measure. At the same time, we candidly admit, 
that we'are completely taken by surprise ; as we had not imagined 
that the difficulties in the way could have been so suddenly and 
so triumphantly overcome." 



72 CAPTAIN grey's 

attended by every person of respectability and in- 
telligence, — atid not the least pleasing and gratify- 
ing part of the day's proceedings was, that the 
greatest unanimity prevailed in passing the different 
resolutions ; the meeting having been attended even 
by those who had had personal differences with the 
Governor on matters of private business. The fol- 
lowing address, carried by acclamation, was pre- 
sented to the Governor by a deputation from the 
meeting : — 

" To his Excellency George Grey, Esquire, Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of her Majesty's province of Smooth Aus- 
tralia, and Yice-Admiral of the same. 
•* May it please your Excellency — 

" We, the undersigned, citizens and provincial setdera of the 
ahove-mentioned British colony, approach your Excellency for the 
purpose of expressing our deep sense of the benefits conferred 
upon the colony by your able, zealous^ and diligent administra- 
tion of the public affairs, and more especiaUy in spontaneously con- 
ceding the abolition of all harbour rates and port dues and 
charges, on the 3rd of July instant, whereby the ports of the 
province have not only become freely open to British commerce, 
but to the ships of all other friendly nations. 

" Seeing the eminent success which has attended similar colo- 
nial administrative measures in other parts of the globe, parti- 
cularly in the British^colonies of Singapore and the Cape of Good 
Hope, we fully anticipate for your Excellency's recent act the 
entire approval and gracious confirmation of our beloved Sove- 
reign, whilst we are finnly persuaded that, as respects the influ- 
ence of your Excellency's highly popular measure of fiscal en- 
franchisement upon the colonial finances, the results will be fully 
confirmatory of the soundness of your policy. 



ADMINISTRATION. 73 

" Blessed with a plentiful soil, a genial dimate» incalcalable 
natural abilities, with moral elements and powers, and peculiar 
constitutional exemptions, for which the colonists cannot be suf- 
ficiently thankful, the province of South Australia is at length 
folfiOing the fond predictions of its founders and finends, and 
-will indeed become * one of the brightest gems in the imperial 
diadem of Britain' — an object worthy of a pure and exalted 
ambition. 

** Whilst we thus think and contemplate your BxceUency's high 
position in the honourable appointment to which you have been 
elected by our gracious Sovereign, we would not forget the cares, 
anxieties, and responsibilities which are inseparable from a con. 
adentious discharge of the functions of a Governor, or the duties 
cyf cheerful obedience and zealous co-operation, which (as far 
as in us lies,) we are bound to manifest towards you as the worthy 
ddegate of sovereign power. 

" We respectfully offer to your Excellency our grateful acknow- 
ledgments and hearty congratulations upon the new era which 
has commenced in your Excellency's administrative progress, 
and to assure you of our sincere desire to promote your honour- 
able exertions, to strengthen your Excellency's hands, and 
sealously to co-operate in all your virtuous efforts to en- 
sure the enduring welfare of our newly adopted and beloved 
country." 

To which his Excellency was pleased to make 
the following reply : — 

** To the Deputation who presented, and the Gentlemen who 
signed the address. 

''Gentlemen, — I am much gratified at the proof which the 
address you have presented to me affords, that I have been for- 
tunate enough, in my administration of the afiigdrs of this 
Government, to succeed in carrying out to some extent her 
Majesty's views for the welfare and happiness of her Majesty's 
subjects in South Australia. 



74 CAPTAIN grey's 

'^The promotion of these objects has always be^i to me a 
source of the most anxious solicitude ; and I have been encour- 
aged to persevere in my efforts to attain them^ notwithstanding 
the many difficulties I have had to contend against, by the confi- 
denoe and approbation of her Majesty's advisers, by the warm 
and efficient support of my Legislative Council^ and by the cor- 
dial co-operation of the various officers of my Govemment, to 
whose ability and industry I am much indebted. 

** The state to which, with these advantages, I had succeeded 
in briuging the financial afOurs of this Government, made me feel 
justified in proposing to the Legislative Council the abolition of 
all rates, dues, and charges upon shipping resorting to the har- 
bours of this province, as well as of all wharfage rates heretofoie 
levied upon goods landed in the province of South Australia ; 
and I trust that the results of this measure, which I believe to 
be eminently calculated to foster and encourage colonial trade 
and enterprise! and which received the cordial and unanimous 
support of the Legislature, will prove as beneficial as you appear 
to anticipate. 

*' My sincere thanks are due to you for the assurance you have 
afforded me of your desire to co-operate with me in my efforts to 
ensure the permanent welfare of your newly adopted country, 
to promote the interests of which, and of yourselves and chil- 
dren, has been for some years past, and will continue to be, the 
constant object of my thoughts and exertions. 

" G. GREY. 
'' Oavernment'House, Adelaide, 

July 25<A, 1845." 

The revenue derived annually from the port charges 
amounted to about £2,000. ; the increase in the duties 
on certain articles to meet this deficiency is esti- 
nfiated at £1,270. ; there will still be a present loss of 
£700. or £800. per annum ; but, although the posi- 
tive benefit of the measure will probably not appear 



ADMINISTRATION. j^ 

for some twelve months or so, until the news is suf- 
ficiently circulated, the eventual result will doubt- 
less be, to cause an increase in the revenue instead of 
a loss. 

This measure derives the more importance, from 
our colony having lately produced such large quan- 
tities of copper and lead ores, for the transport to 
England of which, much additional tonnage will 
be required, which we have now a certainty of ob- 
taining, as vessels from the neighbouring colonies 
will find it answer their purpose to come to South 
Australia for their dead weight, prior to loading 
with wool. 

It may not be out of place to mention here, that 
on the day on which his Excellency introduced the 
bill for abolishing the port dues, one of the mem- 
bers, the Honourable Jacob Hagen, stated, that a 
ship was in sight coming up the Gulf, and it 
was resolved, in order that this ship might be the 
first to benefit by the Act, that the Council, after 
having had the bill read a first and second time in 
the morning's sitting, should meet again in the 
evening, which was accordingly done, when the bill 
was read a third time and passed. This ship turned 
out to be the " Cheerful," from Manilla, with tea, 
sugar, &c. 

At the very time that Governor Grey had thus, 
by this admirable and enlightened measure, gained 
the cordial and unanimous confirmation of the good 



76 CAPTAIN grey's 

opinion already so generally felt for him in the 
colony, the Home Government had determined 
upon conferring upon him the honourable, though 
arduous task of the administration of the colony of 
New Zealand. The disasters which have befallen 
that unfortunate country are fresh in the recollec- 
tion of every one ; nor is it incumbent upon me to 
allude to them at all, excepting as it regards the 
severe loss it entails upon South Australia, by de- 
priving us of our able Governor. The press has 
teemed with publications on the New Zealand 
affairs, which all go to prove, that the task imposed 
by her Majesty's Government on Captain Grey is 
as difficult a one, as has ever occurred in colonial 
history. In the course of the debates in Parliament 
in June last year, the Ministers of the Crown an- 
nounced their intention of imposing the Govern- 
ment of New Zealand on Captain Grey, and it will 
be no little gratification to him, to read in the dif- 
ferent speeches that occurred, the high opinion en- 
tertained of his abilities by those from whom praise 
is indeed worth having. One or two honourable 
members questioned the propriety of conferring so 
responsible a post, on a gentleman still so young in 
years and of inferior rank. Some even suggested 
that the military rank and fame of Sir Henry Pot- 
tinger should be employed in this important mis- 
sion ; but as they, perhaps, were not so well ac- 
quainted with Governor Grey*s qualifications as 



ADMINISTRATION. 77 

the ministry are, their difference of opinion is ex- 
cusable. 

I take pride in reflecting, that in that same month, 
June 1845, at the great annual meeting of the 
friends of South Australia in Freemasons' Hall, I 
as a colonist, expressed my firm opinion, founded on 
my knowledge of the man, that the British Govern- 
ment '^ could not have selected any one more 
*' adapted to the urg^it necessities of New Zealand 
" than Governor Grey." His Excellency will not 
land in New Zealand as a person to whom that 
line of policy, peculiar to the intercourse of Euro- 
peans with savage tribes, is unknown. I am firmly 
convinced that Captain Grey has intimately studied, 
and made himself master of the whole of the New 
Zealand affairs ; but his is indeed an undertaking 
of no ordinary magnitude and difficulty ; it involves 
not alone the adjustment of a financial, but a 
political state of total disorganization. The former 
will require all his talent as a financier, (which he has 
proved himself to possess in an uncommon degree,) 
to restore to a sound basis ; the latter will doubtless 
call forth the exercise of other talents, which only 
require opportunity to shine forth. If he is young 
in years, he is old in wisdom, and the absence 
of high rank does not necessarily carry with it 
inaptness for the filling of high offices; for the 
talent of a Pitt, or Peel, required no high-sounding 
titles to place them at the head of British statesmen. 
In the prime of life, accustomed, from his travels in 



78 CAPTAIN grey's APMINIftTRATION. 

Australia to bear with fatigues and harassing hard- 
ships, possessed of a spirit of unshaken firmness and 
determination, intimately conversant with the cha- 
racter of the natives of the southern hemisphere, 
and a thorough financier, Captain Grey — if he goes 
to New Zealand unshackled by any partial instruc- 
tions from Home authorities, as to the line of policy 
circumstances may make it incumbent upon him to 
pursue in that colony — will retrieve the errors of his 
predecessors, if it is possible for any man to restore 
order in such a chaos of conflicting interests. From 
South Australia he will take with him the universal 
good opinion and esteem of the colonists, and the 
regret at losing our excellent Governor, will be 
lessened by the earnest hope which every good 
colonist will entertain, that success may attend his 
exertions there, as it did in South Australia, and 
that, whilst he will thereby be restoring the bless- 
ings of peace and prosperity to that important and 
ill-used colony, he will be adding laurels to his own 
reputation. 

Captain Grey is succeeded in the Government 
of South Australia by Major Holt Robe, 87th 
Regiment, late Military Secretary at Gibraltar, 
who proceeded overland via India, in July last, 
and would probably arrive in Adelaide in October, 
when Captain Grey will immediately depart for 
New Zealand. 



SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

GENERAL FEATTTRES OF THE COLONY — AMOUNT OF A6RT« 
CULTURAL, PASTORAL, AND BARREN LAND — WATER— PORT 
LINCOLN — RIVOLf BAY. 

The fact of there beiug a vast Island called 
Australia or New Holland, a great many thousand 
miles distant, that it is colonized by English, and 
that large quantities of wool are sent home from 
there, is pretty generally known ; but that is all. 
Notwithstanding that there exist a host of publica- 
tions on the subject, most people in England, 
however well informed on other matters, appear 
to be quite in the dark as to the locality of the 
several colonies, each a kingdom in size. It is a 
common occurrence to hear people confounding 
one for the other, and mixing up New South Wales, 
Van Diemen's Land, Swan River, Port Phillip, and 
South Australia, in glorious confusion ; I have 
frequently been asked by people in England, 
(hearing that I came from South Australia,) after 



80 GBNERAL FEATURES 

friends of theirs, who had probably gone to another 
colony 1500 nrlles from my own locality. I was 
even credibly informed that one of our legislators 
of exalted rank, looked for South Australia, when 
the affairs of that colony were on the " tapis," some- 
where up in Torres Straits ! How to account for 
this lack of information, I leave to wiser heads than 
my own. To those of my readers who would wish 
to become better acquainted with the colony of 
which this volume is descriptive, I would in the 
first place recommend a glance at the accompanying 
map, which will at once point out to them the 
geographical position. 

The province, or colony of South Australia, is 
situated on the south coast of the great continental 
Island of New Holland ;^ the Act 4 and 5 Will. IV. 

* Mr. Braim, in his Hiatory of New South Wales, diTides the 
continent of Anstralia into two halves, the western one he calls 
New Holland, the eastern New South Wales; page 6 of vol 1. he 
says : ** South Australia comprises a part of the territory of New 
South Wales, hut is a separate colony." This an extraordinary 
assertion, coming, as it does, from the head-master of Sydney 
College ; and I am quite at a loss whence Mr. Braim has derived 
his authority, for this very novelgeogrsphicalpartitionof Australia, 
South Australia never did form n part of the territory of New South 
Wales, nor has such an assertion to my knowledge ever been put 
forthy till Mr. Braim does so, with all the authority of the well 
known doctor, when he said : ''nous avons tout change cela!*' 
South Austraha is not ambitious of such a parentage. I also 
take the liberty of correcting another mistake of Mr. Braim's ; 
Captain Sturt, namely, is not, and never was, the Resident 
Commissioner of the South Australian Company. 



OF THE COLONY. 81 

fixes its limits between the 26th degree of south 
latitude and the sea coast, and the 132nd and Hist 
degrees of east longitude. The area extends over 
300,000 square miles, or close upon 200,000,000 
acres of land, which is twice the size of Great Britain 
and Ireland. 

Two immense inland seas or gulfs indent the 
coast here; Spencer's Gulf on the west, and St. 
Vincent's Gulf on the east ; the two being separated 
by a long and narrow neck of land, called Yorke's 
Peninsula. Immediately in front, and lying across 
the entrance of St. Vincent's Gulf, is Kangaroo 
Island, a large, and generally speaking, barren 
island, serving as an admirable barrier to break 
the force of the Southern Ocean, and containing 
several safe and commodious harbours, into which 
vessels can at all times run for shelter, if necessary. 

The passage into the Gulf through Investigator's 
Strait on the west, and Backstairs Passage on the 
east side, are both wide and safe ; these, with the 
navigation of the Gult itself, are perfectly free from 
hidden dangers ; others, the mariner with ordinary 
precaution may easily guard against, and any vessel 
may, with the aid of the lead line, sail up the Gulf 
with perfect confidence even at night, till she 
reaches the light ship, where a pilot boards her, and 
takes her safely into the port. 

When the first colonists arrived in St. Vincent's 
Gulf in 1836, the existence of a safe harbour was 
quite unknown ; owing to the shores being 

G 



82 OF THE GENERAL FEATURES 

low, and overgrown with the mangrove, and a small 
island partially hiding the entrance to it, this 
harbour remained for many days undiscovered; 
Colonel Light and others belonging to his party, 
having long searched for it in vain. The very day 
it was discovered, the first vessel that had ever dis- 
turbed the stillness of its waters, sailed into it ; since 
then hundreds of vessels, many of great size and 
draught, have proved its safety and commodiousness. 
At Cape Jervis, the southern point of the colony, 
a range of hilk abruptly rises from the shore, conti- 
nuing northwards close to the east shore of the Gulf, 
for about forty miles ; it there recedes from it to the 
distance of from fifteen to thirty miles, up to the 
thirty-fourth degree of south latitude; here one 
branch strikes off to the west of north until it loses 
itself in the sandy shores of Lake Torrens ; die main 
line of range continues due north, rather inclined to 
the east ; from the furthest point to which Mr. Burr 
followed up the range, it appeared to continue with 
undiminished, if not increased height, as far as he 
could see ; and Cape York, on the north coast of New 
Holland, being in the line of direction, and a similar 
projection to what Cape Jervis is on the south, Mr. 
Burr is of opinion that this range runs through the 
whole continent, as it is contrary to the rules gene- 
rally followed by nature, that the main range of a 
country should be suddenly chopped off in the 
interior. Captain Sturt's exploration, now going 
on, will shortly throw more light on this subject. 



OF THB COLONY. 83 

There are not many high peaks in any of these 
ranges ; Mount, Lofty 2334 feet. Mount Bai^^ 
2331 feet in the south ; and to the north there 
is Mount Horroeks, 1984; the Razorback, 2922; 
Mount Bryant, 3012; BUck Rock Hill, 2750 
feet; Mount Arden, Mount Brown, and Mount 
Victor. 




Mount Victor. 

The general feature of these ranges, are moderately 
high and steep hills, mostly covered with different 
kinds of timber, and in parts thickly wooded, in 
others more bare ; they are throughout, excepting 
the tops of the ridges, which are always rocky, 
(the soil having been gradually washed away by 
the rains,) covered with verdant sward, affording 
abundant and very nutritious pasturage to our herds 
and ^ocks. The geological formation of the ranges, 
and the qualities of the soil, will be particularized in 
following chapters. 

South Australia abounds in beautiful park -like 
scenery ; the groups of trees planted by the hand of 

a 2 



84 TREBS. 

nature assume in hundreds of places, and for many 
acres in extent, a degree of elegant landscape ar- 
rangement, not to be exceeded by art ; it is true, 
our trees are not to be compared to the king of the 
forest, or the many species of noble trees grown in 
England ; but, excepting in the densely wooded 
forests, where their growth has been impeded by 
poor soil, the gum-tree (Eucalyptus) often rears his 
head proudly to the skies, and stretches forth gigan- 
tic arms from a powerful trunk ; the she-oak tree, 
(easuarina) with its drooping branches and thread- 
like leaves, is not without elegance, and the beauty 
of the many tribes of acacias and other flowering 
shrubs, with which the country teems, has never been 
denied. The Mount Lofty range of hills, imme- 
diately behind Adelaide, is covered with the stringy 
bark-tree, a most useful description of wood, which 
forests furnish us with an unlimited supply of wood 
for building, and the other thousand-and-one pur- 
poses of the settlen 

These, with the common pine, form the principal 
components of our forests. Whilst we have abundance 
of wood for our diflferent uses, a peculiar and highly 
favourable feature in our province is the immense 
quantity of land, of excellent soil, ready for theplough, 
without the ruinous expense of previous clearance 
80 common in the neighbouring colonies, and espe- 
cially in New Zealand, where the land frequently 
costs £50 and £60 per acre to remove the immense 
trees, and then even not extirpating the mischievous 



SUPPLY OP WATER. 85 

fem-root, from which we are quite free in South 
Australia. 

As far as the colony has been surveyed and ex- 
plored by parties competent to form an opinion, the 
whole of the land may be divided into three divisions ; 
one-third *good open agricultural and pastural land, 
one-third wooded ranges, available for pasturage, 
and the remainder scrub and rocks ; but the expe- 
rience of the last few years has shewn us that this 
scrub bids &ir to turn out the most valuable of 
any other part of the colony, all the rich mines 
having been discovered in precisely that sort of 
ground, described as rocky and scrubby. 

Water we have suflBcient for all our uses, as well 
as for the immense herds and flocks that already 
cover the country ; it is true we have not any navi. 
gable rivers except the Murray, the entrance to 
which is obstructed by a dangerous bar ; but the 
absence of navigable rivers, does not in the least 
affect the prospects of South Australia becoming 
eventually a great and densely populated country, 
as we have a good substitute in the favourable and 
accessible nature of the country, the ground afford- 
ing good natural roads without any previous labour 
or expense having been bestowed upon it ; indeed, if 
you don't mind a little jolting, you may in your gig, 
drive from north to south through the province, 
without meeting with any unsurmountable natural 
obstructions of hills or creeks. 

For about five months in the year all our creeks, 



86 WATBR HOLES* 

" rivers," par excellence^ are running with delicions 
water ; after the rainy season is over, the natural 
ponds, formed in the beds of the rivers and creeks, 
afford a never-failing and abundant supply; and 
with few exceptions, you may always rely on getting 
water by sinking wells, at from 20 to 100 feet, in 
many places under 20 feet. In some parts of the 
colony the water has, to the new comer, a rather dis- 
agreeable and slightly brackish taste, owing to the 
aluminous nature of the subsoil ; it is, however, 
a well established &ct, that there is nothing un- 
wholesome in this ; indeed, I have myself become so 
accustomed to the taste of it, that after a lengthened 
stay in the country, upon returning to Adelaide, I al- 
most preferred the slightly brackish water I had been 
drinking in the country, to the fresh spring water 
out of the Torrens. Cattle and sheep thrive 
amazingly on this water, and are very fond of it. 

These water holes or ponds, so common through- 
out Australia, are of very curious formation, and 
much speculation has been hazarded as to their 
origin ; the simple fiaict of many of them being 
in the actual bed of creeks and rivers does not satis- 
factorily account for their great depth; as many 
of them never diminish very much, even during 
the height of summer, one would be led to suppose 
that they must be supplied from below by powerful 
springs, and those, who are in the habit of bathing 
in them, are aware, what a great difference there 
exists in the temperature of the water in different 



AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS. 87 

parts of the same pond. The sides of these ponds 
are generally also very steep, and often undermined 
by the water; horses and cattle are continually 
falling in, by the banks giving way, and we have 
ourselves lost many valuable horses in this manner, 
at our stations on the Light. 

The districts to the south of Adelaide, comprising 
valuable agricultural, and well watered land of the 
richest description, may be enumerated as follows. 

The valley of Encounter Bay in the fer south : 
— here, as well as on different headlands round 
by Cape Jervis, several whale fisheries are also 
established ; they fish for four months during the 
winter season, and procure on an average about 150 
tons of black oil and whalebone, put down in the 
Customs returns last year, at a value of £4500, but I 
believe this season the produce has been far greater. — 
Contiguous to Encounter Bay, on the east, are 
extensive sheep and cattle runs, along the shores 
of Lake Victoria and up the west bank of the river 
Murray for 100 miles; many parts of the shores of 
this lake are composed of rich land, and strips of 
alluvial soil are of frequent occurrence along the 
banks of the river, but little progress has been made 
in settling here, owing to the interjacent barren 
scrub, which separates the river from the settled 
portion of the colony. 

Close to Cape Jervis, are the rich valleys of 
Rapid and Aldinga Bays and Yankalilla, abounding 
in rich land and beautiful scenery. At Rapid Bay 



88 LYNBDOCH VALLEY. 

extensive lodes of copper and lead have also been 
discovered. Next comes, further north, the township 
of Willunga, picturesquely situated on a gentle 
slope looking towards the Gulf — and beyond that 
you reach the river Oncaparinga, with the township 
of Noarlunga, containing a large steam flour mill, 
and a bridge of 100 feet span; the river is naviga- 
ble for small craft close to the township ; several 
veins of copper have been discovered in this neigh- 
bourhood. Crossing O'Halloran's Hill, you descend 
upon the Adelaide Plains, which, keeping the range 
of hills on the eastward, extend northward in un- 
broken level for near 40 miles, large portions of 
which are already fenced in and broken up. 

To the north-east of Adelaide the rich valleys of 
the Torrens, North and South Para, rivers, bring you 
to the districts of Lynedoch valley and the Barossa 
ranges, which, with the luxuriant Angas Park, the 
property, I might say the principality, of George 
Fife Angas, Esq., one of the earliest and most con- 
stant friends of the colony, are unsurpassed by any 
land in the colony. I here give an extract from a 
letter written to Mr. Angas by a gentleman, who 
describes his first impressions on seeing this part of 
the country, soon after his arrival : 

<' We were natnmlly very anxious to get to the BarosBa, and to 
see the snireys we had heard so much about, and we had not 
landed many hoars, before we were on onr way to them ; we 
passed oyer the Adelaide, Para, and Gawler plains, on oar way 
thither ; they are of immense extent, in some places a plough 



AHGAd PARK. 89 

mig^t be driven twelve or fourteen miles without a tingle ob* 
Btruction, and the quality of the land equal to the best we saw 
at the Swan. We passed large tracts of com looking exceed- 
ingly well ; in some cases we passed blocks of com covering an 
area of 5 or 600 acres, and looking as fine as any I had ever 
seen in England. We reached Gawler Town, a distance of 
twenty-five miles from Adelaide, just after dark, and the next 
morning continued our journey. The country became increas- 
ingly beautiful every mile we rode, and we soon caaght a glimpse 
in the distance of the Barossa Range. The first surveyed land 
was that in the neighbourhood of Bethany ; we felt strangely 
excited as we neared it, and when it was pointed out to us we 
gave utterance to our feelings. We then rode on in silence till 
the village of Bethany opened to us, the Germans flocked out to 
see and welcome us, we could not stay with them long, and 
pressed on ; every mile was more and more beautiful, and the 
loveliness and richness of both soil and scenery increased till 
we reached the termination of our journey, Salem Valley, or, as 
it is called by the natives, Farwerta. Our highest expectations 
had been not only abundantly realized, but they fell far short of 
the reality. Here we are, in the midst of an immense district, 
almost fresh from its Maker s hands ; man had scarcely interfered 
with it ; and yet in beauty, and fertility, and grandeur, it exceeds 
anything I have ever seen even in our own lovely isle. I have 
thought on every spot in England that I am acquainted with, in 
order to assist me in describing the property here to you — that 
at Chatsworth comes nearest to it, it is the most extensive and 
beautiful of any domain I have seen in England.'' 

A rich lode of copper has been discovered on 
Mr. Angas's land^ which is now being actively ex- 
plored. 

Issuing from the wood of Angas Park and Flax- 
man's Valley, one road strikes off to the eastward 
to the Murray ; the road to the north-west leads 



90 THB LIGHT BIVER. 

you past Captain Bagot's country residence, Koo- 
nunga, to the Light River ; undulating hills, with 
here and there patches of open forest, diversify the. 
scene ; in addition to the thousands of acres of rich 
virgin soil, tempting the plough, the Light has now 
become celebrated for the rich copper mines situated 
on it. Indeed, looking to the comparatively insig- 
nificant extent of ground already yielding such 
large quantities of grain for export, as compared 
with the extent of the best land in every direction 
not yet touched, it would be difficult, with the ut- 
most stretch of the imagination, to place any limit 
to the extent of food, whether for home consump- 
tion or export, which might be produced in South 
Australia. 

Numerous branch valleys strike off from the 
main valley of the Light on each side, to the fer- 
tility of which I can myself speak, having livedthe 
greatest part of the time at Anlaby under Mount 
Waterloo. 

On the Light River, and from thence northwards, 
the cultivation of the soil is not carried on, except- 
ing by those settlers, who grow com for their 
own consumption ; here also the " bush" may be 
said to commence, as all the country to the 
north, taking in the Wakefield, Hill, Broughton, 
and Hutt Rivers, Crystal Brook, &c. as for north 
as Mount Arden, is occupied by sheep and cattle 
farmers ; in all which districts there is no lack of 
the best soil: indeed it would appear invidious to 



PORT LINCOLN. 91 

particalarize any one district more than another, 
as they all more or less possess like advantages. 
Id most of the above districts, land already sur- 
veyed, is open for selection to the newly arrived 
emigrant. 

The following is the division of the province into 
counties, beginning in the north: Stanley, Light, 
Eyre, Gawler, Adelaide, Sturt, Hindmarsh, and 
Russell. 

On the west coast of Spencer's Gulf, is the settle- 
ment of Port Lincoln ; but, owing to many for- 
tuitous circumstances, and the limited extent of good 
back country, it has dragged on a precarious exist- 
ence, whilst the other parts of the colony have been 
prospering. It possesses a magnificent harbour, 
perhaps one of the finest in the world, and I believe 
there is also no lack of good rich country imme- 
diately round the township ; probably by and bye, it 
will again come into favour; just now it can hardly 
be said to be in existence, the Government establish- 
ment having been once or twice on the point of 
being withdrawn. The blacks being Very hostile 
here, it would require a greater police force than the 
Government have at present at their disposal, to pro- 
tect the settlers far from the coast ; those who first 
settled there having been fidrly driven out of it. 

Mr Eyre, who has traversed the country here in 
all directions, knows it well ; he says of Jt : — 

" The great mass of the Port Lincoln Peninsula 
*' is barren, arid and worthless ; and although it 



92 PORT LINCOLN. 

'* possesses a beautiful secure and capacious harbour, 
" with a convenient and pretty site for a to¥m, and 
" immediately contiguous to" which there exists some 
" extent of fine fertile soil, with several good grassy 
" patches of country beyond, yet it can never be- 
^^ come a large and important place in consequence 
" of its complete isolation, except by water, from 
" every other, and the limited nature of its own 
" resources. * * * * Purchased 

'* in the days of wild and foolish speculation, and 
^^ when a rage existed for buying land and laying 
*' out townships, no place bas been more misrepre- 
" sented and misunderstood than Port Lincoln. * * 
" * * * The day of hallucination has 

^* now passed away, but out of the reaction which 
^^ has succeeded it, has arisen a disposition to deprive 
" Port Lincoln of even the merits to which it really 
^^ has a legitimate claim, and which would have been 
" far more highly appreciated, if the previous 
" misstatements and consequent disappointments had 
^^ not induced a feeling of suspicion and distrust not 
" easily effaced." 

And this was the place where the capital of the 
Province, in the opinion of an interested few, ought 
to have been fixed by Colonel Light ; and for difier- 
ing in opinion from which, he met with such bitter 
hostility. Mr. Eyre says rightly, that Port Lincoln 
has sufiered from none more, than the misstate- 
ments of those who ascribe to it advantages that it 
does not possess. Nevertheless, hereafter more 



PORT LINCOLN. 93 

prosperous days may dawn upon that district, as 
there is, withal, sufficient agricultural land of the 
richest quality to grow food for a large population ; 
which population will not be long finding its way 
there if the reported, but not yet verified, mineral 
discoveries, are substantiated. Specimens of grey 
sulphuret of copper have been exhibited, as found 
within half a mile of the township. 

To the westward of Port Lincoln, an inhospitable 
barren country extends to King George's Sound ; 
the whole of which was, as already stated, traversed 
by my friend Mr. Eyre. 

To the northward and westward of Port Lincoln, 
there is a moderate extent of good grassy land, dis- 
covered by Mr. Darke, who unfortunately lost his 
life by the natives whilst engaged in exploring it. 

It is a very common thing amongst the settlers, — 
not alone in South Australia, but also in other 
Australian colonies, — to make strangers believe that 
there is not an inch of room unoccupied anywhere ; 
somehow or other, ho%ever, more and more country 
is, notwithstanding, continually being made available, 
as the settlers require an extension of room for the 
increase of their flocks and herds ; in this way the 
country north of Messrs. Hawker's station, which 
was the out-station when I first went to South Aus- 
tralia, was successively occupied by Messrs. J. B. 
Hughes and brothers, by the Messrs. White, Jacob, 
and others ; and latterly a most extensive and splen- 
did district has been thrown open, in the south- 



94 RIVOLI BAY. 

eastern' part of the colony, the naghbourhood of 
RiyoU 6ay« three hundred miles from Adelaide, 
to which many thousand sheep have already been 
removed, and more are constantly following. 

Rivcdi Bay lies in the almost direct line of com-' 
munication with Port PhiUip, via Portland Bay, 
Governor Grey, ever watchful of anything which 
may prove conducive to the prosperity of the colony, 
has lately expressed his determination to fwm a 
township th^e, and also to establish a fortnightly 
mail to Portland Bay, by the police; which, in 
addition to the importance of a postal communica- 
tion with the flourishing Port Phillip Settlement, 
will have the effect, by the constant passing and 
repassing of the police, to make the overland route 
perfectly safe for thie many emigrants who arrive 
now on that line of road from the neighbouring 
colonies. 

In the early part of 1844, the Governor proceeded 
in person to this district to explore it, and ascertain 
its capabilities; the following despatch, giving a 
condensed account of the results, will be read with 
interest. 

Governor OreyU Letter to Lord Stanley. 

Adelaide, June 22, 1844. 

My Lord, — Ihave the honour to report, that towards the end of 
the month of April last, I left Adelaide for the purpose of explor* 
ing the south-eastern portions of this province, which ahut upon 
the territory of New South Wales. 

This part of South Australia has been hitherto almost unknown. 



RITOLI BAY. 95 

hanng been only trarersed in one direction by orerland parties ; 
aad as the line of route which they had always punned, paaaed 
through a country for the moat part of a Tery unpromising cha- 
racter, it waa Tery generally imagined that the aouth-eaatem por^ 
tioua of the province offered little inducement to settlers, and 
that there was little probability of any continuous line of settle- 
ments being established between South Australia and New South 
Wales. 

I hoped, howeyer, that a minute examination of this country, 
and more especially of those portions of it whidi were yet un- 
known, might shew tiiat these impressions were without founder 
tion ; and in order that the exploration irtiich I waa about to 
undertake might be rendered as efibctiye as possible, I took with 
me Mr. Bonney (the Commissioner of PubHc Laada,) a gentle- 
man of much enterprise and abiHty, andwho was the original di»- 
coherer of the orerland route from Port Phillip to South Auatralia; 
and also the Dqf^uty Surveyor^neral, Mr. Buir, with whose 
knowledge of the bush, and talent ftnr surreying and exploring, 
I waa well acquainted. I am happy to be aiUe to assure your 
Lordship that the results of our journey were of the most satis- 
fiietory nature ; and that we ascertained that by keeping near the 
sea coast, instead of pursuing the line of route prerioualy adopted, 
there ia an almost umnterrupted tract of good country between 
the rivers Murray and Glenelg. In some places this line of good 
country thins off to a narrow belt ; but in other portions of the 
route it widens out to a very considerable extent, and on ap- 
proaching the boundaries ci New South Wales it forms one of the 
moat extensiTe and continuous tracts of good country which is 
known to exist within the Himts of South Australia. 

One peculiarity of the good country near the south-eastern 
boundary is, that it is of recent volcanic origin, and that there is 
every reason to suppose that some of the numerous craters with 
which it abounds must very recently have been in a state of 
action. The accompanying map of the newly-explored country, 
executed by Deputy Surreyor-General Burr, contains plans and 
derations of two volcanic mountains, which convey a very good 



96 RIVOLI BAY. 

ideA of the character of these hills ; and the enclosed sketch hy 
Mr. 6. F. Angas, a yonng artist who accompanied me» repre- 
sents yery faithfully one of the most remarkable of another spe- 
cies of crater, which are very numerous in this country, and 
which are filled with fresh water, and are almost unfathomable. 
The water in the one represented in this drawing was 103 feet 
deep close to the edge of the crater. 



The south-eastern portion of the profince of South Australia 
has now been ascertained to be at least as fertile as any other 
known portions of that colony ; and the excellence and great ex- 
tent of the good land in that portion of the province, the whole of 
which belongs to the Crown, affords a guarantee that the fund 
arising from the sale of land, and consequently the means of de- 
fraying the expenses of emigration, will increase for a considerable 
number of years to come, with the increase of the population; and 
nearly the whole of this country being unoccupied, a large outlet 
yet exists for the rapidly-increasing flocks and herds of the 
oolonbts. These circumstances cannot fail to produce most 
advantageous results, both for the inhabitants of this colony, and 
for the commercial interests of the mother country. 

Another material point connected with the fertile tracts of land 
in the south-^eastern part of South Australia is that this good 
country ties in the immediate neighbourhood of the sea, and that 
this part of the coast contains three bays, one of which has been 
ascertained to afford good anchorage to small vessels, even in the 
winter season, and there is good reason to suppose that the other 
two bays, more especially Lacep^de Bay, will be found to possess 
the same advantage. 

The inhabitants of the country which has now been explored, 
will therefore be able with great facility to ship their produce to, 
and to receive their suppUes from, the adjacent ports, either in 
New South Wales or South Australia. 

As this country ties immediately between New South Wales 
and South Australia, and forms an almost continuous link of good 



OF THE COLONY. 97 

coautiy between the riven Moiray and Qlenelg, and ean, in its 
nataial state, be traversed in nearly all directions by drays and 
carts witbont the slightest difficulty, there can be but little doubt 
that in the coarse of the next few years an nnintermpted line of 
settlements will edst between Adelaide and Port Phillip : indeed, 
the squatteiB fVom New South Wales have already begun to 
occupy the most extreme south-eastern portion of this new ooun« 
try with sheep and cattle stations. 

During our journey wo had an opportunity of visiting BivoU 
Bay, which is one of the bays to which I have before alluded^ and 
which had previously been only seen £rom a distance. I formed 
our dep6t at this bay, and proceeded with a detached party to the 
8. E. ; and during my absence a survey of the greater portion of 
thebay was made by some men of the Boyal Sappers and Miners ; 
and the master of a whaling vessel, which was lying there at 
anchor, having lent his boats tor the purpose, soundings were ob- 
tained both across the entrance to the bay, and over that portion 
of it which affords the best anchorage. 

I thus have it in my power to endose a chart <rf a considerable 
portion of the bay ; and I have also forwarded an outline sketch 
of Bivoli Bay, which was made by Mr. G. F. Angas, 

I have the honour, &c. 

(Signed) G. GRfiY. 

P.S. — Since writing this despatdi I have received another very 
interesting sketch, which I have forwarded for your Lordship's 
information. It gives an outline of Mount Schanok, whidi is the 
mere devated shell of an extinct cmiter f and it shows, in the fore- 
ground, snother of the extinct oraters full of finesh water, which 
are found in the coral formations. 

(Signed) G. GBBY. 

To make the information on this district as com- 
plete aa possible, I give the fpllowing additional 



98 THE GENERAL FEATURES 

particulars from the pen of an experienced colo- 
nist, in search of sheep runs : — 

'* I am quite persuaded that the finest land the Government 
has at its disposal is to be found in the immediate ndnitj of 
Mount Gambier ; the greater part of it^ however, is heavily 
timbered. For a few miles round the mountain, I consider the 
quality of the soil equal to any land in the province : on the 
upland districts, for many miles round, however, no water is to 
be found, eicept in the craters of the extinct volcanoes and in 
caves. We discovered three of these caves during the week I 
was there, in which we found beautiful water, and where we 
immediately planted three 'double sheep stations. 

** These caves are of most extraordinary formation : at the en- 
trance they appear like the burrow of the wombat, and can only 
be entered by creeping in upon the hands and knees. One of 
them looked like a small well :' but upon inspecting it more 
minutely we found ourselves on the crown of the arch of a large 
cave, of such dimensions that we could not see the sides of it : 
and on throwing down a stone it plunged into deep water. 
From these reservoirs we can, no doubt, obtain a supply equal 
to all our wants. Mount Gambier is, in fact, the greatest natural 
curiosity I ever beheld* 

'' In the lowlands of this district, and nearer to BivoH Bay, 
water is everywhere to be found in the tea-tree swamps (always 
regarded as an indication that water is near) which are very 
numerous and extensive. I consider there are some thouaands 
of acres of land on which the tea-tree is found. In the middle 
of one of these swamps we discovered a small stream of running 
water, which must be perpetual, as it was in the latter end of 
April when I saw it, and before any rains had fallen, after the 
summer drought. 

<« During the winter months, these lowlands will be unfit for 
pasturage; but in the neighbourhood there are some good 
feeding hills adjoining Lake Bonney, which, with the high lands 
near Mount Gambier, will provide a healthy retreat for large 



OF THE COLONY. 



99 



flocks during the wet seaaon i there is, besides, an ample supply 
of excellent water for the purpose of sheep shearing. 

'* Mr. Henty's run at Mount Gambier will, I expect, soon be 
sold, as the place cannot but draw the attention of parties 
wishing to purchase land in this province." 

The harbour of Rivoli Bay has been surveyed, 
and soundings taken which prove it to be quite as, 
if not more safe than Portland Bay ; vessels of a 
draught not exceeding ten feet, can ride out any 
gales there with safety. 




BUck Rock Hill. 



H 2 



I 



CHAPTER II. 



CLIMATE — SEASONS — ABSENCE OF DISEASES, — TABLES OF 
TEMPERATURE, RAIN-GUAGE, AND PREVALENCE OF WINDS 
— SUDDEN CHANGES IN THE TEMPERATURE — CLOUDS OP 
DUST — BRILLIANCY OF AUSTRALIAN SKY— SHARP BRACING 
AIR OF WINTER. 

The climate of South Australia is exceedingly- 
good ; all the Australian colonies possess this im- 
mense advantage, and where all are good, it would 
be unfair to claim exclusive preference for ours. Still, 
in one respect, South Australia possesses from its 
geographical situation, an advantage, and one of 
great magnitude. Situated on the south coast of New 
Holland, we have the benefit of the whole in- 
draught of the south-west winds which prevail, as 
shewn by the tables further on, for one third part 
of the year ; these winds are always cool and very | 

generally accompanied by rain. An experience of 
ten years has proved, that this part of the continent 
is not subjected to those periodical droughts, which 
make agricultural and pastoral pursuits in a great 
measure attended with risk in New South Wales ; 
we have no periods in which the com is not brought 
to maturity ; neither are we on the other hand sub- 
jected to the incessant wet and rain of New Zea- 
land, where, to use the words of a man now in my 



CLIMATE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 101 

employ in South Australia, who lived there for 
some years, " it rained for six days in the week, and 
was bad weather the seventh." 

The medical profession is, generally speaking, an 
unprofitable one; there are no endemic diseases, 
fevers or agues; the dry, warm and elastic 
atmosphere is, besides, peculiarly favourable to 
asthmatic and pulmonary complaints ; I have myself 
known cases where the early stages of these dis- 
eases have been removed, and in many others great 
and permanent relief aflforded, where the disease 
was too deeply rooted for a radical cure; people, 
who, before they left England, were for years in a 
debilitated state of health, some, that were actually 
given over as hopeless cases, have on arriving in 
South Australia taken out an entirely " new lease,'* 
and are now as hearty, hale, and strong, as they 
could wish, able to undergo fatigues of all sorts, 
and exposure to heat, cold, and "bushing it" under 
a gum tree, with a saddle for a pillow, without the 
least inconvenience. 

The following testimony to the salubrity of our 
climate is from our colonial surgeon, and is the 
result of seven years experience : 

** I have mach pleasure in being able to state, as tbe result of 
nearly seven years' experience, that there is not a more healthy 
cUmate in the world than that of South Australia. We are with- 
out any endemic diseases. We have no marsh miasma, conse- 
quently escape those dreadful remittent and intermittent fevers 
so prevalent in India and China. Our being free from all palu- 



102 THE CLIMATE 

dial disease does not render us the more liable to suffer from 
phthisis, as there are bat few cases to be met with in the pro- 
vince. 

" Dysentery has also become a rare disease, although preva- 
lent in the early days of the colony. Most of the cases which 
occurred were of a scorbutic character, and were to be attributed 
to other causes than that of drinking the water of the Torrens, 
as was at one time erroneously supposed. The sudden changes 
of temperature during the very cold spring we have had, have 
rather produced slight affections of the air passages, than any 
disease of the alimentary canal. 

'* I consider the water of the Torrens good, and the water of 
most of our wells remarkably so. Our air is pure, our atmosphere 
clear. We have all the meats, fruits and vegetables to be ob- 
tained at home ; and if our days are warm, our nights, with 
very few exceptions, are cool and bracing ; and if Europeans 
would only make that slight difference in dress and diet the 
difference of latitude requires, there is not a country in the 
world where they would be more likely to enjoy good health, 
than in South Australia." 

In South Australia, you can go to church without 
being afraid of every word of the sermon being 
drowned, or overwhelmed, by a chorus of coughs, as 
it is in England during the winter, which the Rev. 
Mr. Mackenzie compares to " Rachel mourning for 
her children and refusing to be comforted." You 
need not fear the night air, or night dews, and no 
unwholesome exhalations rise from the ground. The 
average of the mortality for the last five years in 
the colony is less than one per cent., whilst the mor- 
tality of England and Wales is not less than 2.13 
per cent. Our seasons, rightly speaking, might be 



OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. . 103 

classed as follows, in comparison with the four sea- 
sons of Europe and America : — 

European seasons, Australian seasons. 

Aatomn and Winter. Spring. 

Spring and Snmmer. Sammer. 

Our climate is a continued succession of spring 
and summer, for although one part of the year is 
called winter, it is only so in name, because we have 
not yet discovered an appropriate word to substitute 
for it; suffice it to say, that our so-called winter 
is without frost* or snow, that it clothes the country 
with averdant and flowery sward and the trees with 
foliage, delighting at once both man and beast ; the 
rain which falls during this season germinates the 
seed, which the farmer has sown, into green and 
luxuriant growth ; winter is the season when the 
young lambs, calves, and foals, gain strength from 
the tender and nutritious grass which springs up in 
every description, whilst the wool of the sheep is 
matured in growth; it is in the depths of our 
winter, you are forcibly reminded of the inclement 
nature of those months which bear that name in 
the mother country, from which you have escaped ; 
and, when you unconsciously revert in thought to 
the thousands of your fellow creatures at home, who 
feel the cold, and have not wherewith to keep it off*, 
whose presence would be so welcome to us in the 
colony. 

* I did once see ice of the thickness of a halfpenny piece, at 
daylight, which vanished as soon as the sun peeped over the hills. 



104 



TH£ CLIMATE. 



From the middle of May to the beginning of 
October we may reckon on a sure and copious 
supply of rain ; the following tables give the aver- 
age quantity which usually falls, as well as the tem- 
perature in the different months of the year, and 
the prevailing winds. 



s 



" s 

s s 

i ; 



S 



» I 

2 ^ 









T — 

Hi 

JB 



i 



3 



i 



'*'*«OCOp-'*iOf-OCD»0 






QD^C0CDCftOQ&l>CCCft 






•-4 ^rt (M 1-4 F^ 1-4 O 



^^Odiogoo^oQDScpoo 



^^^oeoeo^»«o>Aao^ 






oieo-^e«aoc^o>QO«DCDO 



r* Od *Q 



QOkOC«Or«-NQOCDCDCO-«CO 



^s 



' o« ' »-J -^ eo «-i ol rji i-< oj I oo 



r«eocotoioooi«ooa»^io 



:$SSSSS^Ssssi 



'«« ■* 'doo 



aoi)BAja9qo pjj ® » o oo « 



noDVAiMqo 0)1 ? "* ^ * 8 



'SHXHOK 



•rf! 




4t 

i 



OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



105 



BESULTS OP METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS, 

TAKEN AT THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL'S OFFICE, GOVERNMENT OFFICES, 
VICTORIA SQUARE, ADELAIDE, 

imtlXO OHB TBAB, nUXM APRIL, 1844, TO MARCB, 1845, BOTH IMCLUSITB, AT THB B0VB8 OP 10 A.M., 
12 A.M., 2 P.M., AVD 4 P.M., OP BACB SAY, BUNOATS BXCBPTBD. 





Mean. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 




Mean. 


Higheit. 


Lowest. 1 


1844 




























April 


Ther. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Bar. 


October 


Ther. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Bar. 


Ther. 


Bar. 


o'clock 














o'clock 














10 


631 




81J 




531 




10 


664 


20.04 


864 


30.22 


65 


29.60 


12 


66J 




86 




58i 




12 


684 




02 




56 




2 


m 




85 




55J 




2 


684 




944 




56 




4 


64f, 




82 




54 




4 


60 


20.87 


964 


80.20 


684 


29. 


May 














Not. 














o'clock 














o'clock 














10 


00 




73 




46 




10 


70) 


20.88 


88 


30.20 


62 


20.66 


13 


68 




75 




40 




12 


73f 




92 




68 




« 


624 




76 




58 




2 


78| 




934 




60 




4 


60 




744 




50 




4 


71f 


20.86 


92 


30.20 


60 


20.61 


Jane 














Dec. 














o^dock 














o'clock 














10 


55 




65 




474 




10 


804 


20.876 


99 


30.220 


704 


28.880 


12 


58 




68 




40 




12 


82 




103 




674 




2 


58 




67 




40 




2 


834 




100 




68 




4 


661 




68 




404 




4 


82J 


20.805 


100 


30.160 


67 


20.460 


Jaly 














ran. 1845 




* 










9'clock 














o'clock 














10 


54i 




50 




48 




10 


834 


20.886 


1024 


30.086 


70 


20.620 


13 


54 




60 




48 




12 


85 




106 




70 




2 


554 




eoj 




m 




2 


85 




1064 




70 




4 


53i 




584 




40 




4 


844 


20.802 


1014 


80.000 


71 


20.460 


Aug. 














Feb. 














oelock 














o'clock 














10 


57 


20.88 


68 


80.20 


53 


20.51 


10 


781 


20.796 


04} 


80.120 


704 


26.615 


18 


581 




67 




58 




12 


70f 




07 




70 




3 


501 




68 




52 




2 


794 




94 




71 




4 


574 


29.70 


614 


80.20 


68 


20.38 


4 


70 


20.880 


974 


30.020 


704 


20.520 


Sept 














March 














D'dock 














o'clock 














10 


50 


20.80 


66 


30.28 


534 


20.12 


10 


77f 


20.087 


97 


80.176 


684 


20.080 


12 


601 




60 




544 




12 


801 




102 




604 




2 


61* 




724 




664 




2 


774 




1034 




684 




4 


60 


20.80 


72 


80.16 


634 


20. 


4 


70 


20.070! 100 130,166 


68 


29.730 



106 



THE CLIMATE 



TABLE 
Shewing the direction and force of the Winds daring one year. 



Month 


N 


8. 


E. 


W 


N. 
B. 


S. 
B. 


N. 
W 

1 


S.W. 


VUeClin. 


Strong 


Mode- 
rate. 


Light. 


Dec.4d 




2 




1 




1 


17 








12 


19 


Jan.44 




6 


8 


2 




5 




8 






4 


14 


13 


Feb. . . 




9 






3 


1 


1 


11 






1 


16 


13 


Mareh 


1 


1 




1 




1 


2 


19 






1 


11 


19 


April . 


1 


1 




6 






2 


10 




3 


4 


5 


18 


May.. 


5 


1 




3 






5 


6 




3 


1 


6 


22 


June. . 


4 




2 


3 






3 


7 




3 


6 


6 


16 


July . . 


3 




1 






1 





8 




6 


2 


1 


13 


Aug. . 


6 






2 


6 




5 


6 




2 


3 


15 


21 


Sept. . 


2 






4 




2 


2 


9 




2 


7 


5 


16 


Oct... 


d 


2 








1 


3 


10 


8 


3 


4 


7 


17 


No?. . 


24 


3 
24 


^ 


2 






4 


13 


3 


8 


8 


10 


16 


6 


2332 


12 


34 


123 


65 


23 


34 


106 


203 



On those days in the column marked Tariable, the winds gene- 
rally blew in land and sea breezes, coming away from N. E. in 
the morning, and Yeering to N., N. W., W. and S. as the 
day advanced. In the settled weather, indeed> the wind blows 
in this manner thronghout the whole snmmer ; and on many 
days morked in the column S. W. the wind was from the land 
during the nighty and until some time after sunrise. These ob- 
servations having been made daring the day-time alone, do not 
show the prevalence of the land and sea breezes. 

From October the weather gradually becomes 
warmer until February, which is reckoned the hot- 
test month ; with the beginning of March com- 
mences a season, which for mild and balmy 
sweetness cannot be surpassed, the heavy rains 
being looked for as above stated early in May. 

Our summer months, December, January and 
February are hot — there is no denying this ; now 



OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



107 



and then we have a few days, when you would al- 
most fancy yourself melting away ; but this never 
lasts long, it is the sure forerunner of a pleasant 
change, and we patiently endure an atmosphere of 
96*" to 98"" in the shade, knowing as we do, that a 
few hours will bring on a thunderstorm or south 
wind, which invariably rarifies and cools the air, 
and leaves behind it pleasant weather for a 
fortnight or so, when a few hours of the same heat 
causes the same change. There are generally three 
or four of these very hot periods of short duration, 
during each summer, and they are not unfrequently 
aggravated by the " hot winds," which always blow 
from the north, and are accompanied by clouds of 
dust. These are most unpleasant days certainly ; 
the wind is very strong, and the dust, previously re- 
duced by the sun's rays to the finest possible state of 
pulverization, penetrates everything, and no doors or 
windows keep it out. It has been supposed by some 
that these north winds, being always so very hot, are 
caused by the existence in the far interior of an im- 
mense sandy desert ; the north wind, in passing over 
the heated surface of the sand, becomes, in turn, 
raised to a high temperature, and travelling, as 
it generally does, with such velocity, has not time to 
cool again, until it reaches the southern ocean. This 
is another theory which will probably soon be cleared 
up by the result of Captain Sturt's explorations in 
the interior, now going on. 



108 THE CUMATE 

Although the days may be very hot in the summer 
months, the sun once sunk below the horizon, 
a considerable change takes place in the temperature 
of the atmosphere, and, with rare exceptions, a 
cool night restores to you strength and vigour to 
face the sun again next day« 

Another very singular atmospheric feature, is the 
suddenness with which the changes take place, from 
a high, to a moderate temperature. Fancy to your- 
self, for instance, during the height of summer, that 
you are sitting in the coolest room of your house, 
temperature say 96 ; you are looking hopelessly at 
a jug of water, from which you are simple enough to 
expect refreshment ; a magnificent water-melon may 
possibly also tempt an attack, but you turn away in 
despair — it is luke-warm ; out of doors is blowing a 
stiff and steady breeze from the north, plentifully 
impregnated with small particles of dust; going out 
to face it in search of relief from the heat, would in- 
deed be the extreme of simplicity. All of a sudden 
the atmosphere becomes darker and darker; the 
servants rush into every room to see that the windows 
are festened ; you look out, and perceive to the south- 
ward a dense column of dust rising perpendicularly 
into the air ; — the two winds have met ! The south 
wind, fresh from the sea, being many degrees colder 
than the north wind, is violently precipitated on to 
the ground, the lighter hot wind rising in propor- 
tion ; this is the cause of the column of dust being 
raised so high. Now the two winds are engaged in 



OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 109 

fierce straggle! it lasts but a moment; with gi- 
gantic strides the column of dust breasts its way 
northward — the hot-wind is fairly vanquished, and 
with a blast, before which the mighty gum-tree bends 
and your house quakes, the south wind proclaims its 
victory ; in half an hour it settles down to a steady, 
cool breeze, the dust subsides, and ^^ Richard is 
himself again." 

There are, moreover, many alleviations to the 
summer heat ; the air is very generally tempered by 
a cool and delightful sea-breeze, whilst the ^eastern 
breezes, which are wafted down upon us from the 
Mount Lofty ranges in the evening, are no less 
grateful ; the air not being humid is not oppressive ; 
you clothe yourself in the lightest garments, the 
hills on one side,* and the sea coast on the other, are 
sufficiently close, to allow you in a very short space 
of time to reach a cooler temperature, if are you so 
inclined ; and the inconvenience from the dust will 
diminish every year, as the roads and streets, now 
in a state of pulverization, become more consoli- 
dated. 

Flies and musquitoes are also troublesome cus- 
tomers during the summer, but these are, after all, 
trifling inconveniences ; and those who would be de- 
terred from going to Australia on account of them, 
had indeed better stop at home. 

* For every 80 yards of altittide it is calculated that a decrease 
of one degree takes place in the atmoaphere. 



110 THE CLIMATE 

The brilliancy of the Australian sky cannot be 
described ; it must be seen to be appreciated ; the 
sky is almost always serene ; when it is overcast 
there is some reason in it, it rains ; but we have 
none of those gloomy days, with a thick murky 
atmosphere, in which the Londoner passes his life; 
and the early hours of a summer or spring morning, 
when the garb of nature is gayest, and the sun rises 
in unclouded splendour, can only be enjoyed in such 
a climate. Our longest day in December is about 
fourteen hours, and the shortest in June ten hours — 
not including twilight or early dawn. The absence 
of frost and snow does not necessarily constitute 
an absence of cold during our winter; get up 
before sunrise on a sharp July morning in the 
country, and be in the pleasant predicament of 
having to look for your horse in the bush, bridle in 
hand, for an hour or so, and you will soon have to 
blow into your fingers ; perchance, when you have 
found your horse, your fingers may be so benumbed 
as hardly to perform the office of putting the bridle 
on him ; this sharp bracing air is one of the great 
recommendations of our climate, as any lassitude 
which may have come upon you during the heat of 
summer is lost during the winter. By the foregoing 
meteorological table it appears that the coldest day 
in 1844 was in June, when the thermometer was as 
low as 47^% and the warmest day in January 1845, 
when at noon the thermometer was at 106**; on 
referring to my journal I find the 12th of January 



OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. Ill 

of last year put down as very hot, increased on the 
13th by a north wind blowing, which was that same 
evening succeeded by cool pleasant weather. The 
mean yearly average of the quantity of rain which 
&lls in South Australia is 19.902. 



CHAPTER III. 

PORT ADELAIDE — WHARFS — PORT ROAD — PROPOSED RAILWAY 
— SITE OF THE TOWN OF ADELAIDE JUDICIOUSLY SELECTED 
BY COLONEL LIGHT — FROME BRIDGE — PUBLIC BUILDINGS 
— JAIL UNNECESSARILY LARGE — THEATRE CONVERTED 
INTO SUPREME COURT-HOUSE — STREETS— PLACES OF WOR- 
SHIP AND SCHOOLS— MEANS OF EDUCATION— SUPPLY OF 
WATER FOR THE TOWN — DEFUNCT CORPORATION — CLUB- 
HOUSE. 

The harbour of Port Adelaide is an inlet firom the 
sea ; it is about eight or nine miles in length, and 
offers the safest accommodation for a vast amount of 
shipping. Captain Stokes, R. N., who accurately 
surveyed it, and took soundings when he was there, 
in the Beagle, calls it a natural dock ; the reader 
will find a plan of the port in the large map of 
South Australia which accompanies this volume. 
This inlet is sheltered ftom every wind ; the entrance 
to it, from the sea, is partially obstructed by a sandy 
bar, having 8 feet water at the lowest point of the 
ebb tide ; the average height of the usual flood tide is 
8 feet additional, which with southerly and south- 
westerly winds is considerably increased, so that 



WHARFS. 113 

sliipB of 500 or 600 tons can always pass it in safety; 
once oyer the bar, there is sufficient depth of water 
all the way up for the largest ships, as may be 
seen by the soundings laid down in the plan. The 
bar is composed of fine sand, and it is supposed by 
competent people to be easily removable by a com- 
mon dredging machine; should vessels of heavy 
draft, by chance, touch on crossing it, no injury 
to them need be apprehended. Such a thing is 
however, of rare occurrence* I perceive, by a late 
paper, that the Government at Adelaide, have called 
for tenders to remove this bar. 

The wharfs are situated about 8 miles up : owing 
to the swampy nature of the ground, their construc- 
tion caused a considerable outlay of money, and 
large additional sums will be required, before ac- 
commodation can be given for large ships to dis- 
charge alongside of them ,with that convenience 
which the nature of the locality warrants them to 
expect. 

The wharfs were partly constructed by the South 
Australian Company, partly by the Government, — 
those of the former are decidedly the best of the two; 
at the latter, vessels of small draft only can haul 
alongside. The expense incurred by the Government 
at the early period at which they were constructed, 
having been ^ but rendered useless, by the slovenly 
way in which they were executed, to say nothing 
of the actual dishonesty of sawing o£f from 5 to 6 
feet from the piles, instead of driving them into the 



114 



WHARFS. 



mud to that additional depth, these " tops " having 
jately been fished up from the bottom of the har- 
bour, thus rising, like " Banquo's ghost," in judg- 
ment on the contractors. 

There is, however, great capability by the outlay 
of a moderate sum, (which, from the improved state 
of the finances, will now, it is to be hoped, soon be 
available,) and under the talented supervision of 
Captain Frome, R. E., to make those wharfs capable 
of affording all the accommodation required. Sub- 
stantial warehouses and Custom-house buildings are 
erected on the banks. 

Ships are supplied with fresh water at the port, at 
about 5 or 6 shillings a ton ; the water is perfectly 
soft and good, remaining fresh during the longest 
voyage, as I have had myself an opportunity of 
judging on the voyage to England. 

For the breadth of about a mile the port is sur- 
rounded on the land-side by a swamp, through 
which the Company above-mentioned have made a 
road, one mile and a quarter in length, at great ex- 
pense ; the diflBculty of getting a foundation, and the 
absence of all means of land transport, in those days, 
rendered it necessary that the stone requisite for 
metalling this road should be brought from Kanga- 
roo Island, where an inexhaustible supply of the 
best metalling lies ready broken upon the beach: 
—the cost of this road was £13,400, and according 
to the agreement entered into by Colonel Gawler 
with the Company, the latter were to receive £1600 



PORT ROAD — PROPOSED RAILWAY. 115 

per annum, rent ; or else to levy a large toll from the 
colonists. — Captain Grey, by virtue of the powers 
vested in him by the third Section of the Act 
regulating the Sales of Waste Lands, compounded 
with the Company to take 12,000 acres out of the 
surveyed land of the colony in satisfaction of the 
principal and all claims for interest, and evidently 
beneficial as this M^ise measure was to the colonists, 
there were not those wanting who raised an outcry 
against the Governor for having done so : the road has 
been exceedingly well constructed under the able su- 
perintendence of Mr. Kingston, and forms a striking 
object of admiration to the newly arrived emigrant. 
From the end of this made road, to Adelaide, 
a distance of six miles, the country is as level as 
any land can possibly be ; the soil is also firm and 
stiff, and although not a farthing has been expended 
on it, it is nearly as good as many macadamized 
roads in old established countries. All goods, &c. 
from the port, and our exports to the port, are car- 
ried on drays drawn by bullocks —some influential 
gentlemen, in London, have just issued a prospectus 
for a railroad from Adelaide to the port, and I have 
no hesitation in saying that the prospects of a profit- 
able return are most encouraging ; the distance is 
short, the country so level that there will probably 
not be any necessity for removing the earth further 
than will be required to lay down the sleepers, and 
what is of still more importance, there is a very con- 

I 2 



116 SITE OP THE TOWN 

siderable and constantly increasing traffic, on this 
road, in goods and passengers. It will also have 
the desirable effect of making available all those 
drays and bullocks, now employed on the Port road, 
for the transport of the ore from the different mines; 
the quantity raised increasing every day, and con- 
sequently the demand for conveyance. Numerous 
passenger carts start from the port to town, and 
vice versoj almost every quarter of an hour, in 
which, for Is. Qd.y you are rapidly driven up to 
Adelaide. 

The town is prettily situated on the banks of the 
Torrens river, on ground sufficiently elevated to 
insure a perfect system of drainage being adopted, 
whenever the necessary funds may be forthcoming. 
The selection of the site of the town, was a sore sub- 
ject of contention amongst the early colonists, from 
the Governor downwards ; but, whatever difference 
of opinion there may have been formerly on this 
subject, every one is now agreed, that Colonel 
Light shewed sound judgment in fixing on this 
spot ; had justice been done earlier to the talent of 
which he was so eminently possessed, had his inde- 
fatigable exertions to do his duty to the colony been 
appreciated, at a time when his mind was continually 
harassed, and his health and spirits broken by the 
annoyances to which he was subjected, a valuable 
life would perhaps have been spared. He is now, 
no more ! but justice, tardy as it often is, has been 
done to his name, by the erection of a handsome 



OF AD£LAIDE. 117 

monument, lately finished, in the centre of the 
square called after him.* 

The town, called after the consort of William the 
lYth, Adelaide, is laid out on both banks of the river 
Torrens, the *' Yatala" of the natives ; comprising 
700 acres on the south, and 342 acres on the north 
bank, the latter being considerably more elevated 
than the former, and affording lovely views of the 
Mount Lofty hills, and surrounding neighbourhood ; 
200 acres are besides reserved between the two divisions 
of the town, with the view of hereafter forming a park 
and pleasure grounds for the citizens: they are 

* The XDonament, which stands in the centre of Light Sqaare, 
is a pentagonal gothic cross : height forty-five feet ; and is 
divided into three compartments. — ^The lower compartment 
comprises five tablets, on one or more of which will be inserted 
the inscription and arms of the deceased. The second consists 
of five deep trefoil-headed niches, surmoanted by crocketed 
gables, and, like the first, is supported, and further ornamented, 
by buttresses, with their appropriate pinnacles and flnials. The 
third compartment is pierced on each face, with open trefoil- 
headed arches, ornamented with tracery. The spire rises f^om a 
light open battlement, and is ornamented with crockets, the top 
terminating with a cross, and the pentagonal figure being pre- 
served throughout. 

llie structure is of frees-tone, procured from the hills in the 
neighboforhood of Adelaide, and altogether has a very imposing 
effect. 

The design is by 0. S. Kingston, Esq., and does the highest 
credit to that gentleman's well-known architectural taste. Mr. 
Kingston's services, have been devoted to this elegant and 
elaborate structure out of respect to the deceased, without any 
chaise to the Committee. 



118 ADELAIDE. 

partly inclosed, and are called the Park Lands. The 
size of the whole, at present, may appear a great 
deal too large, and doubtless many years will elapse 
before any thing like a regularly defined line of 
buildings will be seen throughout ; but we must re- 
collect, that Adelaide was not intended for us alone ; 
that South Australia will go on increasing in the 
number of its inhabitants, long after we are dead 
and gone, and in after ages the benefit will appear, 
of having provided for the accommodation of a 
large population, on a liberal scale ; and Adelaide 
Will then become a noble city. Sydney, with all its 
wealth, and its thousands of inhabitants, must 
always retain the unseemly appearance of its 
narrow and crooked streets; and a more recent 
instance of the mistake of laying out a town, within 
narrow confines, is now seen in Melbourne, Port 
Phillip, the ground plan of which does not exceed 
600 acres, which have been already covered with 
buildings, and the limits of the town being daily 
extended, the inhabitants will soon have the burial 
ground in the centre of their town. Let us, there- 
fore, not quarrel with the size of Adelaide ; it will 
conduce much to the health of the inhabitants, 
securing a plentiful circulation of fresh air, and most 
of the houses, excepting those in the immediate 
business part of the town, where the ground is very 
valuable, having pretty flower gardens and shrub- 
beries attached to them, the effect is very pleasing. 
The hill or rise upon which South Adelaide is built, 



W WitW TOM 
PDRLIC f.lBRART 



Til. *'J •• .-LA 



FROMB BRIDGE. 119 

is about sixty feet above the level of the plain^.and 
forms a table land ; the vie^s presented by the four 
exterior frontages^ are very dissimilar, though all 
delightfiil in their kind, those of North and East 
Terrace being themost pleasing; the former abutting 
on the Park Lands, and. grounds of Government 
House, the latter, looking to the Mount Lofty 
range of mountains, distant about three miles; and 
it is difficult to imagine anything more varied or 
beautiful ;thaji the different tints of light and shade, 
thrown over its heights, by the setting sun, or fleet- 
ing clouds. 

From West Terrape, you catch a glimpse of the 
Gulf, -apd from this point of view, the spectator 
may frequently witness the singularly delusive ap- 
pearance of the ** mirage," which, in the far interior, 
has so often tantalized our explorers with the pros- 
pect of water being near at hand, to cool their 
parched, throats, only to end in disappointment. 

The communication between North and South 
Adelaide, is by means of two bridges ; the one to 
the eastward being called Frome Bridge, after our 
much respected Surveyor-genergil, Captain Frome, 
R. E., who designed and superintended its erection ; 
it is substantially built of wood, on an improved 
principle ; the lower bridge, commonly called the 
Town Bridge, over which the. principal thoroughfare 
to Port Adelaide passes,: h^ been repeatedly washed 
away by the wii^ter floods; a substantial stone-? 
arched bridge, is now in the course of erection, the 



120 PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

colony not having been able to afford the necessary 
funds at an earlier period, and it will add greatly to 
the useful ornaments of the town. The approaches 
to these bridges, were built by the emigrants, during 
the time the Government was forced to employ 
them, and are both convenient and well executed, 
as well as serving the purpose of inclosing the Park 
Lands, on the south side of the river. 

Adelaide boasts of some handsome public build- 
ings, erected during the administration of Colonel 
Gawler ; as, for instance. Government House, Jail, 
Public Offices, Hospital, &c. ; the first is built on a 
reserve of ten acres, part of the Park Lands, and 
only a portion of it has been completed as yet ; when 
finished, to the full extent contemplated, and the 
grounds properly laid out and cultivated, it. will 
form a very great ornament to the town. The 
public offices are built in a parallelogram, having 
an open space in the centre ; the Governor, Private 
Secretary, Colonial Secretary, Treasurer, the Sur- 
veyor and Registrar General, are all accommodated 
with convenient offices here, which consist of 
ground floors only. 

From those public buildings, above enumerated, 
for which we stand indebted to Colonel Gawler, and 
the erection of which was of benefit to the colony, 
I except one, — the Jail. This building, stands on 
the outskirts of the town, to the westward ; it is an 
extensive building, flanked by towers, forming a 
section of an octagon, and is like Government 



JAIL. 



121 







The Jail. 



House, incomplete. This jail, is an eyesore to the 
colony ; new comers, on seeing it, ask, quite aghast : 
*' what do you want with such a large jail in this 
free colony?" Ayel well may you ask that question I 
what do we want with it indeed ? a building upon 
which £34,000 has been thrown away, ornamented 
with a parcel of trumpery and useless towers, each 
of which cost thousands ; a buildmg containing ac- 
commodation for 140 imaginary prisoners, whilst 
the total number of convictions for petty crimes and 
misdemeanours, out of a population of 20,000, was 
only jwe and twenty for the whole year 1844, or 
two per month ! — a jail so large, and still only half 
finished, as necessarily to entail aheavy yearly expense 
on this colony, to guard only the half-dozen poor 
devils who are occasionally locked up in it Who 
will pretend to excuse this expenditure, richly 
deserving the terms, " lavish" and " extravagant," 
which the Commissioners and others so readily 



122 SUPREME COURT-HOUSE. 

apply to the whole of Colonel Gawler's administra- 
tion ? This jail is a libel on our free, industrious, 
and well-disposed population ; it is a libel on a 
colony, proverbial for the security of both life and 
property ! Let me quit this subject, by adding, that 
in 1841, Governor Grey says, in one of his des- 
patches, a jail sufficient for all the requirements of 
the colony, might have been built for from 4 to 
£5,000. 

The South Australian Company, and other pri- 
vate individuals have also built many handsome 
edifices ; among which, the South Australian Bank 
deserves especial mention for elegant design ; a thea- 
tre of good proportions, and capable of containing 
1200 people, was erected some years ago, and for a 
time, a company of actors, brought down from Syd- 
ney, obtained a precarious livelihood by their per- 
formanc-es ; it has, I am happy to state, lately been 
converted to a much more legitimate use, the Go- 
vernment having rented it for a series of years, at 
£200. per annum, and now contains the Resident 
Magistrates and* Supreme Courts, besides Sheriffs' 
and Advocate General's offices. Judges' chambers, 
&c. — thus putting an end to a fruitful source of dis- 
order and dissipation. 

The streets are respectively, 66, 99, and 132 
feet wide ; the latter constituting the great inter- 
secting lines. Hindley Street is the principal 
business thoroughfare; the ground here is very 
valuable, and is being rapidly built upon by the 



PLACES OF WORSHIP AND SCHOOLS. 123 

merchants and trades- people, whose warehouses and 
shops, (the latter, many of them with elegantly 
designed fronts and plate glass windows,) would not 
disgrace any of the large country towns in England. 
Rundle, Grenfell, Currie, and King William S.treets, 
are those more extensively built in for the present. 
The streets, being yet mostly in a state of nature, 
are very dusty in dry, and very muddy in wet 
weather ; a beginning has, however, already been 
made, d la Macadam^ which will be year after year 
extended ; and all that has been done, has been well 
executed, keeping the permanent plan for drainage 
in view. 

The principles of civil and religious liberty are 
intermixed with the foundations of South Australia, 
and members of the different religious denominations 
enjoy in Adelaide the opportunity of worshipping 
God according to the dictates of their consciences. 
Public worship is conducted by ministers of the 
Church of England, the Church of Scotland, the 
Secession, Wesleyan Methodists, Congregationalists, 
Baptists, and Roman Catholics. • The Primitive 
Methodists and the New Connexion Methodists are 
supplied by lay preachers. The Bible Christians, 
the Society of Friends, and Jews, have meetings, and 
the German Lutherans have two congregations sup- 
plied by Pastor Kavel. 



124 

Metum of the Number and Description of Places of Worship in South Australia, spec 
fying the LoeaUty.and Averaffe Congregatwn of each, for ike year 18447^ ^ 



SItvattoB. 



Booth Adelaide 
North Adelaide 
Port Adelaide.. 
SturtRood .... 
Encounter Bay. . 
Albert Town • 
Strathalbyn... 
Gawler Town . 
German Pass • 

Klemzig 

Mt Barker Dist.. 
Bowden •••.•. 
Walkerville.. . 
Hindmazsh ..,. 

Willnnga 

Islington & Rich- 
mond • . • • , 
McLaren VsJe, 

TMals . . . 



Gharch of 
EoKlaiid. 



No. or \ 

>Ucn of] 



JAvenife 
gatloo. 



700 

40 
20 
80 



Charch of 
Scotland. 



DiMeoUnc 
Cbapelf. 



No. of 
placw of 
WonUp 



Avertfc 
No. or 

Coegre- 
gaiioa. 



790 



80 



60 



No. of 

pl«C«8 of 

Wonblfi 



Avorago 
No. <if 
Cuogre- 
gatloB. 



2 I 140 



890 
110 



50 



Society of 
PriemU. 



Ncof^ 
plaeet of 
WoraUp 



Average 
No. of 
Coogra. 
galioa. 





30 




170 




90 




230 




60 




110 




100 




40 




30 




40 



2000 



16 



CatholJca. 



No. of 
placoaoj 
Wonhip 



16 



Avengij 

No. of 
CoBgrej 
gatkMi.{ 



3001 



300 



Colonial Secretary's Office, 31st Jan., 1846. 



A. M. MUNDY, Colonia] Secretary. 



Bei!um shewing the Number of Schools in the Province of South AustraUa, their ZoeaUtm 
and the Number of Scholars attending them, for the gear 1844. 



Situation. 


Number 

of 
Schools. 


Average number of Scholars. 


Total Average 

number 

of Scholars. 


European. 


Native. 


Mole. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Adelald 1 

Tbebarton 

Bethany 

QawlerTown .. 

Hahndorf • 

HiodmarBh •••• 

WiUunga 

German Pass •• 
Encounter Bay. • 
WalkenrUle .... 

Total 


13 


202 

16 
22 

6 
20 
43 

8 
uncertain 


204 

20 
18 

3 
20 
39 

7 
oneertain 


10 

7 
34 


"9 
26 


406 
19 
86 
40 
8 
40 
82 
16 

13 
60 


26 


316 


811 


61 


41 


719 



The only Schools receiving GoTemment support are those for the Education of Native Chadren. 

Colonial Secretary's Office, A. M. MUNDY, Colonial Secretarr. 

31st January, 1846. ^ 

Besides these there are 19 Sanday Schools, attended by 1099 European, and 
60 Native Children- 



PLACES OF WORSHIP. 125 

The subjoined tables shew the number of places 
of worship, and schools, in Adelaide and the pro- 
vince generally. It will be seen by them that the 
dissenting chapels greatly preponderate over any 
other denomination, as well as in number of congre- 
gations : some of these are very handsome edifices ; 
and are, the same as all other places of worship in 
the colony, built by private subscription. The 
minister of the Established Church receives a salary, 
from the Colonial Government, of £350. a year, and 
is called Colonial Chaplain ; the first church of this 
persuasion was erected at great expense, and in the 
roughest manner ; it is still heavily in debt, and all 
the friends of the Church in England, under whose 
notice these pages may fall, are earnestly requested to 
assist us with their subscriptions for church-building 
purposes, as well as to increase the strength of minis- 
terial offices, many of the country districts being 
quite deprived of religious ministration. The sum 
of £600. has, last year, been raised in this colony to 
enlarge and rebuild Trinity Church, but it must be 
recollected that, however prosperous a futurity 
dawns upon us, the majority of the colonists are only 
now recovering from former disasters, and assistance 
for this legitimate purpose, from a religious British 
public, will be gratefully received by the colonists.* 
Besides Trinity Church, situated in North Ter- 
race, there is another church of the Established 
persuasion, erected also by voluntary contributions, 

* The Banks of Australasia, or Soatb Australia, would receive 
and transmit those subscriptions to the proper authorities. 



126 PLACES OF WORSHIP. 

(principally through the indefatigable exertions of 
Mrs. Gawler,) in East Terrace, called St. John ; the 
ground for this church, and the adjoining parson- 
age, are the liberal gift of Osmond Gilles, Esq. of 
Adelaide It is a very neat building, capable of con- 
taining from three to four hundred people; the 
former incumbent of this church, the Rev. Mr. 
Farrell, has been justly promoted to the Colonial 
Chaplaincy, when that situation became vacant by 
the decease of the much lamented and universally 
respected Rev. Mr. Howard, M. A., who was cut off 
in the vigour and prime of life by an allwise Provi- 
dence, dying, as he had lived, a true Christian. A* 
clergyman was by the last accounts immediately 
expected from Van Diemen's Land ; I believe the 
Rev. Mr. Wilson, upon whose arrival St. John's 
Church will again be opened.* 

The Roman Catholic community has lately re- 
ceived a strong accession in the persons of a bishop, 
and several priests, and a cathedral of great magni- 
tude is immediately to be built, for which it is said 
ample funds are in the hands of the bishop, the 
Right Rev. Dr. Murphy ; this reverend Divine 

* Since the above was in type, I found the following notice in 
the Standard of March 13th, 1846, which I have muchpleaaore 
in copying : — " The Rev. W. Woodcock has proceeded, in con- 
nection with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, to St. John's, Adelaide, South Australia ; and the 
Rev. James Pollett has proceeded, in connection with the same 
society, to Mount Barker, South Australia. Mr. Woodcock was 
rector of Witherslack, Westmoreland ; and Mr. Pollett, rector of 
Lindale, Lancashire. Both these benefices have become vacant 
by the rev. gentlemen's missionary appointments.' ' 



MEAN8 OF EDUCATION. 127 

has been many years in New South Wales, where 
he was much respected by all denominatious. 

The attendance on the Sabbath-days at all the 
churches in town is very numerous; indeed the 
Sabbath-days are nowhere in England more reli- 
giously kept than in South Australia, and in the 
country districts where, from the want of ministers, 
no congregations can be collected, service on Sun- 
days, and morning and evening devotion are very 
universally adhered to by the families. 

On the west side of the town, and quite out of the 
line of the town ext<^nsion is the Cemetery, of suffi- 
cient size for all burial purposes for many years to 
come. 

I believe I am quite correct in stating, that on 
the whole there is a great deficiency in the means 
of obtaining proper instruction for children of the 
superior classes, requiring a better education ; I am 
not aware that there are any scholastic establishments 
in the colony, in which boys or girls could be 
thoroughly educated ; this is not said with a view 
of disparaging the meritorious exertions of those, 
who are now charged with the tuition of the youth- 
ful South Australians ; but there are in the colony, 
many people who wish to bestow upon their children 
something more in the shape of education than the 
mere rudiments, and I think there is a good opening 
for an educational establishment, conducted on a 
sufficiently extended scale, by competent persons. 

The town is supplied with drink-water out of the 
Torrens, by means of water carts; abundance of 



128 SUPPLY OF WATER. 

water for common household purposes being ob- 
tained from wells of from sixty to eighty feet depth ; 
the water from the Torrens is perfectly fresh all the 
year round, but the inhabitants must naturally pay 
dear for it, as long as it is brought to them, as it is 
now, by means of carts. About five miles from 
Adelaide in the hills, there are abundant springs of 
the purest water; the elevation of these springs 
above the town-level, is more than sufficient to 
bring the water into the town by means of pipes, 
and laying it on into every house — and I am 
greatly mistaken if the time is not near at hand, 
when the colonists will be aided by British capita- 
lists, in carrying out this most desirable, and to the 
projectors I trust profitable undertaking. 

Adelaide has also already made one attempt at 
establishing a Municipal Corporation, a Colonial Act 
having been passed for this purpose, 11th August, 
1842; its organization was evidently premature for 
the wants of the colony, and after a few months 
existence, " after much cry and little wool,'* mayor, 
aldermen, councillors and all, vanished into thin air, 
and the chairs and tables seized by the landlord of the 
premises, under distraint for rent. It must be left 
to the Governor and legislature, to decide upon the 
fitting time when the defunct corporation is to rise 
from its ashes, but it had better be still longerdeferred^ 
rather than that it should resume its deliberations 
under such restricted powers as formerly ; better is 
it to have no corporation at all, unless we can have 
one ^' de facto/' and not merely in name ; one that 



CLUB HOUSE. 129 

may have the confidence of the colonists, and power 
to enforce respect; and, not before there can be 
funds sufficient raised to pay the necessary salaries 
and expenses, without the risk of having their com- 
fortable arm-chairs knocked down to the highest 
bidder, for their liquidation. 

A club-house, consisting of the principal govern- 
ment officers, professional, and other gentlemen, has 
several times been formed, and as often broken up, 
owing to no want of members, but merely to the 
non-enforcement of those strict rules and regula- 
tions, which at every new organization of its 
members, were studiously and carefully compiled, 
and as quickly infringed. In Sydney, Melbourne, 
and the large towns of Van Diemen's Land, club- 
houses of the first respectability have flourished, 
even through times when almost all other public 
institutions went to the ground. There is no reason 
why South Australia, w]^ch contains so many 
gentlemen of standing and education, should not 
also possess such a desirable place of ^' rhtnion ;" 
and I trust the next attempt will establish it on a 
firmer basis. 




Government Hoaae. 
K 



CHAPTER IV. 



PUBLIC HOUSES— IMPEOVIDBNCB AMD EXTRAVAGANCB OF 
THE W0RKINO CLASSES, COMPARED WITH THE GERMAN 
COLONISTS— 'POPULATION OF THE COLONY— CENSUS RE- 
TURNS—THE GERMAN SETTLEMENTS — NUMBER OF STEAM 
AND OTHER MILLS — MANUFACTORIES — THE BANKS — 
NEWSPAPERS — AMUSEMENTS AND SOCtBTT— PICNICS — CON* 
CE RTS — HOSPITALITY— HUNTING — RACES — THE BLESSINGS 
OF A FREE POPULATION AB COMPARED WITH THE CONVICT 
SYSTEM— LOYALTY OF THE COLONISTS. 



Return qfPuMic Houses in the Province of South Australia^ for the 
Years 1840, 1841, 184S, 1848, and 1844. 



Locality. 


NamberofPnbUc HooMtin the year. 


1840 


1841 


1848 


1848 


1844 


Adelaide 


63 

7 

87 


68 
9 

88 


88 
6 

37 


83 
3 

88 


84 
8 

88 


Port Adelaide and Albeit Town. 

Country, including Port Lincoln 

and Kangaroo Island 

^talt •• 


107 


105 


81 


67 


70 





A. M. MUNDY, Colonial Secretary. 
Colonial Secretary's Office, 31st January, 1846. 

The above Government return, shews the number of 
public houses in Adelaide and suburbs to be 37 ; 
in the country 33 ; the latter, are perhaps indispen- 
sable for the sake of affording accommodation to 



PUBLIC HOUSES. 131 

travellers; but the former, although reduced to 
half the number of the year 1840, when they 
amounted to 70, might still further be reduced, 
many of them being but so many lounging places 
for the working classes to spend their earnings in, 
and engend^ng habits of dissipation amongst those 
who ought to be saving their money,* I may 
mention one fact to illustrate this assertion : On a 
Saturday morning, in Adelaide, I paid one of our 
shepherds the balance of his year's wages, some 
£23. ; with this, he started off to one of these public 
houses, ou a " spree,'' as he called it ; on Monday 

* The following is a list of all the licenaes granted to tradesm 
the ProTince» with the amount of the fees payable annuaUy :— 



LICENSE FEES. 








For a general publican's license • 


£25 








For the sale of wine and beer only. 


12 








For a Btorekeeper*s license, authorising 








to sell not less than a gallon of wine. 








spirits, &c. • . 


5 








For an auctioneer's license, within 10 








miles of Adelaide 


25 








Ditto, more than 10 miles from Ade- 








laide 


10 








Ditto, partnership license, extra • 


10 








Ditto, auctioneer's derk, extra 


10 








For an appraiser's license, if not at the 








same time an auctioneer 


5 








For a distiller and rectifier's license. 


25 








To obtain this last license, an application must be made to the 


Governor, through the Colonial Secretary. 








K 2 









132 IMPROVIDENCE OF THE 

morning following, my gentleman again iraited on 
me, his fece cut, his eye bunged up, and one of his 
hands in a sling. Upon my inquiring what he 
wanted, he said he had come to ask me for half- 
a-crown, to pay his way up to the station again, 
not having a farthing left. I expressed my surprise, 
that he should possibly have spent so large a sum 
in so short a time ; when he answered very coolly, 
that early on Saturday night, he had become quite 
intoxicated, and insensible, that he did not ^^ pick 
himself up again,'' for twenty-four hours, and then 
found all his money gone, being told by the people 
of the public house, that he had spent it, in 
"treating his friends.'' — With this improbable 
story, poor H. W. was obliged to trudge off, and 
being one of our best shepherds, I sent him back to 
his flock, to economize for another twelve months, 
and probably to have then, " another such a short- 
lived spree." 

This addiction to drink, is a sad failing with 
many of our English, Irish, and Scotch servants. 
In the bush, they never get anything stronger than 
tea; their wants for clothing are very trifling, and 
a steady man can easily save £20 a year out of his 
wages of £25.; but let them come within hail of a 
public house, and many will drink themselves into 
a state of stupid intoxication, with their year's 
savings, for days together. They are, however, not 
all of this description ; some of our own shepherds, 



WORKINQ CLASSES. 133 

have handsome sums to their credit, at the banks, 
and I was not unfrequently commissioned to lodge 
the money for them, and bring them the blue 
printed deposit receipts, out to their station. 

Nowsee how differently theOermanlabourerin the 
colony acts ; the necessity of every £a.rthinghe spends, 
is seriously weighed, before he parts with it ; you 
never see a German in a public house drinking 
spirits ; he will come into town many miles afoot, 
carrying, perhaps, a heavy load of vegetables, or 
what not, for the market; after he has sold his goods, 
he will take a lump of bread out of his pockety 
brought with him from home, of his housewife's 
own baking, and his day's profit must have been 
very good, to induce him to buy, even a glass of 
ale, to wash down his frugal dinner; more fre* 
quently it is a draught of spring water : the result 
to the one is, therefore, a constant state of dependence, 
although not of want, as they are always sure 
of employment, (this very feet of their so easily 
replacing the means for their extravagance, being, 
perhaps, the leading cause of it,) whilst to the 
other, the prospect is held out, of a steadily increas- 
ing and sure independence. 

The population of South Australia is estimated at 
20,000, and is rapidly increasing, both by tjhe re- 
samed emigration from the mother country, and by 
numbers of all classes of free emigrants, who are 
crowding into South Australia from New Zealand, 



134 



CENSUS RETURNS. 



New South Wales, Port Phillip, and Van Diemen^s 
Land, in consequence of the fevourable prospects they 
have of doing much better in South Australia than 
any where else.* This latter is the most favourable 
description of emigration to the colony, as our 
population is increased at the expense of the other 
provinces, by people who have already acquired 
some experience as settlers. The last official census 
returns are of February, 1844, they are given to 

* General Summary cf Immigration for the year 1844. 



Immigrants 



Great Britain ... 
BiitUh Colonies. 
Foreign States... 



Total. 



Bzcese of Immigrants at Port Adelaide 

Estimated increase of popolation by arrivalB 
overland 



Total increase of population by immigration 



180 
809 
186 



1114 
347 



767 
206 



973 



Bmigraats, 



73 
271 

4 



347 



A. M. MUNDT, Colonial Secretary. 
QmeraJL Summary qf Immiffratiimt for the quarter end&ng April 5, 184& 



Great Britain . . . 
British Colonies. 
Foreign States • 



Total. 



Excess of Immigrants 



Immigrants Emigrants 



144 
613 



767 
140 



617 



87 

109 

4 



140 



This Return has been compiled from the Official Records of this Office. 

A. M. If UNDY, Colonial Secretary. 
Colonial Secretary*B Office, 8drd April, 1846. 



CENSUS RfiTURNS. 



135 



shew the relative proportions of the sexes, the average 
of ages, and religion of the population. 



BOumshewing the age, reliffianf oceupaUan^ and trade or calling of 
persons in the Province of South Australia^ in February^ 1844. 



ITamben of each Age. 


Sex. 


Total. 


Male. 


Fem. 


Under two yean •••••••••••••••••• 


890 
1459 
132S 

922 
4482 

467 
44 


884 
1484 
1241 

866 
2996 

281 
18 


1724 
2898 
2668 
1788 
7428 
738 
62 


Two and under MTen •••• ••■• 


Seven and under fourteen ••••••••.. 


Fourteen and under twenty-one 

Twenty-one and under forty-five .... 
Porty-flve and under sixty ••• 


SiztT and onwards •••>....••••••.. 


Totals 


9626 


7670 


17196 



REUOION. 

Church of England ••• 9418 

Chnroh of Scotland • •...••• 1691 

Wesleyan Methodists 1666 

Other Protestant Dissenters ««.. 8809 

Roman Catholics • 1056 



Jews 



25 




Of the above, about 1500 are Germans. — The 
first body of these people arrived in the colony in 
November and December, 1838, in the ship Zebra, 
Captain Hahn — and the Prince George from Ham-^ 
burgh — part of them were located near Adelaide, 
where they established the village of Klemzig, those 
by the '^ Zebra " having settled on part of a special 
survey, in the Mount Barker District, calling 



136 GERMAN SETTLEMENTS. 

the Tillage Hahndorf, after the Captain of the 
vessel from whom they experienced much kindness 
on the voyage out. Religious persecution was the 
primary cause of their expatriation, they belonging 
to the Evangelical Lutheran persuasion; and the 
clergyman of their community in Prussia, the Rev. 
Mr. Kavel, accompanied them, and has ever since 
continued their spiritual pastor in the colony : unob- 
trusive in their manners, highly industrious, and of 
economical habits, these German emigrants now 
form a very independent and prosperous portion of 
the South Australian community ; the annals of the 
Supreme Court can bear witness to their general 
orderly behaviour, as I believe there has been no 
single instance in which one of these Germans was 
convicted of a serious offence. The Rev. Mr. Eavel, 
whose indefatigable labours in attending to the 
several widely separated Germai^ settlements, can- 
not be too highly spoken of, possesses a considerable 
degree of authority amongst them, and is treated by 
them with the greatest respect. Without any other 
than moral control, his influence is so great, that in 
any dispute, or the punishment of minor offences, 
he is able to exercise full authority over them, with- 
out having to call in the aid of the local authorities; 
the offender being simply admonished, and with 
complete effect, from the pulpit, after divine service. 
They are strictly religious ; but a certain degree of 
jealousy is entertained by them against becoming 
amalgamated with the English population of the 



GERMAN 8BTTLEMEKTS. 137 

colony, aa marriages with English are not encouraged 
by them. It has been objected to these German 
emigrants, that the colonists do not derive any 
direct accession of labour from them, as they gene- 
rally keep together in separate communities ; but 
this is not a liberal view to take, as they rent a good 
deal of land from English proprietors, and when- 
ever not engaged with the cultivation of their own 
farms, they gladly take work from the settlers ; in 
the Mount Barker district particularly, the Hahn- 
dorf villagers have rendered important assbtance to 
the English agriculturists. As labourers, however, 
they are not to be compared to those from England, 
Scotland, or Ireland ; they are slow, awkward, and 
dull of comprehension, but these less favourable 
qualities are abundantly outweighed by their steady 
and persevering plodding industry, and general 
good behaviour. 

At first starting, the community of Hahndorf, 
iocurred a debt of £1,500 for provisions, before 
their crops were harvested ; they had besides to 
pay £7. per acre, in annual instalments, for 240 
acres, on which the village was located, making 
£1,680 more, exclusive of interest; wheat cost 
them at that time, £1. per bushel; a pair of draft 
oxen, £40., and a cow, £18. All these debts are 
now paid ofi*, besides having been able to buy 
480 acres more adjoining the village, from go- 
vernment, and they possess many head of cattle 
and horses, and, in fact, every description of stock. 



138 GERMAN SBTTLBMEHTS. 

There are at present, five Oerman villages ia 
South Australia; Klemzig, Hahndorf, Lobethal, 
Bethanien, and Langmeil; and a regular emigra- 
tion from Bremen to Adelaide, has been for some 
time established, under the active superintendence 
of Mr. Edward Delius, who despatches one of 
Mr. Oelrich's large and fine ships, every five or 
six months. This emigration from Germany, will 
become more and more important, as our extensive 
mineral districts are brought into operation; the 
Germans, from the Hartz mountains, and Saxony, 
are excellent miners and smelters ; the latter being 
the more desirable to us, as from the abundance of 
wood, our smelting operations will be conducted 
principally with charcoal, in which the Grermans 
are great adepts. A neatly got up pamphlet, in 
German, embellished with a lithographic print of 
the town of Adelaide, and map of the country, 
is being extensively circulated in Germany, by Mr. 
Delius, containing statistical accounts of the colony, 
by the Rev. Mr. Eavel, as well as numerous letters^ 
from German settlers, to their friends at home, 
which give glowing descriptions of the success 
which has attended them ; and it is pleasing to read, 
the pious and grateful feeling towards Providence, 
which pervades all their letters, for having cast their 
lot, in so " blessed a country,'' as they term it. 

There are many substantial flour mills in 
Adelaide, and the country ; the number at the close 
of last year being, eight steam, seven wind, two 



MILLS AND MANUFACT0RIB8. 139 

water, and four cattle mills ; these mills are kept in 
yery active work, owing to the large quantities of 
flour, which is now every year exported to the 
neighbouring colonies, Mauritius, and the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

Amongst the manufactories, may be reckoned 
1 barilla, 9 breweries, 2 coach, 21 mills, 3 foundries, 
4 machine manufactories, 1 pottery, 1 of salt, 1 of 
snuff and tobacco, 4 soap and candles, 1 of starch, 
7 tanneries, 1 water work. By this, it will be per- 
ceived, that we have all the means of furnishing, 
within the colony itself, the principal requisites of 
articles of daily use, and I must not omit to bear 
testimony to the fact, that every description of 
handicraft;, such as carpenters, cabinet makers, 
builders, stone masons, &c., is well found with 
talented artizans. 

There are two banks in Adelaide : the one, is a 
branch of the bank of Australasia, which is incorpo- 
rated by royal charter, and has establishments in all 
the Australian colonies ; the business of this bank 
has, for some time past, been considerably restricted, 
owing to the badness of the times ; a corresponding 
increase to its circulation, is now determined upon, 
by the London directors, as the rapid progress the 
colony is making fully warrants such an extension. 
By far the largest amount of business is transacted 
by the South Australian Bank, formerly belonging 
to the South Australian Company, but now to a 
distinct proprietary ; the affairs of this bank have 



140 



THE BAXKS. 



for some years past, been very ably conducted by 
Edward Stephens, Esq., who has, throughout the 
trying diflSculties of the ' colony, during the past 
years, extended very liberal assistance to the colo- 
nists, as far as was consistent with the interests 
intrusted to his care, 

Tlie annexed tables wiU clearly demonstrate the 
nature and amount of business transacted by the two 
establishments. 



Aggregate Statement of the LiabiUtics and A^iMts of the Banking EstahlishmcnXs 

of S&uth Australia. 

(lidnJt i>f South AuitraUa, and Bank of Auitralaiia) compiled from their hatf-tfeaTlif Heiunu^ 
published ill ike ** South Auitraliaa Govenuaent Guzettt^** 



LUBIHTIEIS, 


Y«ftn. 


Nptea ]□ 
Circulation. 


B\\h in 
circulatjon. 


DepOEfiU. 


Balan(!(?s due 
to othGT Hnnka, 


Total 

LlubUitJei. 


1B41 
1S42 

1843 
1S44 


£, s. d. 
16,725 9 

12>403 11 

9,930 11 1 

11,027 13 1 


£. *, d. 
6,712 6 1 
3,1 '25 Jl 9 
3,314 3 9 
1,800 17 4 


£. s. d. 
70,413 15 1 
58,228 9 10 
51,«97 7 5 
55,348 17 7 


£. 9, d. 

1,231 19 1 

429 9 4 

793 14 

787 4 10 


£. f. d. 

95,340 9 2 
74 J 97 1 
65,944 16 10 
CU,054 12 U 


ASSETS, 


Ytiara, 


Coin, 


Property, 


from other 
Banks. 


Kote« tind Bills 
discontinued J & 

all other debte 
due to the Banks. 


Total AueU. 


1841 
1842 

1843 
1B44 


£. t. d. 

23.880 11 2 
22.795 2 5 
27.8SI I 
32,492 11 10 


£, 5. d. 

4,121 15 9 
6,718 :5 
6,139 6 9 
7,807 14 11 


£. f. d. 

308 7 7 
2,344 19 
2,!M4 10 7 
3,055 3 4 


£, #. d. 

207,783 12 8 
201,746 11 6 
ltt6,067 5 10 
IBljlt^l 15 9 


£. ». <f. 

203,882 1 6 
233,105 3 2 
225,032 4 3 
^^24,5^7 5 11 



THE BANKS. 



Ul 



Half-yearly Betum of the aggregate average Amount of the Weekly Liabilities and 
Assets of the Bank of Australasia, within the Colony of South Australia, 
from October 15^ 1844, to April 14, 1845, both days inolusive. 



LIABILITIES. 


A88BT8. 


£. #. d. 




£. #. d. 


Bills in drcalation not 


Gold, SiWer, and other 




bearing Interest . 1,679 6 6 


Metais 


6,865 4 


Notes in circulation not 


Landed property (Bank 




bearing Interest . 4,210 6 S 


prem ses) 





Bills and Notes in circula- 


Blllsof other Banks 





tion bearing Interest • 


Balances doe from other 




Balances doe to other 


Banks 





Banks 


Debts doe to the Corpora- 




Ouh deposited sot bearing 


tion, including notes. 




Interest . 16,682 16 10 


bills, & other secorities 


32,678 8 2 








terest . • 3.788 6 7 


Total Assets. ... 




Total Liabilities.... 25,560 16 


38,443 7 2 



Sook of Australasia, Adelaide, 19th April, 1845. 



WILLIAM GRAY, Pro. Manager. 
J. W. McDonald, Pro. AccoantanU 



Half-yearly SMementof ike average Weekly Amount qf the Liabilities and Assets 
ef the Bank of south Australia, in the Province of South Australia, from 
November Wj 1844, to May 26, 1846, both days inebuive. 



LIABILITIBB. 


AASBT8. 


£. S. d. 


£. #. d. 


Notes in dreolatioo not 


Gold, BOTer, and other 


beartng Interest . 11,094 4 3 


Metals . . 20,186 9 


BHU in dronlation not 


Landed Property (Bank 


bearing Interest • 1,966 6 6 


Premises, &c.) . 7,645 7 8 
Bills of other Banks . 


Bills and Notes in eirenla- 


tion bearing Interest . 


Balances due from other 


Balances doe to other 


Banks . 996 10 1 


Banks . 447 19 4 


Debto due to the Bank, in. 


Cash deposited not bear- 


eluding Bills, Notes, 


ing Interest . . 26,968 16 8 


ftc. .141,609 10 8 


Cash deposited bearing In- 




terest . . 16,740 19 8 




Total UabiUties.... 57;»)7 6 


Total Assets.... 170,428 16 7 



Bank of Sooth Australia, Adelaide, 27ih May, 1846. 



EDWARD STEPHENS, Manager. 
GEORGE TINLINE, Accountant. 



142 NEWSPAPERS. 

Amongst other public institutions may be meulV 
tioned, the Savings Bank, under the presidency of 
the Governor, vice president, five trustees, and other 
directors. Three lodges of Free-masons, viz : the 
Lodge of Friendship, No. 613 ; Lodge of Harmony, 
and Lodge of St. John; seven lodges of Odd 
Fellows; Total Abstinence Society; Subscription 
Library ; and Auxiliary Bible Society. 

There are at present, three newspapers published 
at Adelaide, one every other day ; the Register, the 
Southern Australian, and the Observer. The first- 
mentioned one is of the longest standing, although 
it has changed its proprietorship a great many 
times. The Observer, is the best got up of the 
three, as far as type, and general selection of 
extracts from the European papers, which may 
prove interesting to the colonist, goes ; a great 
improvement has also, of late years, taken place in 
the general tone pervading the political portion of 
the press; a very common mistake, in colonial 
newspapers, being to try, and enforce argument, by 
violent and grossly personal invective.* 

* The Rev. Mr. Mackenzie, in his interesting^ little Tolame on 
Aastralia. has the following amusing remarks on the Sydney 
Press: — 

<< Some of our -colonial publications, stand greatly in need of 
pruning; about these, there is one very amusing peculiarity. 
If you happen to advance any opinion, or endeavour to establish 
any doctrine, unpalatable to the editor, instead of attempting to 
refute, or disprove by argument, your statements, he imme- 
diately falls foul of yourself; abuses you personally, and, if 



AMUSEMENTS AND SOCIETY. ]43 

English readers might easily wonder, what ma- 
terial there can be in the colony, to support three, 
if not four newspapers, for a fourth has lately been 
started, by Mr. George Stephenson, the former 
proprietor, and talented editor, of the Register ; it 
may be supposed, that a dearth of information must 
firequently occur, when the arrivals from Europe are 
protracted by contrary winds, or otherwise. But 
the principal uses of the local papers are, the 
medium they afford for advertising; this being 
the leading source, whence the profit is derived 
by the newspaper proprietors ; a large part of all 
goods, imported into the colony, are sold by auction, 
which requires a preliminary and lengthy announce- 
ment, in the papers of the day. 

Of amusements we do not boast many, for the 
very good reason, that where nobody is, or ought to 
be idle, amusements are not wanted ; still, social 
intercourse, in all its refinement, is kept up 
amongst the different &milies ; and strangers, who 
have visited our shores for a short time, may be 
able to bear testimony to the gaieties, which enliven 
our society periodically. His Excellency the 
Governor, hospitably entertains the principal colo- 
nists very often, in addition to two very large 
parties, given at Government House, on the Queen's 
birth-day, and the Anniversary of the foundation of 

there is anything objectionable in all your past history, he 
rakes it ap, and places it against your statements; to prove, of 
coarse^ that they are incorrect." 



144 AMUSEMENTS AND SOCIETY. 

the colony, in December ; when from 2 to 300 of 
the most respectable colonists, enjoy the festivities 
of the evening ; these are generally followed by 
other parties, given by the higher oflScials, and 
principal residents, to say nothing of the bachelors' 
balls, which have a high reputation for the spirit, 
and liberality, with which they are got up. Picnics 
are also a very favourite amusement ; the different 
glens amongst the hills, in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of Adelaide, the proximity of the coast, and 
many pretty country residences, within four or 
five miles of the town, affording numerous places of 
resort for this purpose. Picnics in Australia, may 
be undertaken without fear and trembling for the 
usual concomitant to such amusements in England, 
namely, a pelting shower of rain ; and the pleasure 
of these rural meetings, when they are prolonged 
beyond sun-down, which often happens, is much 
enhanced, by the delicious moonlight nights we 
boast of possessing. 

Amateur concerts are also of frequent occurrence, 
many being given for charitable purposes, at which 
the first ladies in the colony do not consider it 
beneath their dignity to assist. 

Hospitality reigns throughout the land, in good 
old English style : a person may get on his horse in 
Adelaide, and ride north or south or east, and leave 
his purse behind him ; for he will be able to traverse 
the whole colony, without expense, and find a 
hearty welcome, with comfortable accommodation 



HOSPITALITY. 145 

for himself and beast^ every evening; indeed, the 
accommodation of casual strangers and travellers is 
so much looked upon as a matter of course, that at 
most country establishments there are apartments 
always kept ready for that purpose, as travellers 
arrive at all hours of the day, and not unfrequently 
in the middle of the night. The universal beverage 
being tea, the tea-pot on such occasions becomes of 
great importance, and is often of gigantic size, the 
beverage being con^dered as refreshing after a hot 
ride as anything one could drink. Pre-eminent for 
hospitality, is the country residence of Captain 
Bagot, M.C., called Koonunga ; being situated near the 
thoroughfare to thenorth, thenunlberof peoplewho in 
die Course of the year partake of his hospitable kind 
attentions, and that of his family, could hardly be 
credited. The privacy of his iamily being so 
constantly broken in upon, must have often been ^ 
disagreeable to him ; but he did not mind this, his 
maxim being, rather to afford accommodation to all 
travellers at his own residence, than to have a 
public house near him, bringing with it the baneful 
evil of the sale of spirits. 

All the purely English sports are kept up with 
much spirit in the colony ; hunting, racing, and, in 
a less degree cricket, are, in the proper seasons, 
much patronised. The neighbourhood of Adelaide 
has been for the last three or four years, hunted by 
a pack of harriers, under the management of George 
Hamilton, Esq., which have afforded some splendid 



146 RACES. 

sport, before the game became as scarce as it is now, 
owing to the increase in the cultivation ; the kan- 
garoo and dingo, or native dog, are the game 
hunted, both of which give good runs, the latter not 
unfrequently escaping, after a burst of eight or ten 
miles, by ensconcing himself into one of the 
wombat holes, with which the country abounds. 

The annual races are very popular, and well 
attended, causing for the time they last, usually 
three days, almost a total stagnation of business. 
Adelaide boasts of as fine a race-course in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the town, as any in the 
world ; perfectly level, and without a single stump 
of a tree or stone, it presents a fair field for eques- 
trian feats. The beginning of January is the time 
set apart for these truly national sports, and then 
the settler comes into Adelaide from far and near, 
top-boots and cut-aways are the order of the day, 
and the steady old nag, who has been accustomed 
for months before to jog through the bush at his 
own pace, gets extra allowances of com, and a 
double application of curry-comb and brush, to be 
able to show off on the race-course, in gallo|Hng 
from one point to another, for every body is on 
horseback. His Excellency the Governor, with 
laudable spirit, not only supports the races with his 
annual subscription, but daily honours the race- 
course with his presence, and the multitude assembled 
on those days, were not slow in acknowledging the 
compliment, by the very hearty cheering with which 



BLESSINGS OP A FRBB POPULATION. 147 

the Governor's arrival and departure, were every 
day hailed. No greater and more convincing proof 
can be given, of the very orderiy nature of the 
South Australian population, when I say, that out 
of the thousands assembled in January 1845, to 
witness the races, at a time too, when most of the 
labouring classes had plenty of money, and means 
of becoming intoxicated and riotous, not one case of 
disorderly behaviour occurred, which called for the 
active interference of the police. 

With regard to general morals and respectability 
of the whole South Australian population, this tho- 
roughly British colony ranks foremost amongst all 
the Australian Provinces, without exception. The 
blessings of free emigration having been secured to 
us from the commencement. South Australia may 
be said to stand amongst the Australian convict 
colonies, like an oasis in the desert. Let the official 
Government return of convictions in the South 
Australian courts of justice, speak to the truth of 
this, and then compare this table with the same 
documents published in the other colonies ; read the 
publications on New South Wales, and the state- 
ments of the frightful amount of crime in Van 
Diemen's Land, as contained in the Petition, lately 
presented to Parliament, by the free settlers of that 
colony, and every one must admit, that we have 
cause to be grateful, that our beautiful land was 
saved from such a fate. 

With the state of things in the neighbouring 

L 2 



148 LOYALTY OF 

colonies, constantly before our eyes, do we value our 
privilege of having a free population, and when it 
became a short time since rumoured, that a consign- 
ment of the Parkhurst boys was contemplated to 
South Australia, the whole colony determined to 
resist their introduction, by every constitutional 
means within their power ; petitions to the Queen 
and Parliament, in firm, but respectful language, 
were in a short time signed by thousands, and it was 
perhaps the first time, that amongst the signatures 
were found the names of fathers, who signed for 
themselves, and the number of children of which 
their families were composed ; thus, speaking 
volumes of the religious dread every one entertained 
of the moral contamination to be apprehended to the 
rising generation, from their introduction. 

In South Australia there are no bush-rangers ; 
the distance of our Province from New South 
Wales, from which it is divided by large tracts of 
unoccupied country, is a good safeguard against the 
introduction of runaway convicts, who even if they 
succeeded in reaching the Province, would soon be 
ferreted out by our very efiicient and active police ; 
or were bush-ranging attempted, there would be no 
lack of spirit amongst our settlers to put a stop to 
it at once, in the same summary way that my friend, 
Mr. Fowler, and his gallant companions did in Port 
Phillip. — ^The greatest security, therefore, prevails 
both in town and country, which there is no reason 
to apprehend will be infringed. 



THE COLONISTS. 149 

The loyalty of the South Australian Colonists, 
and their attachment to the mother country, not- 
withstanding that we are, on the whole, treated in 
a very step-motherly way by the Home Govern- 
ment, is undoubted. Witness the alacrity with 
which congratulatory addresses have been, and will 
be promoted on every occasion in which the feelings 
of an Englishman expand towards our gracious 
Sovereign. — ^Whatever injustice may have occurred 
in the policy of the Government towards this dis- 
tant dependency, our devotion to the Queen and 
Royal Family is verdant and blooming as the spring 
flower, and on Her Majesty's birthday the levee of 
His Excellency, the Governor, as Her Majesty's re- 
presentative, is crowded by well dressed Colonists, 
who come to town from the north and south to 
render that homage which is innate in the heart of 
every Englishman. 



I 



CHAPTER V. 

THK MOUNT BARKER, AND ADJACKNT HILL DISTRICTS. 

This district lies due east of the town of Adelaide, 
from which it is distant 25 miles. On leaving the 
town the road runs across the plains for three miles, 
when it enters the Mount Lofty rangea at Glen 
Osmond, immediately on the left of which are 
situated the Glen Osmond Lead Mines, the property 
of Osmond Gilles, Esq. Although the importance 
of a road to the eastward, to the Mount Barker and 
Strathalbyn districts on to the River Murray, was 
early admitted, the difficulty of finding a good pass 
was such, that it was not till the close of 1840 that 
a suitable line was adopted. Early in 1841 the 
forming of a road was commenced, and though 
still incomplete, has long afforded easy access to 
the agricultural districts across the ranges. The 
road, formed by the building of many hundred 
lineal yards of retaining wall, from three to fifteen 
feet high, and cuttings in the bank in many places 
16 feet deep, winds up the lovely glen, presenting 
constantly varying and beautiful tableaux of rural 
scenery, till you reach the first elevation, where a 
magnificent coup d'oeil of the surrounding country 
awaits you. To the right and left rise a mass of 



MOUNT BARKBR DISTRICT. 151 

rounded hills of every size, broken into numerous 
little valleys and covered with noble trees and a 
verdant sward; at your feet commence the Adelaide 
plains running west and north for many miles, as 
fiir as the eye can see, you observe how extensively 
the land has been enclosed and cultivated, and the 
former arid surface of the plains changed into 
waving corn-fields; the town of Adelaide next 
catches your attention, and beyond that, the waters 
of the Gulf, and the Inlet which forms the Port, 
with the tall masts of the shipping. 

On the highest part of the range has been 
erected an excellent inn, substantially built of stone, 
and well furnished ; this place is, during the heat of 
summer, much resorted to by parties from town, 
who wish to enjoy the pleasant mildness of the 
temperature. From the inn to Mount Barker the 
road is in progress of being made, but not yet com* 
pleted, as it is of some extent. I am indebted to 
my friend, Mr. Robert Davenport, for the following 
account of this district, he having resided there 
some years on his estate of Battunga, and I 
proceed in his own words : — 

'^ This district takes its name from the mountain 
in the neighbourhood, called Mount Barker; it 
rises to upwards of 3000 feet above the sea level, 
and is a distinguished object for many miles around. 
The locality has been esteemed one of the finest 
tracts of country in New Holland. All British 
grains and fruits are here climatized. I should 



152 MOUNT BARKER, AI«D 

believe^ that on the rich and sheltered elopes and 
valleys, %\ie natural soil will yield, varying from 
two, three, and more successive seasons, wheat, po- 
tatoes, and beans ; (plants, which an English far- 
mer would say, are good tests of the capabilities of 
land) crops, in quality and abundance equal to the 
highest artificial products of this country. Indeed, 
the climate and products of the hills, are delight- 
fully adapted for the residence of British habits 
and tastes. 

" In alluding to what is more properly the Mount 
Barker District, as lying immediately at the foot of 
that mountain — I would comprehend in my esti- 
mate, other more or less broad localities, which 
rank with any in beauty and fruitfulness. 

"Having, since I returned to this country, in 
June last, travelled through the west and south 
of England, to the Land's End— 'partly with a view 
to observe and compare the features and rocks which 
are characteristic of that part of the kingdom, j 
am at liberty, perhaps, to express a judgment on 
their resemblance to portions of South Australia, 
with which I am better acquainted. Excepting water 
scenery (of which there is a scarcity) to enliven and 
enrich the landscape, I do not see in what re- 
spect the choicest portions of the hilly districts in 
the colony, are not comparable to the most attrac- 
tive in Devonshire, and worthy of as spirited land- 
lords and noble mansions. 

'^ In passing this estimate, which, by some, may 



ADJACENT DISTRICTS. 153 

be thought too flattering, a little indulgence may. be 
allowed, whether needed or not, on account of the 
brightness of our climate, and the evergreen appear- 
ance of the foliage. We have the alluvial moulds, 
which have noted that county in the vegetable 
world, and proximate thereto, the metalliferous rocks 
which have distinguished the barren county of 
Com wall. It appeared to me, that a corresponding 
kind of igneoud agency beneath, acting upon ex^ 
actly similar rocks, had produced a very like 
sur&ce — ^in rounded hills, interwoven much one 
with the other, presenting with their long and 
gentle slopes, or abrupt sides, a beautiful and diver- 
sified aspect. Near to the pretty village of Bloom- 
field in Somersetshire, at the foot of the line of hills 
which run into Cornwall — ^where some men, in the 
centre of a grassy farm were at work, opening a 
shaft to a newly discovered vein of copper ore, I 
was especially struck with the resemblances in the 
lay of slaty and quartz rocks, and in the variegated 
scenery which enclosed all the view, hill and dale, 
adapted for the grazier or the plough. 

'< The best portions of land on the hills, as some 
of the most eligible parts of the plains, were taken 
up, in the earlier history of the colony, by pur- 
chasers of " special surveys," who, in selecting such, 
were privileged to choose not less than 4000 out 
of an extent surveyed for them by the Government 
not exceeding 15,000; that amount then constituted 



154 MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. 

a special survey, Such a system of selection Teas 
soon abolished. 

" The original proprietors of these surveys, are, in 
a few cases, resident as part occupiers, and most of 
the occupied land being in the hands of small 
farmers — men, many of them, risen from the 
labouring class, by earnings gotten in the colony, 
who have taken 40, 80, or more acres, for a term of 
7, 10, or 14 years at an improving rent, generally 
commencing with 3^, 4«, or 5^ per acre, and ordi- 
narily, with a right of pre-emption at a sum 
agreed upon. 

" The Mount Barker 'special survey' is thus largely 
appropriated by numerous and respectable parties, 
some of whom are gentlemen engaged formerly 
in professional pursuits in this country, on whom 
the attractions of rural life and independence, with 
the hopes, it may be, of planting rising families in 
a new and expansive world, had operated to place 
them in their new sphere. Visitors to the colony 
from India and elsewhere, who commonly resort to 
Mount Barker to be refreshed by its verdant scenery 
and cooler clime, find large hospitality and English 
comforts at the abodes which welcome them. 
Wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and maize, are exten- 
sively grown; dairy cows and flocks of sheep, are 
kept ; bacon is much cured ; and the quantity of 
land, substantially fenced for all rural purposes, is 
very considerable. Attached to this survey, and 



NAIENB. 155 

oommandiiig a majestic view, is the site for the Town- 
ship. It is the ^county town* for the District ; and 
contains a Court-house, where a bench of magis- 
trates assembles once a week — a police station — 
a post office — a school house — a steam flour mill — 
an inn, and some private dwelling places. The 
population increases, and the stone buildings 
assume a respectable appearance. Mr. Duncan 
McFarlane is the principal resident here. His 
substantial and handsome bam is the most conspi- 
cuous erection. It is hoped that his success will 
lead to the rearing of a corresponding dignified 
dwelling place. Mr. McFarlane has grown great 
quantities of grain— used Ridley's reaping machine, 
and employed numbers of the Germans. 

"The village of Hahndorf, populated by from 
300 to 400 Germans, is located on a distant part of 
this estate. In common with other of their country- 
men in the colony, they are pleased with their 
adopted country, where they are prosperous and 
free. 

" The same kind of progress is making on the 
survey, north and west of Mount Barker, of which 
*Naime' is the township. Here, likewise, are 
signs of considerable advance in trade and import- 
ance. Sev^al substantial stone-built dwellings are 
erected — a chapel — a windmill — ^inn and shops, and 
various trades are conducted. Mr. Smillie, father 
to the Advocate-general, is a large owner and 
occupier of this survey. The scenery around his 



156 MOUNT DARKER DISTRICT. 

dwelling is very imposing. The style of his house 
— its flag-stone simplicity — reminded me of the old 
Gothic erections of home ; and the hospitality is 
quite in .keeping. 

'^ Bearing west and south to Mount Barker, ex- 
tending some ten miles distant, is the ^ Three Bro- 
thers Special Survey.' It contains enterprising 
settlers, some of whom possess beautiful forms, luxu- 
riant gardens and orchards. Some gentleinen are 
imitating their forefathers, by laying out grounds 
in broad old English style. 'Echunga Springs,' 
the property of the Hon. Jacob Hagen, Member of 
Council, has a most valuable garden and orchard of 
more than seven acres in extent, producing, in 
abundance, all British fruits and vegetables ; and the 
spot is enriched with the best fruits of the south of 
Europe, and the choicest forest trees and garden 
flowers. The estate is tenanted and ably superin- 
tended by Mr. Duffield, who has very successfully 
cultivated the hop, and manu&ctured the wine 
known as ' Echunga Hock,' in flavour resembling 
Moselle. A substantial wind-mill has lately been 
erected close to the fSsurm premises. 

^^ East of the Three Brothers, and spreading south 
of Mount Barker to the source of the Angas, lies 
the * Davenport Survey,' — a pretty country, lightly 
timbered, and presenting, with its open and undu- 
lating scenery, a park-like appearance. In a few of 
its richest valleys, where water is more accessible, a 
like system of location is carried on. A man eon- 



MACCLESFIELD. 157 

stnicts his cottage, opens a spring of water, forms a 
garden, and encloses a field or paddock, keeps a 
few head of cattle, grows his own grain, and fre- 
quently kills his own meat. Many English, Scotch, 
and Irish, are thus scattered about. Some are pos- 
sessed of drays and bullocks, and the few farm im- 
plements which are needed, and thus rendered more 
independent. Those who have them not, get accom- 
modation, generally, by a species of barter with a 
neighbour, of labour produce. But little money is 
had or circulated in the country. 

" The township of this survey has been named 
* Macclesfield,' in honour of the late Earl, not 
judiciously, I think, as the association, to strangers, 
would revert to the large town of that name in 
England, whereas the spot has the character only of 
a pretty rural village. The native name is * Kango- 
wirranilla,' — ^meaning, it is said, the place for kan- 
garoo and water. The site is planned on the sources 
of the Angas, whose bubbling stream winds through 
the village, with a copious and unceasing supply of 
the purest water — sufficient, and the fall may be 
available, to turn an overshot wheel of great power. 
A few tradesmen, such as carpenters, wheelwrights, 
tailors, shoemakers, and blacksmiths, are settled 
here, and have always occupation. There is need 
of more such. A medical practitioner. Dr. Cotter, 
resides here. Mr. Samuel Davenport has a stone- 
built substantial cottage, and is extensively cul- 
tivating — with his other broader occupations, the 



158 MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. 

grape and other fruits on the slopes verging the 
streak. 

'* Here, also, is a place of worship, and the Rev. 
Mr. Austin, who has a pretty estate in the neigh- 
bourhood, on which he resides, with a large family^ 
has most liberally tendered his services as a pastor. 
He regularly supplies the pulpit-desk, for which a 
cultivated mind, previous habits, and religions devo- 
tion, have eminently qualified him. A congr^ation 
— numerous and respectable — assembles on the 
Sabbath, in the morning, and alternate afternoons, 
either at Mount Barker or Strathalbyn, which 
places Mr. Austin then visits to conduct public wor- 
ship. The Governor has appropriated and reserved 
for common use around this township, an extent of 
country — in itself, least available for agriculture — 
denominated Park-land. The villagers, who, to- 
gether, have a considerable herd of cattle, use it as 
common pasture land. As the day sinks to repose, 
in the soft lustre of retiring eve, the children return 
with their village charge, whose approach may be 
known by the tinkling of the bell, or the bellow of 
the cattle ; and you are reminded of some of the 
most peaceful and serene of home-associations, 
where — 

** The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea.'* 

" A resident in a new country, where society is 
emerging from its most infant condition, is led easily 
to account for the origin and establishment of some 



AlfOAS AND MEADOWS SURVEY. 159 

of the fundamental common-law rights of the mother 
land. 

*' Lower down the stream, about seven miles, is the 
township of Strath^lbyn^ belonging to the ^ Angas 
Survey/ This was taken by Dr. Rankin, and 
other Scotch proprietors ; it bears evident signs of 
Scotch enterprise and success* Dr. Rankin's place 
is quite picturesque. His house stands on a rocky 
eminence, overlooking the bed of the Angas, and 
the high craggy rocks which skirt some portion of 
its channel. He has diverted the stream of the river 
to irrigate, at pleasure, his fertile garden and potatoe 
lands. 

^^ The occupiers on this survey are numerous; 
some quite wealthy, in amount of sheep and cattle. 
The township enlarges, has a good sized inn, and 
store^house, commodious for travellers, to and 
from Wellington and Lake Victoria. 

" The * Meadows Survey,' lies to the south and 
east of the * Three Brothers.' This contains 
excellent land, and has produced some of the 
heaviest wheat grown in the colony. Generally, I 
think, it is more sheltered from the north by the 
hills in the back ground ; and the subsoil frequently 
being clay, which I consider best for wheat lands in 
a warm climate, accounts partly for the farmer's 
success. Last year, wheat was grown here, by 
Messrs. Stamford, of the weight of 661bs. 2oz. to 
the imperial bushel. 

" The farm I purchased soon after I arrived in the 



160 MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. 

colony, and which I occupied whilst there, is a 
portion of this survey ; 300 acres are now appor- 
tioned off, and enclosed, by three and four post and 
rail fences. I found it|exceedingly productive of Eu- 
ropean grains and fruits, of almost every description . I 
have orchards and plantations of the apple, peach, 
almond, &c. and some hundreds of trees. The olive 
thrives, and the best varieties of the grape; though 
beautiful in growth, I doubt if the orange will 
ripen its fruit on the hills. My best trees I 
got from Mr. Mc Arthur's garden in New South Wales. 
I have encouraged a few mechanics and labourers 
to settle around me, whose employ I could at any 
time command, and who, by reason of their pro- 
ductive little homesteads placing them in so inde- 
pendent a position, I have never found to be any 
incumbrance. I have named the place * Battunga,' 
after the native appellation, which the natives interpret 
to mean * the place of large trees.' The native names 
are not only significant, but^ generally, melodious, 
and I think there is some interest in adopting 
them, wherever practicable, in place of any foreign 
names. They appear to have a designation which is 
expressive of some peculiarity, for every spot, or 
location. 

'^ Messrs. Stamford have a large farm and dairy 
here: I have seen tons of cheese on their premises; 
they were farmers formerly in Kent. Lieutenant 
Dashwood has large and complete farm premises 
also. His place, enclosed by hills, is very pretty, 



MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. l&l 

as well as productive. He has a valuable breed of 
short-horn cattle about him. 

" The ' Greeuhili's Survey/ south and east of the 
Meadows^ has a considerable breadth of rich land, 
some of the best agricultural slopes in the colony, 
and its grazing qualities seem to be superior ; the 
scenery generally is hilly, sometimes very steep, but 
expands to a flat of great extent, making the view 
truly noble at some points, where it embraces the 
magnificent and soft verdure of a park. The eye 
surveys a scene^ worthy, even in its wild luxuriance, 
to rank with the princely domains of this country. 
With a graceful outline of hills, exposing, more or 
less, in bold prominence, bright verdure, or rocky 
frontage, is contrasted the gloom of surrounding 
ravines, down which streams fall to the Finniss, 
whose plains, opening below, afford you, in the 
distance, a view of Lake Alexandrina, Point Mal- 
colm on the opposite shore, and the white sand- 
banks of the Goorong. This survey belongs to 
several proprietors, most of whom, I believe, are 
resident in this country. 

" The foregoing may supply a slight acquaintance 
with that part of the colony, with which I am 
better acquainted. I have no wish to disparage any 
other, which have the same kind of attractions, and 
are undergoing a like progress. The road8> 
throughout, and connecting these several surveys, 
are generally very good, naturally. 

" If the notions of the great Sir Walter Raleigh, 

H 



1^ MOXmT BARKfiR DISTRICT. 

who has been styled the " Father of Colonization,^ 
are sound, as to the inevitable growth and enlarge- 
ment of a nation, with onr goyemment, institutions, 
<^limate and country, we, surely, promise to be 
great, populous, and wealthy. The climate is very 
agreeable, and so frequently chilly, that I would 
recommend to any one about to became a resident 
on the hills, the providing a good supply of warm 
English clothes. 

^' In some places, either in streams or water holes, 
there is permanent surface water; and generally, 
plenty for all purposes. The winter rains, when I 
was in the colony, were excessive ; summer showers 
occasionally felL The farm produce, I have said, 
is abundant and excellent. I am hardly able, confi- 
dently, to speak to average amounts, neither do I 
think it altogether desirable. Soils vary ; situation, 
aspect, and other causes, materially influence the 
eligibility of spots ; some of the more &voured of 
which, will yield, I should believe, equal to any 
alluvial land in the world. Soils are more or less 
sandy, loamy, stiff or clayey, or contain greater 
quantities of vegetable mould, as they do in this 
country. The farm implements in use, generally, 
are made in the neighbourhood, and are preferable 
to those imported. The ox is in general use for 
draft purposes, but I think horses vrill be commonly 
introduced for tillage, and home work. The former 
is better for turning up new lands, and for the steady 
draft required on the roads. 



XOtJNT BARKER DISTRICT. 163 

^ In Australia, — as, I suppoee, on wfld lands in all 
new countries, — you readily tell, by the species of 
timber seen growing, what is the quality of the soil, 
and in some cases the natare of the subsoil. The 
differences are soon known. On the hills, the most 
hungry looking soils grow trees of the stateliest 
dimennons, but of a particular kind only — commonly 
called the stringy bark — a yery serviceable timber 
in the construction of houses, fiirm premises, and 
fences^ There is vast abundance of it All our 
best lands are encompassisd by these hilly forests. 
Settlers are allowed full liberty to take what they 
please for their own purposes, but any man working 
in the forest as an independent trader, the law re- 
quires him to have a license from the Government, 
whch costs £1, and has to be renewed annually. 

^^ I am disposed to account for ^e lesser density of 
the forests in Australia, to those of cooler regions — 
such as New Zealand and Van Diemen's Land — 
to the more destructive effect of fires during the 
summer. Formerly, and before the increase of 
cattle and sheep kept under the herbage, these must 
have raged with a much more awful effect. They 
consume quantities of the dead and fidlen timber, 
and kill much which has the vigour of life and age. 

** I am not able to classify, or technically to allude 
to, our native grasses. The species, I judge, are 
numerous, and very nourishing, and during a great 
portion of the year present a bright and meadow- 
like appearance. A species of wild oat has perhaps 

M 2 



164 MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. 

most substance. The sward on some spots is as fine 
and close as need be. 

" We have, in the Mount Barker district, good and 
useful building stone, slate, and marble. Abundance 
of limestone. Just previous to leaving the colony, 
I purchased of the Government a hilly eminence, 
which appears to be a solid mass of the purest lime* 
stone; many cart loads had been dug out. We 
have, also, brick earth, which is occasionally used. 

"At Mount Barker, cockatoos, parrots, &c., pilfer 
our grain very much. Cockatoos very soon find 
out a newly sown piece of land. Parrots often 
inhabit a wheat rick as do sparrows at home. 

"We have no annoyance from insects, except occa- 
sionally, in the summer months, by a musquito fly; 
and one season a species of grub proved destructive 
to a variety of plants. 

" In conclusion, I would just observe, that as neigh- 
bourhoodf? rise, families grow up, and population 
increases, it is very desirable that some adequate 
supply of the means of religious instruction and 
suitable education, accompany such a progressive 
condition of the community. 

" At Mount Barker, especially,, there is needed a 
clergyman,* and it is believed that a man who really 
valued the duties which would devolve upon him in 
his office, would find support there, cmd his position 
one of extending interest. Here are a number of 
residents, anxious for their own edification, and the 

* Vide Note, page 126. 



MOUNT BARKER DISTRICT. 165 

instruction of their children, and who are more 
attached to the form of worship adopted in the 
establishment. 

" And let me, for a moment, revert you, to your 
classic associations. 

**In South Australia we have the climate of Greece, 
and, I imagine, all the elements which constituted 
the greatness of that ancient world. 

"What shall forbid us to be — some future day — 
as distinguished in the temple of fame, and far 
more illustrious in the temple of virtue! Our 
laurels, like our evergreen foliage, need never fade. 
Our conquests will be those of peace ; our triumphs, 
those of truth ! . 

'' Alone in the ocean, as -is Australia — ^free from 
foreign control, or native power— ^the people essen- 
tially British in character, institutions, and habits — 
is it not their destiny to exercise vast influence over 
the Southern world — to encircle the beautiful and 
teeming Islands of the Pacific —and to roll even a 
tide of light to the broad East ! 

^* Of the Ancients, let us retain their monuments of 
genius, — ^to adorn our cities — to fire our senate ; but 
let us not forget that we possess a wisdom which 
they never knew, — which informs us pf eternal 
laws, which points us to a ^ Known God,' and 
Redeemer." 



CHAPTER VI, 



THE GOVERNMENT OF THE COLONY, AND CIVIL AND 
MILITARY ESTABLISHMENTS. 



Ettmate of Expenditure for 1846, 





£. 


«. 


d. 


I Governor and Judge . 


2300 








CTVn, ISTABU8HHXNT. 




440 








3 CoQiidls . 


275 








4 Col. Secretaiy's Department 


1164 








5 Col. Treasurer's Dq>tint . 


700 








6 Auditor General's Deptmt 


350 








7 Customs Department , 


1747 










L804 


18 





9 Deptmt of Public Works . 


769 


1 





10 Post-office Department . 


993 


3 


9 


1 1 Colonial Store Department 


200 








12 Medical Department . 


539 


3 


6 


13 Harbour Department . 


1255 








14 Police Department, 


6835 17 


9 


15 Inspector of W<d|^t8 and 








measures . 


60 








16 Aborig^es Department . 


820 








17 Commissioner PublicLands 


300 








18 Port Lincoln . 


430 









2300 



18,683 4 



OOVBRNICBNT OF THE COLONY. 



167 



19 Supreme Court Office 

20 Law Officers « • « 

21 R^;ister General's Deptmt 

22 Sheriff's Office 

23 Resident Magistrate's Court 

24 Ditto at Bayer Murray 

25 Coroner • • • « 

26 Bench of Magistrates • 

27 Gaol Establishment . 

28 Colonial Chaplain « 

29 Miscellaneous . 



JUDICIAL, 

£. 

. 552 
• 500 
600 
410 
622 
300 
180 
120 














£. $. d. 



848 1 


6 


350 





3514 






4132 

350 

3514 



6 





^8,979 5 6 



A. M. MVNBT, 

Col<mial Secretary* 

The Government of the colony is vested in the 
Governor, and is assisted by the Legislative Council ; 
there is, besides, an Executive Council, for the 
hearing of appeals from the superior courts, com- 
posed of the Governor and the three highest govern- 
ment officers. His Excellency has had to support 
his dignity, hitherto, on the very meagre salary of 
£1000. per annum. It has now been increased by 
one half. The Council, formerly, consisted only of 
the Governor and four other official members ; since 
the passing of the Act for the better government of 
South Australia, it is composed of materials more 
congenial to the colonists, and may be looked upon 



168. THE OOVBRNUBKT 

as a first step towards a representative assembly. 
The members are all selected by his Excellency^ 
who has the power to suspend, but cannot remove, 
the non-official members, without the consent of Her 
Majesty first obtained. They are — 

His Excellency the Governor "n 

Colonial Secretary f . 

Advocate-General ?' 

Registrar-General j 

Thomas Shuldam O'Halloran, Esq. "n 

John Morphett, Esq. f _ ^ 

Jkoob Hagen, Esq. V Non-official. 

Charles Harvey Bagot, Esq. j 

The Members of Council are styled, Honourable. 

The Governor retains a casting vote in addition 
to . his vote as a member. A very neat Council 
chamber has been built close to Government House, 
the furniture of which, being made of colonial 
mahogany, called blackwood, has a very elegant 
appearance. 

Although the Council as at present constituted 
works satisfactorily, it is hoped, that the time may 
not be far distant, when Her Majesty may see fit to 
grant us a Representative Assembly; Guizot, in 
his "Histoire de la Civilization,*' lays down the 
principle that, " NuUe taxe n*est legitime, si elle 
n'est consentee par celui qui doit la payer, . . . 
ce maxime fait par tie de ce tresor de justice, et de 
bon sens que le genre humain ne perd jamais tout 
entien" We are sufficiently impatient to see this 



OP THE COLONY. 169 

maxim applied to South Australia, which contains 
a hr greater amount of respectability, and superior 
intelligence, in proportion to the number of inhabi- 
tants, than is generally supposed could be the case. 
The taxes which the colonists have paid since the 
year 1837, are as follows : — 

1837 Administration of GoTernor Hindmanh £3S6 
1S38 . . Ditto, and 

Colonel Crawler 2,030 

1839 . . Colonel Gawler . 19,826 

* 1840 . . Ditto . 30,199 

1841 . . Ditto, and 

Groyemor Grey . 26,720 

1842 • . Governor Grey . 22,074 

1843 . . Ditto • 24,142 

1844 . . Ditto . 27,878 

1845 • . Ditto . 29,283 



^182,538 



This is no trifling sum to have been paid, without 
having had a word to say in the manner of its 
levying or application. 

The Official Establishment of the Governor con- 
sists of a Private Secretary, Captain 0' Halloran (who 
acts also as Clerk of the Council), an Assistant 
Private Secretary, and a Chief Clerk. 

TTis Colonial Secretary's jDcpor^m^n*.— Colonial 
Secretary, Hon. A. M. Mundy, (salary £600) 
and four subordinate officers.— -Mr. Mundy was 
foimerly Private Secretary to Governor Grey, who, 
on the retirement of Mr. Jackson, promoted him to 
this oflQice. 



170 THE aoVERNMEKT 

The Treamry. — The Treasurer, Mr. Gouger, is 
absent on leave, and not expected to return, (salary 
£500) — this office is temporarily filled by the acting 
Registrar-General, Mr. Macdonald. One clerk is 
found sufficient to conduct the active duties of the 
office. Captain Sturt, I believe, is to receive the 
appointment of Treasurer, on his return from his 
exploration. 

A uditoT" General s Department. — Auditor-General, 
Mr. W. Maturin, who is also Dep. Asst. Conu 
General of the Forces. 

Mr. Maturin has been complimented by the 
public papers for the very dear and lucid arrange- 
ment of his financial Accounts Current. As Adelaide 
appears now to have been selected as a permanent 
military station, arrangements will doubtless have 
been entered into to allow of Mr. Maturin's being 
permanently stationed at Adelaide, and his services 
continued in this office, for which he is peculiarly 
qualified. 

The Customs DepartmenU^CollectoT (£360), 
Senior Landing Waiter (£200), Chief Clerk (£180), 
and eight subordinate officers; Mr. Torrens, the son 
of Colonel Torrens, the chairman of the original 
Board of Commissioners, to whose talented services 
the colony was so much indebted in the early yeaiB 
of its existence, is the Collector ; this Department 
has for the last twelve months been taken under the 
direct control of the Board of Customs in London. 
The Import Duties consist of the following items : 



OF THE COLONY. 171 

On spirits, produce of United Kingdom or 
Possessions, Ss. per gallon. All other spirits, 12^. 
per gallon. Wines, ad valorem 15 per cent AU 
other goods 5 per cent. Cigars, Ss. per lb. 
Manufactured tobacco and snuff, 2s. per pound. 
All other tobacco, except stalks, Is. 6d. per 
pound. These, with some minor articles, form 
the principal source of Customs revenue, which 
produce about £215000 per annum. 

In order to meet the deficiency in the Customs 
receipts by the abolition of every description of 
Port charge, which amounted to about £2,100 per 
annum. His Excellency obtained the sanction of the 
Council to alter the rates of duties on the following 
articles, pro rata, as under :— • 

Tea, henceforth to be charged with a duty of 2d. 
per lb. Coffee, 4s. per cwt. Rice, Is. 6d. per cwt. 
Sugar, 2s. per cwt. Refined, 4s. per cwt. Draught 
beer, 3d. per gallon. Bottled beer, 4fd. pei* gallon. 
From these sources. His Excellency calculates on an 
addition of £1 ,270 — thus making the actual loss only 
£600 or 800 per annum, which cannot for a moment 
be put in comparison with the immense benefit to 
accrue to the colony from the abolition of the port 
dues. 

The articles enumerated above, on which the duty 
has been increased to meet the deficiency caused by 
the abolishment of the port dues, are those which 
may be taken to form a direct tax on the whole 
population, as they comprise items of daily and 



172 THE GOVERNMBNT 

very extensive consumptioD. The duties on spirits 
and tobacco are, of course, indirect taxes, as no one 
is forced to either drink spirits or smoke tobacco. 
The total amount of imports, amounted for the year 
^ending 5th January, 1845, £119,648. 18«. 3e2., of 
which £63,635 were from Great Britain, and £54,693 
from British colonies. Colonial manufactures have 
been, within the last twelve months, considerably in- 
creased, by which many articles, formerly obtained 
from England, will be in future dispensed with, and 
our exports, which, in 1844, stood in the proportion 
of £82,268 to £106,660.— the amount of imports 
consumed in the colony, — have, in the year 1845,* 
exceeded them ; the unparalleled richness and quan- 
tity of precious ores^ now being extracted from the 
copper and lead mines, will, from this year forward, 
produce a still larger balance in favour of our 
colony. 

* Judging from the accounts that hare, from time to time, come 
to my hands> during the last ten months, I am warranted in esti- 
mating the amount of exports for the year 1845 as under :^i 



Wool . 


• i 


^670,000 


Com of all sorts, and flour 


30,000 


Oil and whalebone 


• 1 


5,000 


Gum 


• a 


12,000 


Copper and lead ores 


• 


40,000 


All other articles 


• 


3,000 



^160,000 
Which will leave an immense balance in favour of the colony. 



OP THE COLON V. 173 

Survey andLandDepartment. — Surveyor-General, 
£. C. Frome, Esq. Captain in the Royal Engineers, 
(£700); Deputy Surveyor-General, Thos. Burr, Esq. 
(£350); three subordinate officers, and a detach- 
ment of Royal Sappers and Miners. Captain 
Frome has personally and thoroughly inspected all 
parts of the colony, where it was likely a demand 
for land mightensue, and the most minute informa- 
tion can now be obtained in the Survey office, of 
the quality and situation of any portion of land 
which the colonist may require. 

To the scientific attainments of Mr. Deputy Sur- 
veyor-General Burr, the colony is indebted, not 
only for many beautiful and elaborate maps, but 
also for valuable information on the geology and 
mineralogy of the Province, Mr. Burr being an 
eminent mineralogist. 

Post Office Department. — Postmaster-General, 
John Watts, Esq. and two clerks. Whenever a 
vessel arrives from England, the Postmaster-Gene- 
raFs good humour is sorely tried by the impatience 
of the inhabitants, who are so eager to receive their 
letters, that they make no allowance for the time 
absolutely necessary to sort the immense mails 
which usually arrive by them, with the small force 
at his disposal. 

Inland mails are regularly despatched to and 
from the Port to Mount Barker and the south 
country, and Gawler Town in the north, which is 
now to be extended to Angas Park, Kapunda, &c. 



174 THB GOVERNMENT 

His^ Excellency has also placed a sum on the esti- 
mate to establish an overland mail to Rivoli Bay, and 
Portland Bay, from whence a postal communication 
already exists with Port Phillip and thence to Sydney, 
so that we shall have an unbroken land communica* 
tion from Adelaide to Sydney, which will be of im* 
mense advantage to both colonies. The rates of post*^ 
age are rather high in these ^ 'penny post" cheap days. 

Colonial StoreAeepe7\ Thos. Gilbert Esq., salary 
£200. This is a department which is of little or 
no use, and will probably soon be abolished. For* 
merly, before the present system of ** tenders" in- 
troduced by Captain Grey came into force, the 
articles required for the use of Government were 
all delivered to the Colonial Storekeeper, who 
superintended their distribution whenever required. 
Parties tendering now for supplies, are expected to 
deliver those goods, themselves, in such quantities 
and places as may be specified. It may appear 
ridiculous to a stranger to see the advertisements in 
the papers, by the Colonial Secretary, calling for 
tenders for such things as a '^penknife," or a 
** chair,'* or " table;" but the system is a good one, 
and it must apply to the nK>8t expensive, as to the 
most trifling article, to be effective. 

Medical Department — Colonial Surgeon, J. G. 
Nash, Esq. A medical board, consisting of 
the Colonial Surgeon, as president, and four of 
the leading physicians and surgeons, has been 
appointed to investigate the qualifications of 



OP THE COLONY. 175 

practttiohersy who may wish to exercke their pro*? 
fession in the colony. The hospital is situated in 
part of the Park Lands, in a very airy and pleasant 
situation. 

Harhaur Department. — Harhour-master, Captain 
lipMn, R. N.) salary £300 : expense of pilot, boats' 
crews^ light-ship, &c. is £955 per annum. Cap* 
tain lipson acts also as water Police Magistrate, 
assisted generally by another Justice of the Peace, 
in case, as is of not unfrequent occurrence, of dis- 
putes between the crews and commanders of vessels. 
During the whole time Captain Lipson has been 
Harbour-master, no accident of any moment has 
happened to any vessel, either entering or sailing out 
of our port. Although all and every port due is 
now abolished (a fact which will bear repetition over 
and over again) any vessel that may arrive in the 
Gulf will be furnished, as usual, with pilot, and all 
ihat assistance from the Harbour-master they were 
accustomed to under the former system. The Har^ 
bour-master has a substantial and convenient house 
appropriated to his use, the ground floor of which 
furnishes offices for the collector of customs. 

Police Department. — The total expense to the 
colony of this force is £6835 Is 9d per annum, and 
consists of one Police Magistrate and Commissioner 
of Police, Captain Finniss, two inspectors of 
mounted police, and 38 non-commissioned officers 
and constables, and one sub-inspector, and 19 men 
in the Metropolitan foot police^ Too much praise 



176 THE GOVBRNMBNT 

cannot be bestowed on the whole of this corps ; 
they are as efficient and respectable a body of men 
as could be found anywhere. It was first organized 
under Major O'Halloran's able superintendence^ 
who sometime since resigned, when it passed into 
the hands of a no less deserving officer, who con- 
tinues, like his predecessor, to merit the respect of 
the colonists. Strict sobriety, respectful de- 
meanour, and uniform good behaviour, characterize 
this corps, both mounted and foot, and the enco- 
miums bestowed upon them by the Governor and 
other members of Council, are no less merited, than 
they are often repeated. A new Police Act, 7 and 8 
Vict. No. 19, was passed in 1844, providing for the 
regulation of the Police and the municipal govern- 
ment of cities and towns in the province. Two 
native constables are included in the above number ; 
they are very useful, in the bush, to trace any 
native depredators ; the keenness of their perception 
is most extraordinary, and they have several times 
done good service. 

Aborigines Department. — Protector, Mr. Moor- 
house, £300 ; Salaries of Schoolmaster and Mistress, 
provisions and miscellaneous expenses, £520 ; in all 
£820 per annum. The name of the office suffi- 
ciently explains itself. Mr. Moorhouse's duties 
consist in looking after the interest of the 
Aborigines, both in town and country, and to super- 
intend the schools at the native locations. Mr. 
Moorhouse, is thoroughly conversant with the 



OF THB COLONY. 177 

native language, and possesses considerable influence 
over the different tribes whidi are in the habit of 
visiting Adelaide. Considering the miserable failure 
that has, in all the Australian colonies, attended 
almost every exertion on the part of the Govern- 
ment to make some progress in the civilization 
of the natives, a feet which is admitted by the 
different Protectors themselves, the continued expen- 
diture on their education becomes a subject of much 
animadversion. There can be no doubt that, to do 
them good at all, they must be placed under con- 
siderable restraint, to break them of those roving 
habits, which has been the chief bar to their civiliza- 
tion ; and in spite of long reports every quarter from 
the Protector, stating " how many can spell," " how 
many can read or write, &c." I, for one, maintain, 
that no corresponding good has ever resulted from 
the outlay of the money ; and a great deal more 
positive benefit would accrue to these poor people, 
if the annual grant were expended in providing a 
regular supply of food for them, as their means of 
procuring it for themselves are daily becoming 
more circumscribed, according as the country is 
cultivated and settled upon by the Europeans. 

A writer on this subject, in the colony, has the 
following graphic remarks, in speaking of the last 
Report:— 

" The schools for native boys and girls, we are 
informed, have been conducted on the ^ usual plan.' 
No doubt of it ; and with the usual results, and the 

N 



178 THE GOVERNMENT 

the usual success. Eight years the usual plan has 
been at work, and not the fraction of a native can 
be produced to shew that the smallest good has been 
gained. Yet we believe the Protector and his 
assistants have laboured with commendable dili- 
gence and earnestness ; but it is the system — the 
* usual plan' — that we quarrel with, not with the 
individuals who strive to conquer its impossibilities. 
When the missionaries began to teach the natives in 
their own jargon, we endeavoured to shew them the 
difficulty of conveying to their minds new ideas for 
which their meagre vocabulary possessed no equiva- 
lents ; and their subsequent instruction in English 
has been very nearly as wide of the mark— for all 
practical purposes as worthless and ridiculous. The 
attempt to instruct the young savage in arithmetic 
when his fingers are sufficient for all the knowledge 
of Cocker he is ever likely to need, or to hold 
reading or writing to be preliminary steps to civili- 
zation instead of digging, shews a lamentable 
ignorance of the first principles by which knowledge 
suited to their condition is to be attained. But the 
effi)rt to convey religious instruction to these children, 
under their present circumstances, is almost an 
outrage upon common sense— the very perfection of 
zeal, without prudence or discretion. Yet the 
Protector coolly states, that out of ninety children, 
of whom three only have been in regular attendance, 
fifty actually know, in addition to the cardinal 
points of Christianity, the * nature of future rewards 



OP THB COLONY. 179 

and punishments !' Verily, we take upon ourselves 
to declare, that if this assertion be correct, the black 
children of South Australia are more deeply versed 
in holy mysteries than the Bench of Bishops, and 
that their theological learning exceeds, by a long 
chalk, that of their teachers." 

Mr. Moorhouse, has, however, always zealously 
performed the duties belonging to his department, 
and in other respects been of much use, and done 
good service to the Aborigines generally. 

Commissioner of Public Lands, £300. per annum. 
This office is very ably filled by Charles Bonney, 
Esq. His Excellency, Governor Grey, shewed his 
usual discrimination in selecting this gentleman, 
when he was recommended to him as being pecu^ 
liarly qualified for it. Mr. Bonney was at the time 
resident in New South Wales, and has for years 
past had the reputation of being one of the best 
" bushmen " in any of the colonies. He was, also, 
the first to open the over-land line of communication 
between New South Wales and South Australia, on 
which occasion, he shewed great skill and judgment 
in conducting the party through the totally unknown 
country. The road once ascertained to be practica- 
ble, numerous other parties followed with stock, by 
which means the colony in a short time became 
abundantly supplied with both sheep and cattle. 

Mr. Bonney's office is one of great difficulty ; his 
duties consist in superintending the location of the 
numerous sheep and cattle runs, the collection of 

N 2 



180 THE GOVERNMENT 

afisessment on stocks, the definition of boundaries 
between the difierent stations, and the settlement of 
disputes, which are constantly occurring amongst the 
settlers themselves, by encroaching on each other's 
territory. To an intimate acquaintance with his in- 
tricate duties and strict impartiality, he adds the 
most imperturbable good temper, — an essential 
quality, where his decisions are almost sure to give 
offence to either one or the other ; nor has he hesi- 
tated, by them, to sacrifice his private friendship to 
his duty as a public officer. 

The Law Officers. — Chief Justice, His Honour 
Charles Cooper, salary £800. Advocate-general, 
Hon. William Smime,£400; Registrar-general, Cap- 
tain Sturt, £400. ; Sheriff, C. B. Newenham, Esq. 
£350. ; Master of Court, Charles Mann, Esq., £300. ; 
Resident Magistrate, Mr. Wigley, £400.; Coroner, 
£160. These are the principal law officers of the 
colony, and their respective salaries ; the expense at- 
tending the judicial branch of the Government for 
salaries of subordinate officers is near about £1000. 
per annum more. 

The laws of England, with those enacted by the 
colonial legislature, which have to be confirmed at 
home, are administered by the Judge, who presides 
in the supreme court of the Province. The sessions 
are periodical, and Mr. Cooper is judge in the 
several Departments of Equity, Civil and Criminal 
Law. An appeal from his decision lies to the 
Gk>vemor in Council. The constitution of the court 



OF THE COLONY. 181 

and the mode of trial, are similar to wliat appertain 
to the courts of Westminster. 

I must not omit to record, here, the very uni- 
versal estimation, in which our worthy and amiable 
judge is held in the colony. 

According to the Registration Act, 5 Vic. No. 8, 
all deeds, conveyances, contracts in writing, other 
than leases for periods not exceeding three years, 
and all wills and devises in writing and judgments, 
must be registered at the Registry Office, otherwise 
they are considered void. No judgment entered 
on a cognovit or warrant of attorney, nor any bill 
of sale or assignment is available for any creditor 
who may subsequently obtain judgment against the 
person giving the same, unless registered or executed 
within five days after it has been given, and posses- 
sion of the goods be taken and kept. 

This Act has had a very beneficial effect in the 
colony, and adds much to the security, and facilitates 
the transfer of property. Births, deaths, and mar- 
riages, are also registered in this office. 

Among the miscellaneous expenditure, amounting 
to £3514., there appears a sum £1500. for the pay- 
ment of interest on debentures. 

The infliction of this debt on the colony, and the 
misapplication of the emigration fund, will never 
cease to l^e a standing subject of reproach to the 
mother country, and our present ability to pay other 
people's debts only aggravates the injustice of it, 
as the money ought to be applied to the wants of 
the colony. 



182 



THE GOVERNMENT 



Since the latter end of 1841, a detachment of the 
96th Regiment has been quartered in Adelaide^ 
commanded by Captain Villers Butler. 

The sources from whence the public income is 
derived are enumerated as follows, in round numbers : 
Customs . . <3e2i>ooa 



Postage 

Fines and Fees . 

Licenses 

Depasturing Stock 

Mbcellaneous 



820 
2,050 
2,510 
1,750 
1,470 

;£29,600 



JRetum of the amount qf Mortgages on Land in the Province of South 
Australia^ registered during the years 1848 and 1844. 



Amount lent 


on Town Lands. . . , 
Country Lands . . 
Town and Country 

Totals .... 


1843. 


1844. 


£4,182 19 8 

14,196 17 4 

3,709 14 6 


£ 1,165 

13,860 10 6 

6,022 11 


£22,089 11 6 


£20,038 1 6 



J. W. MACDONALD, Acting Registrar-General. 
Registrar- Geuerars Office, 31st January, 184& 



Return ofliahUities secured by Bills of Sale, Judgments, and Warrants 
of Attorney, registered during the years 1848 and 1844. 



Bills of Sale 


1843. 


1844. 


£17,748 16 7 
1,089 19 7 
8,214 8 2 


£16,396 9 4 

632 6 

6,206 


Judgments • 


Warrants of Attorney 

Totals. . . 


£27,053 4 4 


£22,133 16 4 



J. W. MACDONALD, AcUug Registrar-Gcneral. 
Registrar* General's Office, 31st January, 1846. 



OF THE COLONY. 



183 



Qmparative JRetum of ths Number of Offenders eowoieted in the Province of 
South Australia^ in the Years ending September 80, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1848, and 
1844. 



IN THB BUPSHKB COURT. 



FBL01IIB8. 



Murder .....•• 

StabbiDg, cutting, or shooting with intent to kill, or do some 

bodily harm ....•• 

Manslaaghter ...... 

Highway robbery ...... 

Astaalt, with intent to rob . . . • 

Burglary . • • . . . . 

Stealing in a dwelliiig-honse ..... 

Burglariously breaking and entering dwelling-house, and 

stealing therefrom ..... 

Breaking and entering dwelling-house, and stealing therefrom 
Stealing In dwelling-honse, and putting the persons therein 

in bodily fear ...... 

Sheep-Stealing ...... 

Horse-stealing ...... 

Cattle-stealing ...... 

Beceiving stolen goods ..... 

Larceny ....... 

Larceny and former conviction .... 

Stealing from the person ..... 

Stealing in a warehoose ..... 

Forgery ... » • . • 

Uttering forged notes, orders, &c., with intent to defraud . 

Total felonies ...... 

1II8DBMBAH0R8. 

Assault, intent to commit rape . . . • 

Fraud ....... 

Assault 

Total Misdemeanors . • . . . 

Total ConTictions ..... 



Years ending Sept. 30. 
1844 



1840 



1841 



48 



1842 



36 



1843 
8 

1 



17 



IN THB GOURT OF QBITBRAL SBSSIGITe OP THB PBAGB. 



FBL0KIB8. 

Becei?ing stolen goods 

Larceny 

Larceny and former conTlction 



Total Felonies 

XI8DBMBAV0R8. 

Uttering counterfeit coin 



Total Misdemeanors 
Total GonTictions 



Total ConTictions in the Supreme Court 

Total ConTictions hi the Court of General Sessions of the Peace 



47 



Tbtal 



^ 



36 



36 31 26 



Colonial Societary's Office, October 34, 1845. 



A. M. MUNDT, Cobnial SecreUry. 



CHAPTER VII. 



LAND 8ALK8 RXGULATI0W9. 



Much has been writt^, and much will doubtless 
again be written, on the prolific subject of the 
disposal of the waste lands belonging to the Crown, 
in the Australian colonies. Many have been the 
opinions expressed, as to the policy of fixing a high 
or low value on those lands, but I believe all are 
pretty well agreed, by this time, that the system of 
disposing of those lands, according to the present 
plan of one uniform scale of value, and the applica- 
tion of the proceeds to emigration, has been, in 
practice, the most satisfactory in its results. What, 
indeed, can be wiser than the provision, that requires 
the proceeds of the land sold, to be appropriated in 
making that land available and productive, by the 
introduction of able-bodied labourers and their 
families ; and although at first sight, to a person 
who is not in a position to judge of the relative 
advantages offered to the emigrant, in choosing the 
place of his future domicile, it might appear, that 
preference should be given to those countries^ where 
land is cheapest, as in America and Canada, the 
Australian colonies will bear the strictest scrutiny, 
and convince the most sceptic, that the higher price 
of land here, is more than compensated by the 
superior climate, the absence of rigorous winters, 
and the infinitely less expense in bringing that land 
into cultivation, and making it productive in the 
first season. 



LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 185 

Lord Stanley does not assume that all the land in 
Australia is worth 20^. an acre ; in his despatch to 
Governor Grey, when transmitting the new Act 
regulating the Land Sales, he expresses compre- 
hensive views on the subject, which are sufficiently 
important to warrant my drawing the reader's 
attention to them by an extract : 

" The main principle of this Act ib, however^ that which Her 
Majesty's GoverDment have for many years past invariably 
maintained ; the principle that the waste lands of the Crown 
shall never be alienated except by sale. All grataitous grants of 
land will henceforward be absolutely illegal and void. The only 
exception to this rale, (if» indeed^ it can properly be described 
as an exception) will arise in the case of the reservation of lands 
for porposes io which the public at large have a direct interest. 
They are minutely enumerated in the third section of the Act. 

''The Royal Commission authorising you to alienate waste lands 
on behalf of Her Majesty, and the Royal instractions prescribing 
in detail how that power is to be exercised, are superseded by this 
Act The power of sale and conveyance will henceforth be 
vested in you by the authority of Parliament, and by the same 
authority you will be guided in the exercise of that power. 
Among the regulations to which it will thus be your duty to 
adhere, the most important are those which relate to the division 
of the colony under your Government into any number of 
territorial districts, not exceeding four, for the purposes of the 
Act, should you be of opinion that it is expedient to adopt 
different sums respectively as the minimum for the upset price 
of land in different parts ; the distinction of the lands to be sold 
into three separate classes ; the fixing a minimum price on the 
lands of each class ; the sale of lands of the more valuable class 
by auction only, and the sale of country lots by private contract, 
after they shall have been put up to auction. I do not enter 
into any minute explanation of the motives of these regulations, 
because your own experience will enable you to anticipate any 



186 LAND SALBS REGULATIONS. 

Buch statement. It may be enough to say, that the principle of 
sales by auction appears more applicable to the case of lands 
pkdy to be occupied for building, or for gardens, or as pleasure- 
grounds> than to the case of lands only fit to be occupied for the 
purpose of agriculture or pasturage. In the one case there 
is an accidental local value» which will best be ascertained 
by public competition. In the other case, when it has been 
ascertained by an inefifectual auction that no such competition 
can be raised^ there appears to be no good reason why the lands 
should not be sold at the upset price of the time. This dia- 
tinction you will^ therefore, find established in this Act. 

'' The most important general principle of the law which 
remains to be noticed, is that which determines that no waste 
land of the Crown shall ever be sold at less than 20s. an acre. 

^'In fixing this sum Her Majesty's Government haye not 
proceeded on the assumption that the whole of the land in the 
colony under your Oovemment which may be profitably oc- 
cupied, would, if offered for sale, realize (or its worth) at the 
present moment that price ; they are aware that there are large 
tracts now occupied for grazing purposes of a value inferior to 
the standard thus adopted; and by the provisions of the 17th 
section, care has been taken to relieve you from the necessity of 
attempting to force sales of such land, by enabling you to draw 
a revenue from its permissive occupation. Nor is it to such 
tracts only that Her Majesty's Govemmeut are aware the price of 
20s. an acre is at present inapplicable ; they are conscious that 
the same observation would apply to many portions of the more 
settled and richer districts. These circumstances, however, do 
not appear to them to militate against the course they have 
taken on this subject ; on the contrary, they consider it desirable 
that the more fertile and valuable portions of land in the colony 
should be first brought into cultivation, trusting to the operation 
of progressive settlement to render saleable hereafter many 
qualities of land not at present of a marketable value. 

*' Having thus stated the views which have led to the adoption 
of so high a minimum price for the sale of waste lands as that 



LA19D SALBS REGULATIONS. 187 

fixed by tbe bill, I must also adyert to the power which ie 
reserved to you by the 9th section of the Act, of raising that 
price, and I do so merely to impress npon yon the necessity 
of exercising it with great caution; the inconvenience which 
mast result from its being found requisite to advise Her Majesty 
to disallow acts done by you for that purpose being too obvious 
to require to be dwelt upon." 

The Governor has very seldom thought it advisa- 
ble to raise the minimum price of £1. per acre for 
land that was put up to public auction ; even land 
known to contain copper or other metals was put 
up at £1. per acre, as the competition was sure to 
bring up the price to the highest possible value that 
could be obtained for it I may instance the 
Montacute copper mines, 80 acres, put up at 
£80. and sold for £1,550., and tbe 100 acres 
adjoining Kapunda, which were put up at £100. 
fetched £2,210. 

To purchase land for grazing purposes, consider- 
ing the enormous extent of our flocks and herds, 
and the fact of from two to three acres being 
necessary to feed one sheep, for all the year, is out 
of the question, — that every one admits- Then, as 
regards the land requisite for cultivation ; it is, as 
Lord Stanley very justly observes, desirable, that 
the fertile lands should be first brought into cultiva- 
tion; and land, which for several seasons consecutively 
will produce twenty-five bushels of wheat per acre, 
without the aid of manure, and little or no clearing, 
of which there is abundance in the colony, I 
maintain is worth a pound an acre. At this price. 



1$8 LAND SALES RBGULATIOKS. 

any one may buy as much, or as little, as he is 
•willing, or has capital to cultivate ; and it has the 
undoubted advantage of preventing large capitalists 
from monopolizing an extensive tract of country, 
for the sole purpose of afterwards selling it at far 
higher prices, than what they now complain, the 
Government demands for it.* The industrious la- 
bourer, who in the course of a year or two may save 
a little money, has therefore always the prospect of 
becoming an independent landowner himself, in 
spite of what Mr. McCuUoch may say to the 
contrary; for the Governor does not restrict the 
purchase of land to any large quantities, but is 
always ready to afford people of small capital the 
means of acquiring the number' of acres suited to 
his circumstances, with the option of increasing the 
size of his farm afterwards. 

When the colony was first established, and it 
became desirable to sell a large quantity of land to 
raise funds, several inducements were held out to 
purchasers, to tempt them to embark their money in 
buying what they had not seen, or, to use a homely 
expression "a pig in a poke;" up to that period, 
the Crown had made a reservation in all grants of 
land in the other Australian colonies, which is still 
in force, of minerals, timber, &c. ; not so with regard 
to the new colony; the purchasers of land in South 

* Even, at it is, the evil of absentee^proprietorehip, of large 
quantities of land is felt in the Colony ; what would it be were 
the price 10^. or 5s. an acre, instead of 20^.? 



LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 189 

Australia were assured by virtue of powers con- 
tained in an Act of Parliament, of "everything 
above and everything below the soil." One would 
fancy from this, that the British Government had 
been particularly favourably disposed to the new 
province, in making this distinction ; but they de« 
serve no thanks for it, as they doubtless never 
dreamt of what was hidden under the soil, and pro- 
bably judged of that portion of the Australian 
continent from what was known of the already 
settled districts, where no metals had ever been 
discovered. I say, they deserve no thanks for this 
apparent concession, for no sooner is the land found 
to contain abundance of the valuable metals, than 
a bill is brought into Parliament to upset the 
former enactment, and to reserve the rights of the 
Crown, which were a few years before, by the 
solemn compact of an act of Parliament, relin- 
quished. The measure, it is true, was withdrawn ; 
and it is to be hoped will not be again brought 
forward, particularly as the Ministers have since 
then had the additional assistance of the experience 
of the Governor, who states that he felt a strong 
objection to such reservations ; and that he thought 
such a system was an unnecessary interference with 
the traffic of the country, and tended to retard its 
prosperity, for the great distance we are from the 
principal market, England, and the other disadvan- 
tages we necessarily labour under in working the 
mines, more than counterbalance the apparent ad- 



190 LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 

vantage we possess over Cornish mines in not pay- 
ing any royalty. 

We have, therefore, in this particular, an im- 
mense advantage over the other colonies, forming 
another, and all convincing reason, why South 
Australia should be preferred over all its competi- 
tors, as a place to which the emigrant, whether 
capitalist or labourer, should direct his steps. 

The regulations in force in the colony, for the 
disposal of the waste lands, are substantially as 
follows : — 

1. At least onoe in every quarter one public sale is to be held 
by auction. 

2. Lands to be divided into three classes ; town, suburban, and 
country lots. 

3. Intended sales to be notified by proclamation. 

4. Sales to be notified not earlier than three months, nor later 
than one month, before day of sale. 

5. Government to fix time of sale and size of allotments. 

6. Application for land may be made in particular localities. 

7. Regulating the manner in which land is to be brought for- 
ward for sale. 

8. Deposit of 10 per cent, to be paid, and remainder in one 
month. 

9. Condition of sale to be announced. 

10. Country and special country lots put up and not bid foi*, 
may be claimed without competition. 

11. The same, after deposit has been forfeited. 

12. Full price must in these cases at once be paid. 

13. Form of application. 

I 14. Money intended for payment of land will at anytime be 

received. 



LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 191 

15, 16. Certificates of payments given in London, &c. 

1 7. Land receipts transferable. 

18. No regalation yet issued with regard to remissions to 
retired military and naral officers. 

19. Priority of application determined by the date. 

20. Deeds to contain grant of everything above 
and everything below the soil. 

21. Government reserves sea coast to 100 feet of high-water 
mark. 

22. No qnit rent reserved. 

23. Fees payable. 

24. Persons may apply for 20,000 acres without competition, 
price to be never less than 20« per acre. 

By the 10th clause it is enacted, that after land 
has once been put up to auction, and not bid for, 
any one may at a subsequent period claim the sec- 
tion or sections he wishes to possess at the minimum 
price of one pound per acre. Out of the 2 or 
300,000 acres already surveyed and open for selec- 
tion, it could not be expected that every section was 
so thoroughly inspected in every nook or comer 
by the Government surveyors, that the possibility 
might not have occurred, in some instances, of those 
sections containing mineral indications, which were 
only discovered by a very minute scrutiny. Now, 
whether by chance or otherwise I am not able to say, 
it was discovered last year, that out of a number of 
sections of land on the Oncaparinga River, 20 miles 
South of Adelaide, there were some which con- 
tained indications of the presence of copper ore of 
a very promising kind, although it had escaped the 



\92 LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 

notice of the surveyors. The party who discovered 
them immediately claimed two sections, and other 
parties the next day claimed three more, which, 
under the regulations in force, the Governor 
could not refuse. No sooner, however, was he 
aware of this, than he put a stop to it, by requir- 
ing that'for the future, parties desiring to purchase 
any surveyed section of land under the provisions 
of the 10th clause of the regulations, should make 
the application in writing, when the Surveyor-Ge- 
neral would first cause the sections to be re-examined, 
and on his reporting that it did not appear to con- 
tain any minerals, the applicant had the section 
allotted to him. No one can blame the Governor 
for doing so, as its object is to protect the land fund, 
by having such land put up to public competition 
in case of its containing minerals, when the real 
value would be sure to be given for it, whilst on 
the other hand it gave an equal chance to every 
colonist of competing for it. 

Considerable misapprehension having, however, 
been caused from these alterations in the r^ulations, 
one of the members of Council, the Hon. John 
Morphett, was induced, during the last session, to 
ascertain His Excellency's opinion on this important 
subject, and I, therefore, insert the following extract 
of the proceedings of the Council on that day, as 
his Excellency's very lucid explanation, coupled 
with the above regulations themselves, will then 
put the reader in possession of every necessary in- 



LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 193 

formation with regard to the manner in which the 
lands in South Australia are sold by the Govern- 
ment. 

Mr Morphett pat the following question to His Excellency, 
of which he had given notice on Friday ; whether one of the 
effects of the late alterations of the Land Regulations has heen 
to prevent land once put up to sale hy auction, from being with- 
drawn from public competition, without a notification of such 
withdrawal in the OoTemment Gazette ; and whether the par- 
ticular cases in which the reservations may be made, as men* 
tioned in clause twenty of the regulations, are of a nature likely 
to impede the acquisition of lands containing mineral ores. He 
said that he felt it his bounden duty to put this question, and 
apologized if he had exceeded the strict bounds of propriety. 

His Excellency said that he felt very great pleasure in being 
able to gratify the wishes of the Hon. Member, and he felt the 
more pleasure in doing so« that now at the close of the third 
■esiion in which the Hon. Member had sat in Council, no ques- 
tion had been asked by him which had evinced a desire to 
embarrass the Government. But, moreover, he felt that nothing 
was more important to the welfare of the community, than 
a distinct understanding of the terms upon which land was sold 
by Government ; in fact, it was one of those subjects on which 
no doubt or misconstruction ought ever to exist. He had 
accordingly, in the first place, endeavoured to arrange matters 
80 that the most complete and nnencumbered title should be 
given to purchasers ; and, in the second place, to allow them free 
and unfettered choice in reference to the size of the blocks of 
land, so that every one should be able to compete for and to 
poivhase quaptit^s suited to his wants and circumstances ; but 
it often^appened that people would apply to have land surveyed 
ivhich they would not afterwards purchase, and some wishing to 
monopolize might apply for 640 acres. If these should not be 
purchased, and if other parties should apply for smaller portions 
of the same land, it was proper that Government should have the 

O 



194 LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 

power to withdraw them from the market, in order to a sub- 
division. Frequently, also, roads are required through surveyed 
and unsold land, and such would be withdrawn on that account. 
Moreover, the instructions sent by the home Government had 
been very specific not to sell lands at the original price, to which 
circumstances of a local or accidental nature had given a greater 
yalue. In the neighbomring settlements various expedients had 
been adopted to give powers to Government in case of an altera- 
tion in circumstances or in value. The Government there made 
various reservations in the deeds of grant, such as rights of 
roads, railways, canals, the power of taking sand, timber, and all 
minerals. Lai^e reservations were still made in the grants by 
Government in New South Wales. Now, he felt a Strong 
objection to such reservations ; he thought such a 
system was an unnecessary interference with the 
traffic of the country, and tended to retard its 
prosperity. Having briefly stated the principles of the 
system, he would explain what he had done in this province, and 
his reasons. Under the old land regulations there were more 
reservations, and the powers were not more ample, but he soon 
found himself in the position that land originally applied to be 
purchased for agricultural purposes was subsequently discovered 
to contain minerals. If such discovery was not made known to 
the public, it might be naturally supposed that the Governor or 
some of his officers would take advantage of their exclusiTe 
knowledge, and obtain the land at the lowest price. It had 
therefore been determined by the Executive Council that when 
the Surveyor General reported the existence of minerala, the 
land should be withdrawn. Since this determination of the 
Executive, lands had been withdrawn in two iostances, and 
applications had afterwards been made for their purchase. One 
of them immediately after the resolution of Council, and one 
many months afterwards. With regard to the first, the Council 
resolved that, though they would derive a considerable sum from 
the sale, they could not depart from the principle laid down. The 



LAND 8ALB8 REOULAltoNS* 195 

Goremment could not know that the parties would apply, hot 
when they applied it was thought proper to lose the chance dt 
getting the money, than to break through the principle they had 
adopted. With reference to announcing the withdrawal of lands 
in the Gazettet he had not thought it proper to make a special 
prodamation of these withdrawals, as such course, he thought; 
would lead to concision and misapprehension. He thought it 
was better that new lists of lands for sale without competition 
should be published from time to time, by comparing which, 
parties might see what bad been withdrawn or sold ; and he 
might mention, that the expense of these lists, which was consi- 
derable, would be a guarantee that Government would never 
capriciously, or without good reason, exercise the power which 
it possessed. Indeed, the whole scope of the r^ulations was to 
prcTcnt the necessity of exercising extraordinary powers. 

His Excellency then read the following passage from Lord 
Stanley's despatch of September 15, 1842 : — 

" Ton will perceive that it remains for you to issue the pro- 
clamations mentioned in the 6th, 7th, 11th, and 21st sections 
of the act, and (in the event of your considering the same 
minimum upset price as inapplicable to the whole colony) also 
that specified in the 14th section. The terms of those pro- 
damations you will, of course, prepare with the assistance of 
your legal advisers, and with the advice of your Executive 
Coundl." 

This; His Excellency said, shewed that it was the desire of 
her Majesty's Government to remove the Governor as far as 
possible from any direct interference and interest in the 
sale of land, so that the Governor himself should not personally 
eome into contact with the settlers. He would now state the 
course that was always adopted in reference to a sale of land. 
An application was required to be sent to the Surveyor-General. 
Upon this, the Surveyor-General sent a report to the Governor ; 
and at times several questions would arise — the quantity of land 
wished to be surveyed might be small or distant, and not worth 
the expense, or it might be isolated firom the rest of the surveyed 

o2 



196 LAN]) 8ALBS REGULATIOHS. 

land. The Surveyor^Oenenly therefore, lUtea his reasons why 
the application should or should not be acceded to. The Oo- 
Temor^hen gaTe his sanction, and he was happy to say that no 
difference of opinion had yet occurred between the Surveyor- 
General and himself; and he was certain that if that officer con- 
tinued to exercise the discretion and ability which he had hitherto 
displayed, no difference would exist. If he agreed to the appli* 
cation, the nwtter passed altogether out of his hands for a time.' 
After the lands were surveyed, a draught of a prodamation was 
prepared by the Surveyor-Gkneral, and sent to the Executive 
Council. Of course he (the Governor) had power to set aside 
their decisions, but he was happy to say that no difference of 
opinion had ever existed between that body and himself. 
Honourable Members would see from this statement that his 
position was simply that of supervision, that he did not act as 
an executive officer. The result of the system was very interest- 
ing. Since the Waste Lands Act came into operation, 201 
applications had been made, only 27 of which had been refused, 
and the reason assigned was, that they were for small isolated 
lots of ten or fifteen acres, chiefly in the Tiers. 

The Governor recapitulated other jfmrticulars of a return 
which he laid upon the table (which will be found in the next 
page), and irom which, he said, Hon. Members would per- 
ceive that no applications had been refused for the survey of 
land unless there were sufficient and valid reasons for so doing. 

Mr. Morphett moved that the return be printed, and took 
occasion to thank his Excellency for the lucid and satis&ctory 
statement he had made, which tended to shew that the greatest 
fBohty existed for purchasing land, that the system was calcu- 
lated to work well and easily, and to afford the most secure 
tenure that it was possible to possess. In answer to a question 
from his Excellency, he said that he perfectiy understood and 
was satisfied with the explanation given in answer to his ques- 
tion. 

In answer to a question by Major O'Halloran, the Governor said 
that ten acres in the country, and quarter of an acre in towns. 



LAND SALES REGULATIONS. 197 

were the Bmallest lots sold by Ooverameoti but they were not 
restricted. 

Retom of special applications for the survey and patting up 
for sale of land, in accordance with the regulations dated I5ch 
May, 1843 — 

Applicatioiu complied with. 
Surveyed - - - 97 

In progress of survey - - - 45 

Land surveyed previous to the existing regulations 16 

158 

Applications refused, 

8mall isolated blocks, difficult to connect with the 

genera] survey of the Province • - 27 

Previously reserved for public purposes • 4 

For sections of 80 acres to be reduced to smaller blocks 2 
Area less than the minimum allowed by theland regulations 1 

34 

Postponed until the ground ia again examined 1 

Referred for decision to the home anthorities, in conse- 
quence of a claim made by one of the applicants for 
purchase at a fixed price ... 2 

For land previously sold • . . 4 

Applications withdrawn ' - - - 2 

Total number of applications - - 201 



E. G. Fromb, Capt. R. E. Surveyor-General. 
July 19th, 1845. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

AGRICULTURE AND HORTICULTURE. 

" Man's wonder-working hand, had everywhere 
Subdued all circamatance of stubborn soil ; 
In fen and moor reclaimed, rich gardens smiled. 
And populous hamlets rose amidst the wild." 

SOUTHBT. 

I REMEMBER, 8ome years ago, when a very 
unfriendly tone pervaded the Australian press 
towards South Australia, (for what causes need not 
here be stated,) reading an article in one of the 
Van Diemen's Land papers, which, speaking very 
slightingly of our productive capabilities, wound up 
by saying : " that they would not be surprised if 
the South Australians should entertain the assurance 
of some day or other sending wheat from Adelaide, 
to Van Diemen's Land I " Little did the writer of 
that paragraph dream in how short a time this 
would literally be fulfilled : — yes 1 South Australia 
has been actually sending cargoes of wheat to the 
^^ Granary of Australia," and sold them at a profit 
Not a word could be spoken formerly by the friends 
of South Australia in fiivour of its capabilities as a 
corn-growing country, but it was immediately cried 
down as an attempt at puffing ; even now there are 
not wanting writers, who cannot resist the tempta- 



AGRICULTURE. 199 

lion of aiming a sly hit at South Australia, and 
talk about droughts ivhich may come, and soil 
which may become exhausted. But they are 
evidently aware thaf they are treading upon delicate 
ground, and that the daily increasing prosperity of 
South Australia cannot be hurt by their jealous and 
slighting allusions. 

The soil of South Australia varies, as it does all 
over the world, according to the relative situation of 
different districts, and the causes which induce the 
deposit of rich vegetable mould or sandy loam. 
Along the banks of every water-course or river, and 
in valleys lying between hills, from the sides of 
which the rains have from time immemorial washed 
do¥m upon them the decomposed debris of v^etable 
and mineral deposits, the soil is invariably of a rich 
dark mould, varying in depth, and containing much 
calcareous and argillaceous matter, with but little 
silica. " The open plains and low grounds throughout 
the colony consist principally of light sandy loam, 
of a bright red colour, resting on a limestone 
rubble ; tracts of sandy and poor soil are also met 
with, generally arising from the decomposition of 
sandstone and quartz rock, &c. On the face of 
many hills, of moderate elevation, a fine brown 
loam is abundant, of more or less depth, in some 
cases three, in others as much as five feet, and is a 
most admirable soil for the growth of fruit trees. 
On the base of the hills, resting on the recent lime- 
stone, i^ generally found from six to eighteen inches 



_ J 



200 AGRICULTURE. 

of a reddish loam, the very perfection of soil foi; the 
vine,"* These few particulars, founded on the expe- 
rience of the best practical authorities, may be 
relied upon as correct. • 

As to the extent of land within the present bounds 
of the colony, which comes under the above descrip- 
tion, it is of course next to impossible to speak with 
any degree of exactness, and on that account I 
object to make any statement, which I could not 
properly substantiate ; but the estimate which 
Colonel Gawler has formerly made, is I believe 
generally allowed to be pretty correct, as far as one 
can judge of a large extent of country from ocular 
survey. Colonel Gawler estimated that one-third 
of all the land is good for agriculture, one-third for 
pasture, and one-third barren. 

An experience of eight years, during which the 
crops have never once failed, during which the land 
has never been manured, has established, first the 
absence of droughts, owing, as already stated, 
to our proximity to the southern ocean, from 
which the whole indrought of the south-westerly 
winds sets in upon us, accompanied as it is more 
or less by rain ;t and secondly, the ^eat and 
fertilizing powers of the soil, owing in an eminent 
degree to the very universal presence of decomposed 
limestone. The continuance of this natural fertility 
will doubtless in a few years be obliged to be 

* Fortnum. 

f Vide table of prevailiDg winds and rain, ante page r04. 



AGRICULTURE. 201 

secured by an improyed system of agriculture and 
the application of manures, for wliich we have 
abundance of material, for the straw is now seldom 
or ever used, there being sufficient food for the 
cattle on the pasture lands, and our cattle not 
requiring to be housed, from one year's end to 
another. The accumulation of straw is indeed so 
inconvenient to the farmer, that he generally gets 
rid of it by burning ; often endangering thereby the 
safety of his homestead and fences. 

The finest agricultural district in the colony is 
undoubtedly that of Mount Barker; it would do 
the Duke of Richmond's heart good, were he to see 
the weighty crops which are grown there : and from 
the fact of this district having a considerable eleva- 
tion over the sea, and being sheltered by the Mount 
Lofty range of hills against the hot winds from the 
north, the crops here are not so liable to shed pre- 
maturely, as they do on the plains of the lower 
country, if not immediately reaped when ripe. From 
30 to 35 bushels per acre, is a low average for the 
Mount Barker district ; 40 and 45 bushels having 
repeatedly been grown ; and many of the prizes of 
the South Australian Agricultural Society have 
been carried off by the farmers here, amongst whom 
Mr. Duffield and Lieutenant Dashwood may be 
mentioned, as growing a very superior sample of 
fine plump wheat. The plains about Adelaide do 
not reach the average production of the Mount 



202 AaRICULTURB. 

Barker, and some other fevoured districts, but the 
lower produce of these lands has been abundantly 
compensated by the great facilities afforded in reap- 
ing them with the machine invented by Mr. Ridley, 
and from a less outlay of money being required in 
clearing the land of the timber, the plains being 
almost free from it. 

Next to the fertility of the soil and seasons, is the 
fact of so little clearing being required to make the 
land available; in many parts of this colony, 
thousands of acres have been broken up, from which 
not a single tree was obliged to be removed ; and in 
other parts where the wood was more abundant, the 
process of " girdling," or destroying the sap, was 
found sufficient to bring the whole field into cultiva- 
tion the first year, and removing one tree after 
another, at the farmer's leisure. With a boundless 
extent of wood for every purpose which may be 
required by the settler, the forests are on the one 
hand confined to mountain districts, and in the 
agricultural parts, the trees are dispersed in the 
form of a park, adding to the beauty of the country, 
without impeding the labours of the husbandman. 
Then again, the trees which may be on the land 
you might wish to cultivate, will be useful to you 
to fence that land with ; should the timber not be 
sufficiently straight for making posts and rails, it 
will always make a kangaroo or a dog fence. The 
splitting of posts and rails gives occupation to a 



AGRICULTURE. 203 

number of men, who are called " tiersmen/'* from 
their avocations lying principally in the Stringy 
Bark Tiers, or Ranges ; it takes about 4,500 pieces 
to inclose an eighty acre section with a three rail 
fence, and the price may be taken, according to the 
distance the material has to be carted, at from 
£60. to £70. per section of eighty acres. The 
** kangaroo" fence is composed of pieces of timber, 
large and small, all cut into lengths of seven feet, 
and placed close and upright, in a trench two feet 
deep, and well rammed ; a rough batten being 
nailed along the top to give it consistency; this 
fence is preferred where the timber is plentiful, as 
it serves to keep pigs, sheep, or other small animals 
from getting into your fields. Besides these there 
are the '^ ditch and bank," '< American or log-fence," 
and the " dog-leg-fence," according to the fancy 
or means of the farmer. 

The ploughing is universally performed by the 
means of bullocks; they are more plentiful, and 
being stronger than horses, better adapted for 
breaking up new land, although after the ground 
has been well worked for a season or two, horses 
would be preferable, as they perform their work 
so much quicker. The oxen give little trouble, they 
do a hard day's work, and are then turned out 
into the woods or hills for the night, to procure 
feed for themselves. The ploughs are generally 

* Facetiously called by Mr. George Stephenson, " men of the 
" tiers eUt." 



204 AGRTCULTURE. 

preferred of colonial manufacture; English and 
Scotch ploughs are too slight, excepting they are 
used on old ground ; the ploughs made in the colony 
are suited to the work required of them, and if a 
breakage occurs, are more easily put in repair. 
Mr. Robert Davenport, of Mount Barker, has had a 
subsoil plough constructed under his direction, 
and used with much advantage. 

As has already been stated, manure is not used 
in South Australia as yet, for agricultural purposes ; 
labour is too valuable, and the land is sufficiently 
productive, so that by adopting the plan of allowing 
half the section to remain fallow for one season, 
exposed to the sun and rain, the purpose of the 
farmer is accomplished. Indeed, such is the pro- 
ductive capability of the land, that I have known as 
good self-sown crops reaped from a paddock where 
the ground was in the second season only* harrowed 
over, as from the first crop. The average depth to 
which the soil is turned over by the plough, is 
about eight inches ; the wheat is sown from medio 
April, till medio June ; if later, the farmer runs the 
risk of the hot winds, which occur in December 
and January. Barley may be sown considerably 
later. Barley, like wheat, succeeds amazingly ; but it 
has not remunerated the grower, as distillation is 
next to prohibited in the colony. The following 
letter, as regards the price South Australian 
wheat has lately realized in the English market, 
will be read with pleasure. 



AGRICULTURE. 205 

To the Editor of the South Australian Nem. 

Com Exchange^ and 6, London-streety Mark-lane* 

Sir, Not. 2l8t, 1845. 

As one of the earliest friends of South Australia, I have 
ever taken a lively interest in her welfare ; and having been 
&Toared by the sales of the principal part of the South Australian 
wheat which has appeared in the London market, I am much 
gratified in being able to state, that the quality is very superior 
and acceptable to the London miller. 

The bulk of the wheat, per the ' Isabella Watson,* was not 
quite equal to the previous importations, owing, no doubt, to a 
little less care having been taken in the cultiyation and harvesting 
during the past year, occasioned probably by the low prices it 
realixed in the colony. Still the quality was very superior; in 
proof of which, I obtained from 70«. to 76«. for the greater 
balk of it, for the ordinary mealing purposes, and for a small 
quantity of extraordinary quality of prize wheat, from the Agri- 
coltural show at Adelaide, I obtained the high price of from 84^. 
to 96t. per quarter for seed. 

I also had the pleasure of exhibiting a most beautiful sample 
of South.Australian barley, of the chevalier growth, the extraor- 
dinary quality of which excited considerable interest : and it was 
generally considered to be the fiuest sample of barley ever shewn 
on the London Com Exchange. 

I thought this simple statement of facU might be acceptable 
to the friends of the colony. 

And am, Sir, your obedient Servant, 

CHARLES JAMES HEATH. 

The enemies the farmer has to contend with, are 
** blight," and " smut," in the wheat ; the former 
caused by the hot winds, should they occur at the 
period when the wheat is in bloom ; the latter more 
from carelessness than any other cause, for, by 
being particular in steeping the wheat before it is 
sown, in these several ^' pickles" or solutions, which 



206 AGRICULTURE. 

are known to the farmer as a preventative of smut, 
this bane may be almost entirely guarded against.* 

Drake is also a dreadful nuisance to the farmer ; 
it ripens and sheds before the wheat does, and must 
be eradicated by not sowing the field for a season, 
and ploughing it as soon as the drake springs up, 
by which it is destroyed. 

An average of twenty bushels of wheat of 601bs. 
weight, for the whole colony, may be taken as 
correct ; much of the good land bears 30 and 35 
bushels, for several seasons in succession ; the 
average produce of barley is much greater, and may 
be safely taken at 30 bushels. Barley is also cut 
green, as food for horses, kept in stables ; and may 
be cut twice, if sown early, and still produce a crop of 
grain besides ; otherwise it may be cut three times. 
The South Australian barley makes excellent malt ; 
last year a malting establishment was added to the 
list of our manufactories. Oats thrive well in the 
Mount Barker district, as also potatoes, as a field 
produce ; in the low districts these cannot be de- 
pended upon as a crop ; the same may be said of 
maize ; rye is very little cultivated, and principally 
by the Germans. 

The following table shews the gradual and rapid 
increase of the cultivation in the Province, since the 
year 1840. 

* Count Sireleczki recommends the adoption of the following 
pickle, on the authority of Bousaingault: *' 3 oz. of sulphate of 
copper per bushel, diluted in sufficient water to cover the wheat; 
soaked three hours :" our farmers would do well to try it. 



AORIGULTUflE. 



207 



CStmparaHve Retwm of the number of Acres in eMvatian in the Province 
of South Australia, in the years 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, and 1844. 



Tesn. 


Number 

of 

Proprietors 


Number of Acres under Cultivatioo. 


Totals. 


Wheat 


Barley 


Oats 


Maize 


PoUtoes. 


Garden. 


1840 


_. 


1058 


388 


424 


192 


440 


^ 


2503 


1841 


— 


4154 


897 


501 


714 


456 





6722 


1842 


873 


14000 


2700 


700 


850 


690 


850 


19790 


1843 


1300 


S3000 


3300 


790 


290 


470 


840 


28690 


1844 


1367 


18980 


4264 


1045 


241 


397 


761 


26918 


1845 


Efltimated 














30000 



A. M. MUNOY, Colonial Secretary. 
Colonial Secretary's Office, 31st January, 1846. 

Subdivision of land under euUivation in 1844. 



AemoT 


i 

i 


1 

n 

1 


1 


Mo 


i 
J 


1 
1 


] 


1 
1 


^ 


Wheat.. 


11106 


3164 


1850 


406 


2171 


131 


2 


57 


18980 


Barley- 


2990 


482 


360 


56 


318 


18 


6 


83 


4264 


Oats 


585 


270 


83 


3 


84 


4 




4 


1045 


Maixe .. 


113 


26 


25 


2 


73 


• ••• 


• • 


2 


241 


Potatoes. 


78 


260 


27 


11 


17 






1 


397 


Garden . 


450 


97 


60 


19 


111 


7 


4 


11 


761 


Setf'iown. 




















Wheat.. 


560 


343 


18 


• • . . 


59 


• • 


• • 


8 


888 


Barley.. 


124 


10 


• • •• 


■ • •• 


26 


10 


, , 


• • 


170 


OaU.... 


139 


81 


• ••• 


. ••• 


•• 


• • 


• • 


•• 


160 




16250 


'4582 


2524 


488 


2762 


171 


12 


116 


26918 



The prospects of the farmers in South Australia 
have latterly, in common with those of every one else, 
greatly improved ; the times are now past, I hope not 
to return again, when cargoes of wheat were to be 
bought in Adelaide at 2s 6d per bushel, and fine 
flour at £8. per ton — 4^. 6d. is the last quotation in 
Adelaide, with a brisk demand for the neighbouring 
colonies ; and although we may all wish to have a 



208 AGRICULTURE. 

continuance of cheap provisions, it must not be at 
the expense of a very deserving and industrious 
portion of our community ; and bread may still be 
cheap, and give the farmer a legitimate return for 
the labour bestowed upon the cultivation of the 
soil likewise. The produce of our fields is exported, 
both as wheat and flour, to Sydney, New Zealand, 
Van Diemen's Land, King George's Sound, Swan 
River, Mauritius, Cape of Good Hope, Sincapore, 
England, &c. 

The scarcity of labour in the latter end of 1842 
was seriously felt by the farmers; when harvest 
came on they found the wheat actually being lost 
for want of sufficient hands to reap it ; besides, the 
labourers took advantage of this scarcity, and de- 
manded most exorbitant wages, from 155.. to 20s 
per acre, with an allowance of wine or beer, rations, 
and I know not what besides. During 1843, there- 
fore, in the absence of emigration, which had at 
that time entirely ceased, a committee of agricultu- 
rists was formed, to devise means to obviate a 
similar occurrence in the harvest of 1843-4, by the 
application of mechanical power, and a premium 
was offered for a reaping machine, which should be 
effectual in its operations, and be generally appli- 
cable to the wants of the colony. At a meeting of 
the committee in September, 1843, no less than 13 . 
persons exhibited models and drawings of various 
machines, creditable to them certainly, but each of 
which was pronounced of course by the inventor 



AGRICULTURE. 209 

as super-excellent. The committee, however, stated 
that no machine had been exhibited which they 
could recommend for adoption. 

All this while there was another person in Ade- 
laide devoting his talent to the accomplishment of 
the object in view, but he did not exhibit either 
models or plans ; with great liberality, and no less 
credit to himself, he gave his time and money to 
the subject, and whilst others were discussing, he 
made the machine! This gentleman's name is 
Ridley; a native I believe of Newcastle upon Tyne ; 
he possesses considerable self-acquired mechanical 
talent, having erected one of the first steam flour 
mills in the colony. 

One afternoon, during the summer of 1843-4, 
some friends met me in Adelaide, and asked me to 
join them in their ride to a neighbouring farm, 
where Mr. Ridley's Reaping Machine, which they 
said both reaped and thrashed the com at the same 
time, was successfully at work. It was not gene- 
rally known at that time what the machine was, 
and although we were all incredulous, we started to 
see with our own eyes how far the reports we had 
heard were correct ; presently we saw from several 
quarters, other horsemen, all steering to the same 
point. By the time we reached the farm, a large 
"^W" had mustered to witness the proceedings, 
and there, sure enough, was the machine at work, 
by the agency of two horses, and two men, one to 
guide the horses, the other the machine ! There was 



210 AGRICULTURE. 

no mistake about it — the heads of the com were 
thrashed off perfectly clean ; and a winnowing ma- 
chine being at hdnd, the corn was transferred out 
of the reaping into the latter machine, and carts 
were ready to convey the cleaned wheat to the mill, 
two miles off, where the wheat, which an hour 
before was waving in the fields in all the lustre of 
golden tints, was by Mr. Ridley's steam-mill ground 
into flour. Never before was perhaps such a revo- 
lution in the appliances of agriculture caused, as 
was done by this machine; success attended the 
very first trial of it, and during seven days it reaped 
and thrashed the seventy acres of wheat of which 
the paddock we all went to see was composed. 
The harvest season of that year being already for 
advanced, the generality of farmers derived little 
benefit from it ; but Mr. Ridley, during the succeed- 
ing year, made a number of them, which he sold 
to the settlers. By this time, I fancy, the greatest 
part of all the wheat grown in the colony is 
harvested by this machine, causing an enormous 
saving of labour and expense. 

Nothing more important could have been invent^ 
for the prosperous development of our fertile agri- 
cultural districts ; the farmers all knew, long since, 
that the land would grow corn in abundance ; but 
they put in their grain, with fear and trembling, not 
knowing, but that when the crops were ripe, the 
half of it might shed before they could get 
sufficient hands to reap it. Our climate, again, is 



AGRICULTURE. 211 

perhaps one of very few, that affords the necessary 
£sunlities for the operations of this machine. Owing 
to the great dryness prevalent about the time the 
com ripens, the com separates from the chaff at the 
first blow of the beater, when the head of the straw 
is caught by the projecting teeth, which guide it 
into the lower cylinder; for the same reason, the 
cylinder is not^liable to get choked, and, by having 
a sort of chimney at the upper and back end of the 
large receiving box, the greatest quantity of the 
chaff, makes its escape by the draught caused by 
the revolving of the beaters. Mr. Ridley is, besides, 
sanguine, in being enabled to add the perfect win- 
nowing action to the same machine. 

To an English &rmer, the first glance at the 
accompanying sketch would suggest the idea of 
unfitness, as the machine, in passing over the field, 
appears to destroy the straw, which in England is 
such a valuable part of the field's produce ; now with 
us, in the first place, we do not want the straw ; it 
has been already stated that the straw is usually 
burnt by the former after thrashing ; but, secondly, 
were the straw required, it could always be mown^ 
after the bustle of securing the wheat, &c. was over 
for the straw is only laid down flat, not destroyed, 
and as no rain need be apprehended beyond a 
casual shower or so, during the harvest month, the 
straw remains fit for use for a long time. 

This machine can reap and thrash one acre per 
hour with the greatest ease, though, except in cases 

p 2 



212 AORiCULTURE. 

of emergency, the farmer does not hurry himself 
with it ; two sets of horses are found quite suffi- 
cient, which work hour about, and are kept well 
fed on the field ; bullocks have likewise been used 
with equal success; the los9 from waste, has, by 
comparing the quantity of grain deliyered from the 
field by this method, and the quantity which re- 
sulted in former seasons by hand reaping and 
thrashing, been found to be much less. This must 
be obvious to all; for in hand reaping, the first 
shock the com gets (which it must be remembered 
is very dry and brittle, and easily separated from the 
husk) is by the action of the sickle ; then it has to 
be bound, stooked, thrown on to a dray, carted to, 
and thrown on to the stack; before the thrasher 
performs his work, it has to be forther tossed about ; 
by all which gperations there is loss. This machine^ 
on the contrary, begins at one end and proceeds 
down the whole length of the field ; high or low, 
crooked or straight, every straw is caught by the 
horizontal and lateral teeth, and thus brought 
under the beater. Trees being in the field does not 
hinder the use of the machine ; as one man, with a 
sickle, can reap the few ears of com immediately 
round the trees which may be out of the reach of it. 
But as the reader is doubtless anxious to have a 
noinute description of this very clever and ingenious 
invention, which reflects the highest credit on Mr. 
Ridley, I will at once proceed to describe it, and di- 
rect the reader's attention to the accompanying plates. 



RIDLEY S REAPING MACHINE. 



213 




214 



RIDLEY S REAPING MACHINE. 




215 

DESCRIPTION OF REAPING MACHINE. 

Fig. 1. Side Elevation. Fig. 2. Plan. 

The letters correspond in both. 

This machine is driven by two horses, (see 
page 213) the carrying wheels a a a, are 4 feet in 
diameter, that on the off side is fixed to the axle, 
whilst the near wheel works in a box the same as 
an ordinary carriage wheel. To the inside of the 
off, or driving wheel, is attached a toothed rigger 
6, 30 inches diameter ; this gears into the pinion c, 
on the shaft dj and gives motion to the fly wheel e, 
round which a cross belty, passes, communicating 
with the pulley gg; this gives motion to the 
beaters h h, which make 30 revolutions to one of 
the driving wheel; now the driving wheel, at a 
moderate horse walk, revolves 20 times per minute, 
giving to the beaters a velocity, 30 x 20 = 600 
revolutions per minute, in the direction of the 
arrows. 

At the fore end of the machine are six prongs, 
three on each side, embracing the entire width of 
the wheel track, and serving to collect the ears into 
the narrower range of teeth i, these extend into the 
cylinder, in the form of a comb, and, between them, 
the neck of the straw passes to j^ (as shewn by the 
dotted lines 1, 2, 3) when, coming in contact with 
the beaters, the com is struck out and thrown up 
the curve w, over which it falls into the body of the 
cart k. 

The machine is propelled by a pole from behind, . 



216 RIDtEY's HEAPING MACHINE, 

supported by two small wheels. The fore end of 
the machine is raised or depressed by turning 
the handle n, on the shaft of which is a pinion 
working in the segment rack L This arrangement 
enables the workman to adapt the machine to long 
or short straw. In the vignette, page 213, the end 
of the cylinder is left open purposely to shew the 
beaters inside. 

It has already been said that this machine will 
with ease reap an acre an hour ; few formers, how- 
ever, require to hurry themselves at this rate; 
Major O'Halloran constructed one himself after the 
model of Mr. Ridley's, with which he performed 
the following work, on some fields of his estate, 
the Grange, near Adelaide : 

Average time. 
Acres. h. m. h. m. 

28| in 46 — 1 36 

12} ,, 19 50 132 

56i ,, 80 30 1 24 

Hi >, 12 30 18 



108^ acres in 158h. 50m. or an average of Ih. 26m. per acre. 

Captain Bagot, M.C., was one of the first who 
used this machine. The following letter, which he 
addressed to a local paper, gives some further inter- 
esting particulars respecting this admirable inven- 
tion. 

To the Editors of the Register. 

Gentlemen,— The following is a statement of the work per- 
formed by one of Mr. Ridley's locomotive thrashing machines on 
my farm at Koonunga : — 

On the 26th December we entered into a field of 39^ acres of 
wheat— a good fall crop, tolerably thick, and about foar feet 
high. 



Ridley's reaI^ing machine. 217 

In nine days it was all thrashed, the machine haying been at 
woik sixty hours. The thrashed com was laid down in heaps 
in the field and winnowed there. 

The resolt has been 843 bushels of well cleaned corn, ready 
for the market. 

The machine was drawn by six bollocks. 

The expenses incurred were as follows : — £. s. d. 

Two men with the machine, one of them to steer, 

and the other to drive ; these for nine days, at 

2s 6d each per day - * - 2 5 

Use of the machine at 2s 6d each per acre - 5 



Cost of thrashing 843 bushels £7 5 



Or little more than 2d per bushel. 

Three men were employed for twelve days winnowing and 

carting in the com to the store. £, s, d. 

Three men twelve days, at 2« M each - 4 10 

Use of winnowing machine - - 10 

Cost of winnowing - £5 10 

Less than \\d per bushel ; making the entire cost of harvest- 
ing and preparing for the market, 3^ per bushel. 

I am aware that much greater quantities of work have been 
done by some of these machines* I was not obliged to hurry, 
and preferred allowing ample time. We seldom put it to work 
before eleven o'clock, a.m., as wefoond at an earlier hour the straw 
was tough, and the thrashing was not so perfect as at a later period 
of the day. The result, however, is most satiB&ctory, and proves 
the extraordinary value of Mr. Ridley's admirable invention. I 
consider the machine most perfect, as calculated by Mr. R. to 
be worked by a pair of horses. The application of ox power 
to it will, perhaps, require some trifling modifications to render 
it equally perfect for them. 

With the aid of this machine wheat may be grown in this 
colony for about Is 6d per bushel, as shewn in the following 
statements :-^ 



218 Ridley's reaping machine. 

Bent of 80 acres of enclosed land at 4< per acre 16 

Ploughing 40 acres, at 7< per acre - 14 

Seed for 40 acres, 60 bushels, at U 6(2 per bushel 4 10 

Sowing and harrowing in 40 acres at U %d per acre 3 

£1^1 10 

The other 40 acres are to lie fallow. 
Produce of 40 acres, at 20 bushels per acre, 

800 bushels at - \\\d 37 10 

Harvesting as above - • 3J 

1 3 
Carting to market - -^03 

1 6 
And by this mode of alternate cropping and fallowing, the land 
will continue its productiveness for an indefinite period. 

Trusting that this plain statement of facts may be interesting 
to some of your readers, I shall be happy to see it admitted to 
a place in your paper. I am, Gentlemen, 

Tour obedient servant, 
Koonunga, Jan. 1845. G. H. BAOOT. 

The gallant captain, however, grievously offended 
the other farmers in South Australia, by stating that 
wheat could be grown in the colony for \s 6d per 
bushel ; nor am I myself inclined to adopt his cal- 
culations for the whole colony, and another shilling 
may safely be added to the 1* 6ef, or 2s 6d be 
taken as the price at which wheat can be produced ; 
but as I happen to know Captain Bagot, and his 
farming operations, intimately, I can safely affirm 
that his statements, as applied to his farm, are sub- 
stantially correct. 



bidley'b reaping machine. 219 

The colonists were not behind- hand in acknow- 
ledging Mr. Ridley's valuable service to the colony ; 
and a subscription was promoted by Captain Bagot 
to present Mr. Ridley with some testimonial. The 
sum thus raised, was, at the Agricultural Society's 
meeting of last year, presented to Mr. Ridley by 
His Excellency Governor Gbrey, who passed a 
high compliment on him on that occasion. Mr. 
Ridley^ with his usual liberal spirit, applied the sum 
to the extension of his library by the purchase of 
the best scientific works, the use of which he allows 
to industrious and deserving mechanics. 

Owing to the mildness of our winter season, and 
the abundance of natural food, our cattle are never 
housed, excepting, of course, the horses used in 
town ; there is therefore little turnip or mangold- 
wurzel grown, beyond what is found in gardens ; 
and English grasses, although their introduction 
and general growth would be desirable, are for the 
like reason also neglected. 

As a general hint to English farmers who may 
hereafter make South Australia their home, it may 
not be out of the way to mention, that most of the 
theories on the practice of agriculture, as adapted to 
England, must be abandoned on commencing farm- 
ing operations in the colonies; indeed, those who have 
had least experience in England, and who have con- 
sequently least to unlearriy generally get on much 
quicker than their cleverer and more theoretical 
neighbours. An Agricultural Society has been estab- 
lished some years, and is well supported. 



220 

HORTICULTURE. 
To Horticulturists, the climate and soil of South 
Australia offers the surest promise of success; every 
experiment in gardening has proved that all vegeta- 
bles and fruits reared in England, as well as those of 
warmer climates, succeed to perfection. Whilst the 
rich black soil of the banks of rivers and creeks is 
advantageous to the culture of the fig, olive, peach, 
melon, and orange, the face of the various undulating 
hills throughout the colony, being composed of red 
calcareous loam, resting on decomposed limestone 
and slate, is the very perfection for the growth of 
the vine. As a general summary of what has 
already been produced in the colony, I make no 
apology for giving extracts of the proceedings at 
last year's Agricultural and Horticultural show, held 
at Adelaide, in February, 1844, 

South Australian Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society's Show. — ^These two Societiea having beenme^ed into 
one periDaneot body, the first show was held on Wednesday^ the 
14th of February, in the park-lands between North Terrace and 
Frome Bridge. More than 300 names appeared on the Subscrip- 
tion list^ and^I40.was thus collected. Nearly 1,200 persons paid 
for admission, and a sum was received which paid aU expenses 
and left a balance in the treasurer's hands. The prizes oflfered 
were from j610. lOs. to lOs. 6d. in value. 

The following is a summary of the various articles sent for 
exhibition: 

WHEAT, barley, AND OATS. 

I. Wheat. First prise to No. 9, Messrs. Innes and Gilmore, 
Chidn of Ponds. A fine bold wheat, and of superior quality. 
It weighed 661bs. 6oz. per imperial bushel.* 

* The price wheat of 1845 weighed 67ilh. 



HORTICULTURE. 22 1 

Second prize to No. lyMesBn. Stamford, Barley, and Stam- 
ford, Baahan Farm, Meadows Special Surrey. This sample 
also weighed 661b8. 6oz. It is the same sort of wheat as gained 
the prize last year. 

There were twenty-seven samples of wheat exhibited, and the 
majority of them were remarkably good. 

There was also sent in for show, bntnot for competition^ some 
stalks of hen-jind-chicken wheat (one of the Egyptian yarieties), 
grown from three seeds of com in North Add^de, f oar years ago, 
the increase of the first year being 3,000 grains. The grower, 
Mr. B. A. Stone, of the Pinery, warrants a crop any month in 
the year, and declares that it will neither take blight nor smnt. 
He also laid on the exhibition table a loaf of bread, made from 
the floar. He asks £l. per boshel for the seed. 

2. Barley. First prize to No. 27 ^ Mr. Joseph Ind, of Hindley 
Street. Weight 57lbs. 4oz. per imperial bashel. 

Samples of barley were also exhibited by Mr. A. H. Davis, 
Moore Farm Reed Beds ; Mr. Porter, Hebnore, Encoonter Bay, 
(weight 541b8. lOoz.); Mr. W. F. Sergeant, Stort River, a 
bashel of six-rowed beardless and skinless barley, a native of 
Palestine, called by the French, '' Orge Celeste;" Mr. John Rid- 
ley, Hindmarsh (pearl barley) ; and Mr. Joseph Ind, Hindley 
Street. 

3. Oats. First prize to No. 40, Mr. James Shakes, of Mount 
Barker. Weight 461bs. 6oz. 

Other samples were sent in by Mr. C. B. Fisher, of Lockleys; 
Mr. Daffield, of Echanga, (weight 431bs. lOoz.) ; and the Hon. 
G. F. Dashwood, of the Meadows. 

FLOUR AND MALT. 

1. FUmr. First prize to No. 63, Mr: John Ridley, of Hind- 
marsh* 

Samples of flour were exhibited by Dr. Kent, of East Park ; 
Mr. WiUiam Gardiner, of Thebarton ; and Mr. Joseph Ind, of 
Hindley Street, (two samples.) 

We hardly ever remember seeing so fine a sample of floor as 



222 HORTICULTURE. 

the prize one. Dr. Kent's specimen was almost as good| bnt not 
so lofty. 

2. Malt. The prize to No. 98, Mr. John Anld, of Park Land 
Brewery. 

Two samples were also shewn by Mr. Alexander Paterson, of 
Kensington. 

It was matter of regret to seTeral Tisitors and tapsters, that 
no specimens of colonial hops were forthcoming, especially as in 
Tasmania they have made considerable progress in its cnltore. 

DAIRY PRODVCS, HAMS, AND BACON. 

1. Butter, firesh. First prize to No. 80, Mr. Joseph Hodson, 
of Glen Osmond. 

Butter, potted. First prize to No. 124, Mr. C. B. Fisher, of 
the Reed Beds. 
* Many other samples were sent in. 

2. Cheese. First prize to No. 72, Messrs. Whyte and Ban- 
Idn, of Mount Crawford. 

Second prize to No. Ill, Mr. William Pinkerton, of Stndley. 

A cheese exhibited by Mr. Joseph Johnson (an excellent old 
one) attracted much notice ; as also one a year old, made by Mr. 
T. N.MitchelL 

3. Bacon, flitch. First prize to No. 97, Mr. John Edwards, 
of Hindley Street. 

4. Hams (bacon). First prize to No. 1 1 7, Mr. Walter Duffield, 
Mount Barker. 

The pork hams exhibited were not nearly so fine as many we 
have seen ; but the lateness of the season and the quantity ex- 
ported may account for the deficiency. 

POTATOBSf ONION8, FIXLD PEAS, MAIZE, COBBBTT*6 CORN, 
AND HORSE BEANS. 

1. Potatoes. First prize to No. 91, Mr. John Bishop, of 
Green Hill. 

All the specimens of potatoes were fine, and some remarkably 
large and good. 



HORTICULTURE. 223 

2. Onions. First prize to No. 54, Hon. John Morphett, of 
Cumminsy Sturt Riyer. 

All the onions were good, and some of them equal to the finest 
prodaced in Portugal or elsewhere. 

3. Field Peas. First prize to No. 99, Mr. John Winzor^ 
Lagoon Farm, near Glenelg. 

The samples were very beautiful, particularly one kind, called 
the partridge pea. 

4. Maize. First prize to No. 95, Mr. John Bishop, of Green 
HilL 

We noticed two stalks of great length and size, bearing several 
cobs of maize, which for beauty of appearance equalled anything 
of the kind we have ever seen. 

5. Gobbet's Corn. First prize to No. 50, Mr. A. H. Davis, of 
Moore Farm, Reed Beds. 

6. Horse Beans. First prize to No. 59, Hon. John Morphett, 
Cummins, Sturt River. 

GRAPES, APPLES, PEARS, SWEET MELONS, WATER IfELOMS, 
FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND BOUQUETS. 

1. Orapes, wine. The prize to No. 144, George Stephenson, 
Esq., North Adelaide. 

This collection embraced 12 of the finest varieties. 

2. Grapes, tsihle. The prize to No. 143, George Stephenson, 
Esq., North Adelaide. 

Some Black and white Constantia grapes were exhibited by 
Mr. William Giles, and several choice varieties by Mr. A. H. Davis, 
of Moore Farm. 

3. Orapes^ best and greatest varieties. The prize to No. 145, 
George Stephenson, Esq., North Adelaide. The grapes were 
thoroughly ripe, and their appearance, arranged in their several 
assortments, and the more intimate test they underwent by the 
nice palates of the judges (for the public were forbidden even to 
touch) have proved beyond a doubt, that ours will become not 
only a vine-growing but a wine-exporting colony. 

4. Apples. Prize to No. 131, Hon. Jacob Hagen, Echunga. 



224 HORTICULTURE. 

Geoi^ Stephenson, Esq. » of North Adelaide iJbo shewed some 
choice varieties. 

5. Peart. Prize to No. 156, George Stephenson, Esq., North 
Adelaide. 

The Hon. Jacob Hagen, also shewed some very fine pears. 

6. Sweet Melons. Prize to No. 122, Mr. A. H. Dayis, Moore 
Farm. The sweet melon which gained the prize, was, in the 
opinion of the judges, the finest flavour yet produced in the 
colony. 

7. Water Melons. Prize to No. 137^ Mr. William Dinham, 
of the Torrens. 

It may be as well to state here, for the information of English 
readers, that so abundant is this delicious fruit in South Austra- 
lia, that it may be had at half-a-crown the hundred-weight. The 
variety of appearance, sorts, and flavour, adapt themselves to all 
palates, and compensate for the comparative scarcity of tree fruits, 
but which give promise of soon becoming as cheap as in any part 
of the world. The quantity of melons consumed by all dassea 
and ages would astonish the most lavish consumers of fruit in the 
mother-country. 

8. Fruits. Best collection of, for which no prizes were sepa- 
rately offered. Prize to No. 146, George Stephenson, Esq., 
North Adelaide. 

These fruits comprised the following : citrons, peaches, plums, 
almonds, figs, dried figs, pomegranates, passaflora-idulis, orange, 
banana, olives, guava, medlar, and pine-apple. All these fruits 
were not in season, but specimens were exhibited to shew their 
healthy condition. 

Amongst the fruits, we must make special mention of some 
beautiful almonds from the garden of Geoi^ Stephenson, Esq., 
and a fine dish of sweet almonds sent for exhibition by J. H. 
Fisher, Esq. 

Vegetables, for the best and greatest variety. Prize to No. 1 60, 
Mr. Joseph Ind, Hindley Street. 

Other vegetables were shewn by Mr. George Clark, Walkerville; 
Hon Jacob Hagen, Echunga; Mr. A. H. Davis, Moore Farm ; 



HORTICULTURE. 225 

Ifr. John Hatter, Walkervillet two eacQmbeni« (Mftachester 
prize,) and a small lot of green peas ; Mr. Wm. Dinham* of the 
Torrena ; Mr. R. Bell» Clifton, (vegetable marrow and tomata) ; 
and Mr. William Haina^ Botanical Garden, two aorta of vegeta- 
ble marrow^ oelery, (two kinds,) radishes, and lettuce, (Grand 
Admiral,) all of which, with the exception of the celery, had been 
Bown within the last three months. 

Carrots, parsnips, and the Cape cabbage turnip, and beet-root, 
were shewn in much profusion, and were, in point of size, so re- 
markable^ that we regret we cannot state the girths and dimen- 
aioDS. 

We noticed a very good specimen of the bottle-gourd, and 
were about to set down some enormous pumpkins as barrel- 
gourds, when a friendly connoisseur set us right as to their real 
pretensions* They had, we think, as much rotundity as a quar- 
ter-pipe ; and we have since learned that one of them weighed 
84 pounds. There were also on the exhibition table, a con- 
siderable variety of European garden herbs, in great perfection ; 
and amongst the few seeds, there was a very fine sample of the 
naeful and wholesome carraway. 

10. Bouquets, (for the best.) First prise to No. 149, Gteorge 
Stephenson, Esq., North Adelaide. Second prize to No. 158, 
Hon. Jacob Hagen, Echunga. 

11. Cottager^ Prize (for the best bouquet.) Mr. John 
Bailey of Hackney Nursery. 

George Stephenson, Esq., exhibited a very fine specimen of 
sagar cane and New Zealand flax* 

TOBACCO, FRESH AND MANUFACTURED. 

1. Tobacco, fresh. Prize to No. 103, Hon. John Morphett, 
Cnmminsi Sturt River. 

2. TdbaccOf manufiu^tured into cigars. Prize to No. 53, Mr* 
W. P. Sargeant, Sturt River. 

Mr. Sargeant*s sample consisted of six stalks of Virginia to- 
bacco, partly cured; six ditto ditto, from the same plant; six 
sticks of N^ro-head; a small parcel of cut tobacco ; one hun- 

Q 



226 HORTICULTURE. 

dred dgam ; and three haodB of leaves made ready for pacldiig. 
Other samples were exhibited. 

Mr. Alexander Lawson, of Adelaide^ exhibited three qualitiea 
of snuff. 

RSAPING MACHINES. 

Tbe Society's prize of ^10. lOs. was awarded to Mr. John 
fiidley^ of Hindmarsh, for his harvest maduaey in doing whidi. 
His Excellency* the Governor, paid Mr. Ridley some well-merited 
compliments. 

I7NENt7MERATSD ARTICLES. 

Although the prizes for nnennmerated articles are not yet fized^ 
the following are the Judges* and our own remarks upon them. 

1. Iron Castings. Mr. John Wyatt, of Grenfell Street, a 
cylinder, seven inches ^ameter, for a four-horse power steam en- 
gine, fifteen inches stroke; and four iron cart and dray wheel 
boxes. The Judges pronounced them most creditable produe* 
tions, and quite equal to anything that could be produced at any 
of the best foundries in England. 

2. Soap. (No. 100.) Mr. W. H. Burford, three btts of mot- 
tled soap, and (No. 101) Wright, linn, and EUiott« for samples 
of yellow soap. Both of excellent quality. 

3. Candles, mould. No. 107i Mr. J. H, Walker. An excel- 
lent specimen. 

4. Bali, one bag made from English rock salt. Mr. G. H. 
Thompson. Apparently a fine white salt, of good quality, and 
well manufactured. The Judges expressed their regret, that 
there was not also a specimen of manufactured salt purely 
colonial. 

Mr. Thompson is already supplying salt, similar to that ex- 
hibited, at the rate of two tons a week ; and he is determined to 
fprm salt-pans contiguous to the Fort, where he will perfect a 
refinery. 

5. Wool^ three fleeces. Mr. James Masters. All very good 
specimens, and one sample of fine wool particularly beautiful, 
almost equal to the best Saxony. 

6. A Hearth-rug, in colours, manufactured from native wool. 



HORTICULTURE. 227 

and on a colonial-made loom, by J. F. Bottomley, Thebarton. 
Yery creditable as a first specimen. Mr. B. can manufacture 
beartb-rogs of any colour or pattern, and by the same machinery, 
he will be able to manufacture wire-gauze for blinds and sieves. 

7. Leathery two parcels, one from Mr. George Bean, the other 
£rom Mr. William Peacock. The Judges gave a decided pre- 
ference to Mr. William Peacock's, both on account of the greater 
▼arietyand superior quality. 

Mr. Peacock's specimens comprised three sides kip, three calf- 
skins, three goat-skins, two dog-skins, two cat-skins, four kanga- 
roo-skins, four seal-skins, six black sheep-skins, three brown 
sheep-skins, and two sole-butts and a piece. 

Mr. George Bean's samples consisted of one butt and two sides 
sole-leather, seten sides bright harness-leather, one dozen kanga- 
roo-skins, one dozen wallaby-skins, two dozen seal-skins, two 
horse-hides, three calf-skins, one piece boot-top leather, four 
bright seal-skins, and four bright basils. 

8. Ale, One cask, from Mr. John Shand, which was pro- 
nounced particularly deserving of patronage. The tasting the 
contents of this cask was not confined to the Judges ; and aU 
agreed in declaring it excellent. At his own tap, Mr. Shand 
retails it at two shillings per gallon. 

9. Starch. Dr. Davey, of Walkerville, (two specimens.) Mr. 
Giles (whose report the Committee confirmed) stated, that these 
samples of starch were equal in quality to any manufactured by 
country makers in England, but not quite equal to the London 
makers, Howard, Chancellor, & Co., and Lechere& Co. 

10. j?(mey, (one jar.) George Stephenson's, Esq. Excellent. 

11. Castor-oily (cold drawn.) Mr. Carlton, Apothecary of the 
Adelaide Hospital. Particularly good. Dr. Kent stated that he 
never examined a superior sample. 

We also noticed a bush drake-sieve, made by Mr. Luke Broad- 
bent, near the Cherry Gardens; colocynth, from Mr. Robert Bell, 
of Clifton; capsicums, from Mr. Edward Giles, of Noarlunga; 
a small bag of chicken-corn, and another of seed wheat, from 
Mr. Kemmis, of YankaliUa; and eleven beautiful specimens of 

Q2 



228 HORTICULTURE. 

galena, (lead ore,) sent by Edward Stephens, Esq., Manager of 
the Bank of South Australia, and 0. Gilles, Esq, 

By some unaccountable oversight, no specimens of the copper- 
ore, which is now being wrought by Messrs. Bagot and Dutton, 
made their appearance. 

His Ezcellencyi the Ooyemor, with Mrs. Grey, were present. 
In distributing the prizes, he expressed himself highly gratified, 
and in some instances, astonished at the productiona exhibited. 
A dinner was held after the exhibition. 

Mr. Stephenson's garden, in North Adelaide, as 
well as those formed by Mr. Hack at great expense^ 
at Echunga Springs, in the Mount Barker district, 
with some minor ones, are the principal nursery-gar- 
dens from whence the colonists are supplied with 
every variety of the best fruit trees ; another garden, 
which for beauty and extent of its arrangements, and 
great variety of its productions, deserves especial 
mention, is at Highercombe, the seat of Qeorge 
Anstey, Esq. ; indeed it would be difficult to say 
what is not to be found in those gardens. 

Gardens and vineyards, on an extensive scale, are 
now being laid out, in all parts of the colony, and 
in a few years much wine will be made ; although as 
to the quality which may be expected, it would be 
premature to give a decided opinion— the vine lov- 
ing a warm dry calcareous soil, and our colony pos- 
sessing these advantages in perfection, added to the 
most suitable climate, the most sanguine hopes may 
be entertained of eventually producing a good 
quality in great abundance. 

The fig, olive, and almond, thrive amazingly, and 



HORTICULTURE. 229 

almost without any ferther care being requisite after 
they are once planted : raisins, figs, almonds, and 
olive-oil, may not unreasonably be expected here- 
after to add to the list of our exports. 

During the fruit season, every person, from the 
highest to the humblest, has the opportunity of en- 
joying sweet and water-melons, peaches, apricots, 
and grapes, in great abundance and perfection, as 
well as at a very reasonable rate. The luxury of the 
South Australian water-melon, must be enjoyed to 
be thoroughly appreciated, no description can do 
justice to it. All fruits are grown in the open air; 
the trees as standards, and the melon is now grown 
in fields : you see drays, drawn by two and four 
bullocks, coming into town early of a morning, with 
the melons piled up like the loads of cabbages sent 
to Covent (harden market. They are grown of 
immense size, 15 and 181bs. being quite common, 
which, during the season, would sell for 6d. each. 

The castor-oil plant grows and extends so rapidly, 
that if not checked it becomes in a short time a 
perfect nuisance ; a very excellent sample of the oil 
has been manufactured from it. Hops give the 
fairest promise : the first ever planted were thirty 
roots ; these gave 6lbs. of hops the first year, and 
600 plants, which were planted out, and are all 
doing well, and ftimishing abundant roots for other 
settlers. 

Tobacco has not been extensively planted: Messrs. 
Bonney, and William Jacob, are the principal 



230 HORTiCULTUBB. 

growers, with whom the return has been satisfisu^tory, 
but in the manufacture of the leaf, we are still very 
far behind-hand. 

The vegetables generally found in the English 
kitchen garden grow most luxuriantly in South 
Australia. Among these may be classed the cabbage^ 
pea, bean, turnip^ onion^ leek, carrot, cauliflawerj 
brocoli, celery, beet, artichokes, scotch kale, horse- 
radish, parsley, radish, lettuce, sea- kale, shalot, 
spinach, cress, endive, garlic, basil, balm, and a 
variety of others too numerous to be particularised. 
A cabbage, weighing 201bs. was lately exhibited 
at the Horticultural show, and potatoes weighing 
1^ and 21bs*, are of common occurrence. I have 
myself seen a cauliflower brought into town on a 
cart, which it took two men to lift off, not exactly 
from its weight, but in order not to break any of its 
leaves ; it was truly an enormous plant. The prin- 
cipal thing a person has to attend to in commencing 
a garden, is to trench the whole of the ground 
allotted to that purpose thoroughly, and not less 
than eighteen inches deep; having done this, he 
may be sure that every thing above enumerated 
will grow in it to perfection. 

His Excellency, Governor Grey, has, during the 
whole period of his residence in South Australia, 
taken the liveliest interest in the success of the 
agriculturist, grazier, and horticulturist. He is the 
Patron of the Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society, which he not only assists with his subscrip- 



HORTICULTURE,. 5231 

tion, but giyes every fedlity in his power, by grant- 
ing the use of the most convenient localities in the 
Government domains, for the use of the Society for 
their half-yearly shows, which now make a most 
respectable appearance, and are each time attended 
by many hundreds of the colonists ; liberal pre- 
miums are awarded as prizes to the best articles of 
garden and field produce, and from the opinion 
expressed in Mark-lane, coupled with the prices it 
has fetched, the wheat and barley grown in South 
Australia, has now, beyond doubt, taken up a high 
stand in the estimation of English buyers. 

Colonel Le Couteur, to whom I gave a sample of 
the prize wheat, has kindly promised to make some 
experiments in growing it, with a view of ascertain- 
ing whether it is susceptible of being su£Biciently 
acclimatized here, to preserve its superior qualities, 
v^hen exposed to European temperature and soil. 

Mr. George Stephenson's garden in North 
Adelaide, has several times been mentioned above, 
as producing in perfection almost every kind 
of English and tropical fruit: here, the banana 
and the gooseberry may be seen growing side by 
side ; and the produce of the fruit trees are no 
less abundant in quantity, than rich in flavour. 
Indeed, it has often been a matter of surprise, that 
every description of tree and plant should have 
succeeded so well in this garden, as from the 
appearance of the soil, no great results would be 
anticipated by inexperienced observers. A friend of 



232 HOftTICULTURE. 

mine^having brought frbm Adelaide a portion of 
the soil and subsoil of this garden, which has never 
been manured^ I submitted them to Dr. Ure, F.R.S. 
for analysis, and the unexpected and interesting 
result of that analysis, of such importance to the 
colony, makes me regret not having thought of 
bringing with me a variety of samples of soil from the 
agricultural districts. Dr. Ure says of it : "I have 
devoted much time and pains to the analyses of the 
soils ; they are the most singular I have ever ex- 
amined, or even heard of. These soils are very re- 
markable, and must be very fertile, as they contain 
all the elements requisite for the nourishment of 
plants. If to this soil a very small quantity of 
Peruvian guano were added, it would afford amazing 
crops: it wants nothing but a little rich animal 
matter/' 

The analysis produced the following result: — 

Surface soil. 



1. 


Sulphate of lime or gypium . 


75 





2. 


Phosphate of lime . . . . 


2 





3. 


Moisture 


2 





4. 


Combustible vegetable matter . 


2 





5. 


Oxide and phosphate of iron . 


6 





6. 


Fixed alkaline salts, containing some of the Talnable 
pot-ash salt; these are muriates of soda and 








pot-ash 


4 


5 


7. 


Silica and a little alumina 


. 8 


5 




100 






A trace of magnesia. 





HORTICULTURE. 


% 


V6d 




Subml. 






1. 


Sulphate of lime (gypsmn) 


. 53 


33 


2. 


Phosphate of lime 


2 


00 


3. 


Oxide and phosphate of iron . 


5 


50 


4. 


Moiatore expelled at red heat 


. 15 


00 


5. 


Fixed alkaline salts 


3 


50 


6. 


Silica with a litUe alumina . 


. 20 


67 




100 


00 



A trace of magnesia. 

(Signed) ANDREW URE, M.D. F.R.S., &c. 

London, 23rd Febraary, 1846. 

The result of these chemical researches, prove the 
soil, on which the taton of Adelaide is builtf to con- 
tain in an unprecedented and extraordinary degree, 
all the most fertilizing mineral elements. It at 
once occurred to me to ascertain through the same 
means, how far the chemical composition of the 
grain grown in South Australia might be affected 
by these elements, which there is no reason to be- 
lieve should be entirely and exclusively limited to 
Mr. Stephenson's garden. That sulphate of lime 
is present in other parts of the colony, I had it 
fortunately in my power to ascertain ; amongst the 
curiosities brought back by the party who explored 
the Port Lincoln district, under poor Mr. Darke, 
who lost his life whilst engaged in it, were two 
substances; one a fine greyish powder, the other 
minute and very regularly formed scales, very 
similar to fish scales ; these were found in large 



234 ANALTBBS OF WHEAT. 

quantities on the borders of some lakes in Port 
Lincoln, and must have been precipitated from the 
waters, in which they are held in solution. The 
scales, Dr. Ure ascertained to be sulphate of lime 
in the purest state, the powder likewise, though leas 
pure; it is not unreasonable to expect that this 
valuable mineral manure, may exist also in the soil 
of the corn-growing districts, and be in part the 
cause of their fertility. 

I was also forcibly struck by the very dis- 
couraging and unfavourable results of Count 
Strzelecki's personal researches in the colonies of New 
South Wales and Van Diemen's Land ; he first gives 
the following comparative table of proportion of 
gluten contained in the several countries of all 
climes, as follows : — 



Europe, according to 


Davy, Vogel, BouBaingault, 




and Yauqadin 


- 


- 


22.5 


AbU 


Boussingault 


- 


21.6 


Africa 


ditto 


- 


22.0 


North America - 


Strzelecki 


- 


21.3 


South America • 


ditto 


- 


17.9 



he then proceeds — 

" If we take the amount of gluten in twenty-five 
difierent specimens of wheat in New South Wales, 
and Van Diemen's Land, its average will be greatly 
below that of South America. It would be really 
invidious and injurious to the Australian farmers to 
insert here the localities where the wheat, which 
has been analysed, was grown ; suffice it to say, as 



DR. ure's analyses. 235 

a warning against the evil with which the most 
essential interests of society are threatened, that the 
gluten of the wheat of some of the &rmers, in both 
the colonies, does not amount to four per cent" 

To ascertain how far the grain grown in South 
Australia might be similarly affected in its nutritive 
qualities I submitted samples of wheat and barley to 
Dr. Ure, at the same time drawing his attention to 
the above report on the grain grown by our neigh- 
bours in Van Diemen's Land, &c. The following 
is the Doctor's report : — 

No. 1 affords 6.56 per cent, of dry gluten^ equiyalent to 17.25 
of moist gluten. 

No. 1 afibrds 1.05 of asote per cent., wjbich, reckoning glaten 
to contain 16 per cent- of azote, gives the above proportion. 

No. 2 affords exactly tbe same proportion of acote and glaten 
as No. 1. 

No. 3 affords 1.26 of azote per cent., which corresponds to 7«9 
of dry glaten, and 21 of moist glaten. 

No. 4, the barley, affords only 0.8633 of 1 per cent, of azote, 
equivalent to 5.4 of dry glaten and 14.2 of moist. 

It is now admitted, by chemists, that the old and volgar method 
of determining the proportion of glaten by kneading the floar of 
grain with a little water, and then washing away the starch by a 
stream of water, is qoite inexact, even as to the pare gluten, and 
it does not give the proportion of albumine or caseine, which 
' being equally rich in azote, with gluten, should be always included 
in the analysis. By the accurate determination of the azote, 
however, which can now be done very perfectly by modem 
methods of chemical research, we are in a position to ascertain 
the nutritive qualities of the several cerealia with great precision. 

The estimates of glaten, given in Mr. Strzelecki's book, seem 
to me, for the above reasons, to be devoid of authority. Moist 



236 DR. urb's 

gluten containi so uncertain a proportion of water beaidef> that 
it shoiild never be taken as a standard, as he obyioualy does. 

The floor used by the Pariaian bakers, which is folly better 
than that used by the average London bakers, contains, accord- 
ing to Yaoquelin and Dumas, two excellent chemists, 10^ per cent, 
of dry gluten, corresponding to 26.4 of moist, so that your wheat 
is considerably below that standard; but I haye analyzed English 
wheat, of fair commercial value, which is of the same composition 
as your No. 3. The barley. No. 4, being very rich in starch, as 
it |is poor in gluten, is therefore exceedingly well adapted for 
malting, and ought to fetch a high price in the market. 

The relative qualities of grain are now estimated by the 
weights of respective bushels, or the aliquot part of a bushel of 
each. But this method is in some measure fallacious ; if small 
sized lead shot, and large sized be tried by that method the one 
will be found to differ from the other in apparent density, though 
the real density of the lead of both is the same. In like manner, 
corn of equal quality or density, derived from its gluten, will 
differ in weight per bushel according to the size o£ its grains. 
The only method of avoiding that source of error is to deter^ ^ 
mine the specific gravity of the com on the same principle aa 
the specific gravity of metals, minerals, and gems are determined. 

I find in this way that: ^ Spec. grar. 

No. 1. Wheat from Adelaide is . . 1.400 

2. do. do 1.350 

3. do. do 1.380 

4. Wheat offered as prize wheat at the 

Southampton competition (English) 1.340 

5. Barley of Adelaide . • • 1.285 

Andrew Urb, M.D., F.R.S. 
To F. S. DuTTON, Esq. 28th Maich, 1846. 

Whilst, therefore, these analyses are highly satis- 
factory, as compared with those of wheat grown iu 
Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales, it also 
proves that much remains to be done by our 



ANALYSES. 237 

fiirmers; whether Count Strzelecki's analyses are 
correct or otherwise, (which I do not pretend to be 
competent to give an opinion upon) one thing is 
very certain, that all the Australian colonies are 
under considerable obligations to him, for having 
devoted years of labour and research to the shidy of 
the physical features of a portion of them, the results 
of which are now before the public in his valuable 
scientific work, and it is a subject of much regret 
that he was not able to extend his travels to South 
Australia, where in a geological and mineralogical 
point of view he would have found a vast field for 
research, and have been sure to have met with the 
same cordial and hospitable reception given him 
everywhere else. 

It is therefore high time that the farmers in South 
Australia should bestir themselves, and, by the appli- 
cation of a better system of agriculture, ensure not 
only a continuance of the natural fertility of their 
soil, but by adopting the uses of animal manures, 
and, where possible, artificial irrigation, to call 
forth the full energies of those mineral manures 
contained in the soil, which for the want of them, 
are now lying dormant, and the result of which 
would undoubtedly soon bring our wheat up to the 
nutritive standard of the most favoured countries. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE PASTORAL INTEBBST. 

<* . • • On thy moanUins, flocks 

Bleat nnmberleBs ; while roving round their rides 

Bellow the blackening herds in lusty droyes." 

Thomson. 
To Mr. Bonney, and Mr. Eyre, belong the 
credit of having opened the overland commnnica- 
tion from New South Wales, to South Australia, by 
which our hills and valleys, in a very short space 
of time, became stocked with sheep and cattle. 
The abundance of capital existing in South Aus- 
tralia, in the early years of its settlement, added to 
the very favourable nature of the country for pas- 
toral purposes, led to large investments in stock ; 
the value of sheep, in particular, soon rose, from the 
great demand, beyond that point at which it could 
beexpected that the capital invested would return 
a fair rate of interest ; that many people should 
subsequently have been disappointed in the expecta- 
tions they entertained, of making fortunes by sheep- 
farming, after paying the high price they did in the 
outset, was a natural consequence, and an opinion 
obtained ground in the colonies, and in England, 
that investments in stock, were not only precarious, 
but unproductive. After some years experience in 
pastoral pursuits, I may safely affirm, that few 



THB PASTORAL INTEREST. 



239 



investaieiits, if properly looked after, . are more 
certain of making a man independent, than that of 
a sheep-fermer ; and I can point with pleasure to 
my numerous friends and fellow settlers in the 
colony, who have done remarkably well, and are in 
a feir way of realizing an independence. 

The settlers of South Australia, have on the 
whole, suffered less from the depression of former 
years, than those in the neighbouring colonies. 
I take the principal cause to be, that in South 
Australia, the custom prevails to a greater extent, 
of the owner of the flocks residing at the station, 
and looking after his own afiairs himself, besides 
leading a frugal and industrious life. Incurring 
fewer liabilities, he was also never driven to the 
desperate expedient of ** killing the goose for the 
sake of the egg ;" I allude to the boiling down 
of sheep, which was so very general throughout 
New South Wales and Port Phillip, and by which 
the settlers of those colonies sacrificed thousands of 
their sheep to pay their debts. 

In South Australia, no boiling-down establish- 
ment was ever established or required. 

The following table will give some idea how 
rapid is the increase in stock. 



Sbeep • 


1838. 


1839. 


184U. 


1841. 


1842. 


1843. 


1844. 


38000 

2600 

480 

780 


108700 

7600 

800 

1700 


800160 

161U0 

1060 

3400 


242055 

16696 

1650 

6000 


300000 

90000 

1850 

8000 


350000 


450000 


Homed Cattle 

HoFBes •• « ••• •••> 


25000; 30000 
2000! 2150 


Goats and Pigs .. . 


10000 


12000 



240 THB PASTORAL INTBRB8T. 

I have not been able to get a correct return for 
last year; but I am much below the mark, in 
taking a further increase of from 25 to 30 per cent, 
on the numbers for 1844; the number of sheep 
now in South Australia, being not less than 
600,000, which will produce a million and a half 
pounds of wool, and require nine or ten large 
ships to bring to England. 

Although we were never obliged to resort to 
boiling down our sheep, to pay our debts, still it 
cannot be denied, that in the days of general 
depression, sheep were at a great discount, and 
many good bargains were obtained by those who 
had sufficient confidence and experience to look 
forward to a rise in the wool market ; which, though 
long of coming, did at length come, and fiilly 
realized their expectations, by at once raising the 
value of sheep to more than double what they 
were two years ago. Many have since repented 
for having thrown up their sheep in disgust at 
the long continued depression of the home markets, 
and they would gladly be replaced in the same 
position now, they were eighteen months ago ; those, 
on the contrary, who have always steadily held on 
by this great sheet-anchor of our resources, have 
never had cause to repent it ; their debts are long 
since paid, and they are now independent men. 

It is singular, that in none of the colonies has 
there ever been a book published, on the all important 
subject of breeding sheep, cattle, or horses ; with the 
great experience many settlers have had on the sub- 



THB PASTORAL INTEREST. 241 

ject, and the much leisure time at their command 
" in the bush," a work of that description might long 
since have been produced, and would have conferred 
a great benefit on the community at large. Books 
written in England on those subjects, are quite in- 
applicable to the altered circumstances, under which 
the same occupations are pursued in the colonies ; 
and I would throw out the suggestion to the settlers 
that a committee be formed for the collection of the 
results of their experience from all parts of the co- 
lony, which might afterwards be properly condensed 
and arranged for publication, thereby affording a 
practical hand-book for new comers, and be the 
means of suggesting many improvements on the 
methods now in use, which are of great importance 
to all concerned. 

The wool from South Australia does not obtain 
in the English market a value on the scale that its 
quality deserves : I will hazard one remark against 
the combined experience of all the wool buyers in 
England, and state, that this is more owing to pre- 
judice, than any real inferiority of the article.* The 

.* I copy from Messrs. Gooch and Cousins' Circular for 1845, 
the fdlowing particulars of the total importation of wool into 
England from all parts of the woild, shewing the growing im- 
portance of the Australian Colonies to the British manufacturing 
interest : 



Anstralia 


• 


77,479 Bales, 


Germany . 


• 


61,777 „ 


Spain and Portugal 


• 


8,455 „ 


Sundries * . 


• 


117,424 „ 



242 THE PASTORAL INTERBST. 

sheep in South Australia are of s^ very superior de- 
scription, because none but the very best sheep were' 
ever imported from New South Wales; but the 
English wool buyers will not believe this : the ipse 
dixit of the Hall of Commerce is against us, and we 
must submit to take two or three pennies a pound 
less, than our more &voured neighbours get. 

But would my readers believe it ! — the same wool, 
which, had it come direct from Adelaide would have 
fetched say only Is 6d per lb*, by being first 
shipped to Sydney, and from thence home Ijp 
London, sold for 3d and 4d per lb. higher ! Now 
what is the cause of this? — the buyers of course 
cannot know that it originally came from South 
Australia, and it just proves, that with all their 
experience, they were not able to recognize one in 
contra-distinction to the other. I trust that this fact 
may meet the eyes of some of the great purchasers 
of Australian wool, and that at the sales this 
summer, this illiberal distinction may not be made. 
It has also been a common thing for the wool 
buyers in England to attribute neglect and want 
of proper pains being taken by the settlers in South 
Australia in getting up their wool. Now, nothing 
can be more unjust ; I maintain that there is hot a 
more hard-working and pains-taking class of young 
men, in any of the Australian colonies than is to be 
found in South Australia; and if our wool is a 
shade more dingy than that of our neighbours, it is 
owing to the water with which our sheep are washed. 



THE PASTORAL INTEREST. 24d 

being in some parts of the colony rather hard, so 
that it does not dissolve the yolk so well and wash 
out the dirt, as is the case where the water is softer. 
Even this inferiority will now soon cease to exist, as 
large tanks and reservoirs to collect the rain-water, 
and proper shearing sheds are being built, when we 
will be able to send our wool home in a much im- 
proved condition. In the older established colonies 
also, thegreat sheep^owners, being men of large wealth, 
were enabled to go to much expense in making the 
necessary arrangements for washing and shearing, 
-which, for want of pecuniary means, we have hitherto 
been certainly deficient in. 

The comparatively limited extent of our sheep- 
runs, is another difficulty our sheep farmers have to 
contend with ; sheep will only prove profitable as long 
as we can get sufficient country to feed them upon, 
ivithout having to purchase land, for that would be 
quite out of the question : owing to the way the 
province has been cut up, by the demand for small 
sections of 80 acres, and above, the sheep-runs have 
in many instances been seriously interfered with, as 
every owner of a section pretended to claim the sur- 
tounding country to a certain extent as his own run ; 
disputes were constantly occurring, and the office of 
Commissioner of Crown Lands became anything 
but a sinecure. The sale of land has now again set 
in with more force than ever, owing to the discovery 
of the minerals throughout the province, and the 
aheep farmers would have looked forward with con- 

R 2 



244 THE PASTORAL INTEREST. 

siderable alarm to what they are to do with their 
increasing flocks in a few years time, had it not been 
for the opportune discovery of the Rivoli Bay Dis- 
trict, and the resumption of the Port Lincoln runs ; 
and there can be little doubt that the enterprise of 
the settlers, and the sinking of wells, will continue 
to make available more country, which may now be 
considered by them undesirable, whenever they find 
themselves driven into inconveniently narrow 
bounds, by the increasing sales of land, or number 
of their flocks. 

A variety of regulations for the depasturing of - 
stock were from time to time issued by the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands, which he as quickly 
found imperfect, to meet the exigencies of the vari- 
ous cases brought before him ; last August, there- 
fore, all previous regulations were superseded, and 
new ones issued, under which the waste lands of the 
Crown are now occupied by the settler : they will 
be found, given in detail in the Appendix. These 
regulations appear, at all events, to have the great 
advantage of being distinctly drawn up, so that 
every settler will know how fer he may go himself^ 
or let his neighbour go ; the boundaries of runs are 
generally marked by running a plough-fiirrow, 
wherever the nature of the country admits of it, this 
being an indelible mark, not easily obliterated ; in. 
other parts where a plough cannot work, stakes are. 
driven into the ground at certain visible distances, 
or else the trees. are notched, the direction being 
taken by compass. 



THE PASTORAL INTEREST. 245 

The rent paid for the land is a mere nominal one, 
to establish the right of the Crown to the soil. 

The charge for licenses is as follows : 
For depasturing licenseB, authorising only the depas- £. «. d. 

turing of stock 10 6 

For occupation UcenBes, authorizing building and re- 
siding on waste lands for the purpose of depas- 
turing stock thereon 5 

For timber licenses, authorising only the cutting and 

remoYal of timber and other natural produce .1 
But we pay a tax on the stock besides this, of one 
penny for every sheep, sixpence for every 'head of 
cattle, and 2s. 6d. per head for horses— annually. 
The tenure by which the settler holds the waste 
lands from the Crown is by an annual lease, liable 
to be withdrawn from him at any moment ; this, of 
course, prevents him undertaking the least improve- 
ment of the land, as he dare not risk to go to an 
expense in buildings or cultivation, which any one 
may the next day turn him out of by buying the 
land. His Excellency Governor Grey has given 
this subject every attention, as it appears from his 
address to the Council last session, that he had 
already submitted a plan to the Home Government 
for approval, by which some permanent provision 
will be made to protect the settler. The details of 
this plan are, however, not known. If good land 
is to be sold only at a high price, let there at all 
events be some fixity of tenure for the occupation of 
that portion, which, but for the settler, would be 
next to worthless. 

The appearance of the sheep-runs during the rainy 



246 THE PASTORAL ITITERBST. 

months is very beautiful ; indeed the growth of the 
grass is so rapid and so abundant, that during July, 
August, and September, one acre would feed 4 sheep, 
whilst in summer it would take 4 acres or more to feed 
one sheep. This is the reason why the settlers require 
such large tracts of country to feed their stock upon. 
During the winter months all the stock in the pro- 
vince cannot consume or feed down the luxuriant 
growth of grass ; towards November and December 
it becomes of course very dry from the heat of €be 
sun, and is easily ignited ; the ravages of the bush* 
fires, as they are called, are then often very destruc* 
tive, not alone to the grass itself, but, from the 
rapidity with which it flies along the ground, endan- 
gering fences and farm-buildings. 

The fences and farms are generally protected by 
ploughing two or three furrows round them, as a 
very narrow road, or other bare line of ground, will 
stop the progress of the flames if the wind is not too 
violent. 

Whenever a fall of rain occurs immediately 
after a fire, it is surprising to see how soon the 
beautiful green young grass springs up again ; the 
fire passes over the ground too quickly to injure die 
roots of the grass, and it is only when five or six 
weeks elapse without rain, that the sheep some- 
times have to live upon very short commons. 

Of diseases amongst the sheep we have fewer 
than in New South Wales ; catarrh, that dreadful 
visitation, which, without any apparent cause, or 
known remedy, carries off* hundreds of sheep in a 



THE PASTORAL INTEREST. 247 

few hoars after they become infected, is unknown 
in South Australia, and we have every reason to be 
grateful to Providence that such is the case. Two 
of my brothers who were settled in New South 
Wales, have twice had their flocks ravaged by this 
fell destroyer, annihilating in a few short weeks, the 
fruits of years of anxious toil, and successful industry. 
In South Australia no case of catarrh has ever 
occurred : may 1 be allowed to express a hope that 
the settlers in our colony may continually have the 
fear of that beneficent Being before them, whose 
protecting hand has hitherto guarded their flocks 
from this scourge. 

Foot-rot, when neglected, is also fatal to the 
sheep, and very infectious. The cases that have 
occurred in South Australia, have been confined to 
marshy runs, and have readily given way to the 
simple expedient, of driving the flocks on stony hills, 
or drier pasturage. 

The greatest enemy of the sheep-farmer, is the 
" scab ;" I am not far wrong in saying, that half 
the sheep in this province are infected with it. The 
disease is not fatal to the sheep, but where it is not 
checked, will very soon be fatal to the interest of the 
settler, by the loss of the wool it occasions. Legisla* 
tive enactments, and stringent regulations from the 
Crown Lands Commissioner, have repeatedly been 
tried, and all to no purpose ; still, it must not be 
supposed that the disease is incurable ; far from it ; 
but owing to the great number of sheep each settler 



248 TH£ PASTORAL INTEREST* 

has, it is not to be wondered at that in dressing them 
a spot or two of scab might escape detection ; this 
one spot will in a short time infect the whole flock 
again ; and that flock, if not guarded against, would 
soon infect the whole colony. There being no fixity 
of tenure in our sheep-runS; many of the smaller 
settlers are constantly on the move; and as these 
generally have less means at their disposal to keep 
their sheep dressed, they are the constant dread 
and terror of the large stations, where clean sheep 
are kept. It is to be hoped that Mr. Bonney's new 
regulations will cause some degree of security from 
trespass or interlopers, which was very much 
wanted. 

In England a farmer who has his 500 or 1,000 
sheep* is thought to be extensively occupied in wool- 

* The following are Bome of the largest sheep proprietors. 
South Australian Company . 35,000 head. 

F. H. Dutton, Anlaby 

G. A, Anstey, Light 
G. and C. Hawker, Hutt . 
J. B. Hughes and Brother, ditto 
C. H. Bagot and Sons 
A. Hardy 

Leake and Brothers, Rivoli Bay 
D« MacFarlane . 

Four or five thousand sheep are of common occurrence. 

Amongst cattle proprietors there are,—' 
Charles Campbell and Co. 
Lieutenant Field 
J. and W. Jacob 

and many others. 



20,000 


f» 


16,000 


»» 


10,000 


9» 


12,000 


II 


12,000 


» 


10,000 


>» 


15.000 


»l 


10,000 
rrence. 


» 


2,000 head. 


500 


)l 


500 


l» 



THE PASTORAL INTEREST. 249 

growing ; how they would stare, were they to see 
some of the large estahlishments in the colony 
during shearing time, when there are often from 
10 to 15,000 sheep congregated together, within a 
circumference of five miles from the wool-shed. 
Sheep become profitable in proportiop to the extent 
of the flocks; the owner of 10,000 sheep, can 
manage them cheaper than those who only have the 
tenth part of that number, because there are many 
expenses attending upon a sheep-station which are 
the same in both cases, and of course fall heavier on 
the small proprietor. It has always been the 
fashion in publications on the colonies, to give 
tables of calculations as to the profits realized from 
the breeding of sheep or cattle ; I, however, have 
a strong objection to this, as it cannot be done 
with sufficient accuracy to serve as a guide to those 
who would wish to embark their funds in it, and 
I should be sorry to mislead any one into following 
pursuits, which a variety of contingent causes might 
after all disappoint him in. The price of the sheep, 
in the first place, is very various, according to their 
quality, and whether they are clean or " scabby ;" 
the nature and extent of the run, its being well 
watered or badly watered ; the distance from town, 
and corresponding facility of access for the transport 
of wool and stores, the great or small demand of 
wethers by the butchers, the price of wool obtained 
in England, all combine to make the task of com- 
piling correct calculations as to profits, one which I 



250 THE PASTORAL I^TBKEST, 

have no ambition to undertake, however well it 
might set off this chapter. In general terms, 1 may 
state, that the half of the wool ought to pay all 
the expenses, and the increase, with the remaining 
half of the clip, constitute the profits of the year. 

I have already stated, and I repeat it, that the 
legitimate occupation of a sheep-farmer, who will 
stick to that, and that alone, and not meddle with 
other speculations, and, in particular, if the owner 
of the sheep will take the trouble to look after them 
himself, and live at the station, is one which will, in 
the long run, satisfy, by its results, the most san- 
guine, and lay the sure foundation of future pros- 
perity or independence. Above all, let no one go to 
South Australia, and set to work in this, or any other 
occupation, with the intention of making a fortune in 
any given time, and then leave it again ; let him 
take my advice, and save himself the discomforts of 
a long sea voyage, by stopping at home, for disap- 
pointment will be his lot. I have known many 
instances of the kind alluded to ; people who had the 
moral certainty within their reach of becoming in- 
dependent, and procuring for themselves and chil- 
dren every rational comfort and enjoyment which 
this world can bestow, but whose restless ambition 
and craving for riches would not allow them to leave 
well alone, and led them into wild speculations» 
which were visited with ruin and the utter destruc- 
tion of their former respectable independence. 

And how unjust has been, in England, the opinion 



THE PABTORAL INTEREST. 251 

formed of the Australian colonies, in consequence of 
the fearful monetary crisis which has raged in all 
the different provinces, but in a ten-fold degree in 
New South Wales. Not very long since, to say 
that you had been in Australia, caused by no means 
an accession of friendly feeling towards you. No 
epithet was bad enough as applied to a country 
where parties in England had sent their funds, to 
be invested, without ever seeing interest or principal 
back again. But this feeling is rapidly wearing 
away; people begin to discriminate between the 
country itself, and those whose disreputable acts 
would have given that country a bad name ; and no 
one need be deterred, by those events, from seeking 
that independence, and a happy peaceful home for 
both parent and child, which, to the real and true 
colonist, all the Australian colonies will afford. 

No artificial food is required to be grown for the 
sheep or cattle, such as turnips, mangold-wurzel, or 
hay ; stock of every description is, in the country, 
kept out of doors the whole year round, and even 
during lambing no kind of cover is provided for the 
sheep ; we certainly occasionally lose some lambs, 
if the weather is more than usually boisterous or 
cold, and it is sometimes really pitiable to see 
them shaking and shivering in the cold; but 
if they get over their birth-day they are safe 
enough, as they soon become hardy, and are able to 
pick the young grass in a very few days, and skip 
and frolic about, delightful to look at. 



252 TH£ PA8T0RAL INTEREST. 

I do not here enter into any circumstantial details 
regarding the management of sheep or other stock ; 
to do it in a manner to be of use to the intending 
colonist, would far exceed the limits I have assigned 
to myself in this volume, but I have much pleasure 
in recommending to those who wish for further in- 
formation on the subject, to purchase the interesting 
little work of the Rev. Mr. Mackenzie, entitled 
" The Emigrant's Guide," (Orr & Co.) in which he 
will find several chapters on the breeding and 
management of sheep, cattle, and horses, which will 
be found, with a few deviations, quite applicable to 
South Australia. 

The butter and cheese made in South Australia, 
have been extensively exported, and have acquired a 
great reputation. The breeding of cattle and horses 
is not pursued on so extensive a scale as in New 
South Wales and Port Phillip. As our mines will 
now require a large additional number of both bul- 
locks and horses, thesfe branches will receive a great 
stimulus. 

The life of a settler, on the whole, is one which 
has infinite charms for a young man ; he may fiwcy 
himself lord of the soil, to the utmost stretch of his 
imagination ; he may get on his horse and gallop 
over " hill and brae," baring his brow to the breeze, 
and throwing all cares to the winds. The routine 
of a sheep-station is an unvaried life of simple enjoy- 
ment ; it does not fully occupy the time of a settler, 
but gives him plenty of leisure to cultivate his own 



THE ^STORAL INTER£ST. 253 

mind by reading, or other studies, in .the intervals 
that he is culti;irating the soil, iresh from the hand 
of nature, for his bodily wants. Does he feel tired 
of sedentary occupations, there is his staunch nag 
grazing in the paddock, ready to afford him the 
means of taking a " burst " after an " emu," " kan- 
garoo," or " dingo," accompanied by his faithful 
hounds ; or he may prolong his gallop and visit a 
neighbour, where he is sure to meet with a hearty 
welcome and sterling hospitality. Does, perchance, 
care, or " blue devils " intrude upon him, 

'* Or should, some wayward hour, the aettler'a mind 
Brood sad on scenes for ever left behind^" 

(Campbell.) 

there is his never-failing remedy close at hand ; 
seated before his large fire place in the dim twilight 
of evening, with outstretched legs, the little " black 
pipe" is made to do " good service and true ;" his 
eye watches the curling pyramids of smoke, as they 
gracefully ascend to his thatched roof; with every 
whiff he feels himself better, his thoughts are revel- 
ling in the fairy realms of the imagination ; when 
all his romantic ideas are suddenly dissipated by 
the boisterous chorus of his dogs, announcing the 
arrival of a neighbour, or traveller, and the neces- 
sity of presiding for his wants in the shape of 
" vulgar damper and tea." 



CHAPTER X. 

THE MINING INTEREST. 

INTRODtTCTORY REMARKS— THE GEOLOGICAL FORMATION OF 
THE COLONY — CLASSIFICATION OF THE ROCK SYSTEM — 
MINERALS— IRON ORES. 

** Imnirnse mineral wealth has been opened in South Aastralia." 
Lord Stanley* 9 Speech, March Srdy 1846. 

South Australia was already rapidly advancing 
towards a prosperous state ; it had recovered from the 
shock it sustained during the years of depression, 
which had retarded, though not crushed, its rising 
importance ; the settlers, generally, were fast getting 
out of debt, though none of them were rich, when a 
new impetus was given to their industry, by the 
discovery, in 1843, of rich mineral deposits in dif- 
ferent parts of the ProvincCi made doubly important 
by the faxAy that, in South Australia, no reserves are 
made by the Government with regard to minerals ; 
by which means the owner of the soil was at liberty 
to extract those metallic ores from the ground, un- 
fettered by Government interference. 

At the time when^ these discoveries were made, 
(most of them from fortuitous circumstances,) the 
colony might be said to have reached the very 
lowest point of its depression. It makes one smile, 
seeing the thousands of pounds sterling which are 
now being applied by the colonists to mining pur- 



THE. MINING INTEREST. 255 

poses, what a ^' change has come o'er the spirit of 
the times.'' In the year 1843, the large quantity of 
698 acres of land were sold by the Government, 
producing the very respectable sum of £613. 135. 9d. 
People were sick at the very idea of buying an acre 
of ground, and whereas now, every section of land 
which is put up for sale by Government, is minutely 
scrutinized, I might almost say with microscopic 
care, to discover any hidden treasures it might con- 
tain, part of those 598 acres above-mentioned, namely 
the original section of the present valuable Kapunda 
Mine, was advertised in the Government Gazette for 
a whole month, according to the regulations, 
without any one troubling himself to go and look at 
it; by which means the present proprietors, who 
were alone aware of the existence of copper on it, 
purchased it for the upset price, without opposition, 
although any one of the many land-orders then in 
the colony unexercised, might have claimed it. 

Many people might wonder, that these metallic 
veins, cropping out as they do in many places on 
the surface, were not discovered long before; 
300,000 acres were surveyed and appropriated by 
the different purchasers of land, and 300,000 acres 
more were wrveyed and are still open to selection, 
and not a vestige of copper or lead was observed on 
them at the time ; but one leading cause of this was, 
that parties who wanted land, always selected it, 
where practicable, for the rich quality of the soil ; by 
this means they carefully avoided anything approach- 
ing to rocky or scrubby land, which latter are very 



266 THB MININO INTEREST. 

generally the distinguishing features of country in 
which to look for minerals. The existence of the 
valuable metals was unsuspected by any one, 
excepting the geologist, Mr. Menge, who always 
foretold that the hills were metalliferous; those 
steep hills, therefore, where some rich mines have 
since been opened, were not ascended or inspected 
by the settlers, for the simple reason, that no man 
would, without a special object, go over a hill when 
he could go round it. Further, in travelling 
through the colony, people prefer going along beaten 
tracks; every one travelling on horseback, many 
persons may probably have passed over or near the 
. mineral out-croppings, and not have cast their eyes 
on the ground, or if they did, probably not one in a 
hundred would have been struck with the unusual 
appearance in the colour of the rock. The shepherds, 
however, who follow the flocks from morning to 
night, over hill and dale, were the most likely per- 
sons to have discovered them ; but these, it is obvious, 
being uneducated ignorant people, would not know 
that one stone was more precious than another. 
Thus, up to a very recent period, all the valuable 
discoveries were the result of mere accident, as will 
be noticed in speaking of the several mines. 

After one or two of the mines had been worked 
for a short time, and when people saw that such 
undertakings were likely to turn out something 
more than mere subjects to rail and laugh at, (as 
was the case with the first mines,) it was astonishing 
to see how suddenly, we all appeared to become 



THB MINING INTEREST. 257 

learned in mining matters and mineralogy. No-^ 
thing was, or is now talked of, but copper or lead ; 
hot days or cold days, early or late, people were to 
be met with amongst the hills, searching for 
mines far and near, almost bent double under the 
weight of massive hammers, and bags of stones, 
and most unmercifully were the poor rocks knocked 
about. As might be expected, most of them had 
their journeys for nothing, and were at great trouble 
in carrying weighty stones for many miles, only to 
find out that they were but stones after all, or else 
iron ores, which I may say, en passant^ almost 
every acre of land contains more or less throughout 
the colony, but are of little value in the absence of 
coal. 

The importance of legitimate mining under- 
takings to the colony generally, was, however, soon 
impressed upon even the most timid and unbeliev- 
ing ; and already, at this early period, by the activity 
with which they were prosecuted, in little more than 
two years' time, has the produce of the South Aus- 
tralian mines obtained a respectable and important 
footing in the English market. It needs no pro- 
phetic spirit to foretell, that in a very few years our 
minin^^ interes^ will be a formidable rival to all 
other j^mpetitors, whether European or foreign. 
There is no such promising or legitimate field for 
the employment of British capital, as South Aus- 
tralia now holds forth ; every circumstance which 
can conduce to the successful deyelopment of 



258 THE MINING INTEREST. 

mining speculations is essentially in favour of our 
colony; and none of the causes which made most of 
theSouth American andotherforeignminingconcems, 
since 1826, unprofitable to a proverb, can be anti- 
cipated, to cloud the sun of prosperity which has just 
risen over our favoured province. South Australia, in 
this, as in every other branch of industry, will bear 
the closest scrutiny, and strictest examination. It 
needs but to make the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, known, to convince the 
British public, that the time is come, when their 
capital ought to be diverted from being employed 
in foreign countries, amongst people with whom 
they have no genial and kindred tie of language or 
religion, where they have little law and less security, 
to a province which forms a portion of the British 
Empire, is inhabited by their countrymen, under 
the rule of British protection and British laws, and 
which moreover affords them prospects such as few 
of the vaunted foreign mines can compete with. 

Acting therefore on the principle of avoiding 
every word which might be deemed approaching^ 
to exaggeration, I will confine myself strictly 
to the analyses of this important subject in all its 
bearings. 

THE GEOLOGICAL FORMATION OF THE HILLS. 

The settled portion of the province of South 
Australia, is traversed from south to north by a 
range of hills, of an elevation not exceeding 3,100 



GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 259 

feet above the level of the sea ; the extent to which 
these ranges have been examined, beginning at 
Cape Jervis in the south, is about 200 miles ; in 
the whole length of which metalliferous veins have 
been discovered cropping out on the surface, at in- 
tervals of 20 or 30 miles ; the main range, with the 
numerous spurs striking off from it, may therefore be 
considered decidedly metalliferous, the rock forma- 
tion being the same throughout, and of those 
varieties most congenial to the deposit of metallic 
veins, viz. clay slate, from the indurated to the de- 
composed series, mica slates, granite and gneiss ; the 
two latter are, however, less abundant than the 
former. 

Granite shews itself in different places, principally 
in the beds of rivers, or at the bottom of deep 
gullies ; sometimes also forming some of the high 
peaks, as in the Barossa Ranges. Other heights 
are capped with the old red sandstone, and a recent 
oolitic limestone covers the clay slate of many of 
the lower hills. 

Mr. Menge, (an eminent German mineralogist, 
who has been for several years exploring the 
country, and long foretold the mineral wealth of 
the colony, without being believed) says of the rock 
formations, in alluding to his early explorations — 

" I resumed the stratified primitive rocks on the east side of 
both gulfs, St. Vincent and Spencer, beginning from Cape Jervis, 
where the mica skte appeared again, accompanied by a formation 
of gneiss on one side, and another of clay slate on the other side. 

8 2 



260 THE GEOLOGICAL FORMATION. 

The fofmation of gneiss I found frequently interlined with ex- 
tensive banks or strata of granite, which often run out into pure 
quartz, which change increased my favourable opinion of the 
rock, particularly when I found the rock of gneiss losing the 
constituent or essential portion of quartz in its misture. Some 
tourmaline occurs now and then in the banks of granite; but 
where the granite turns into quartz, the titanium appears asso- 
ciated with iron, forming the ore called titaniron. The gneiss, 
besides its predominant parts of mica and felspar, assumes 
gradually staurotide to a considerable extent, which, however, 
alternates with garnet in several places. In turning to the rock 
of mica slate, I found numerous strata of iron, mostly oxide of 
iron, partly in the form of brown or red iron ore, and partly in that 
of specular or oligistous iron, sometimes diverging, sometimes con- 
verging, in their respective stratifications. The brittle part of 
the formation of mica slate has produced, in many instances, 
barren tracts of country, as the rock consisting of mica and 
quartz only, produces nothing but sand, when dissolved and 
levelled by the change of the atmosphere ; but these oocurrenoea 
prove very favourable for exploring geologists, in guiding them to 
the internal resources of the country. Between the mica slate 
and the formation of clay slate, I found the primitive Umestone 
very frequently setting in, not only in its pure state, but also 
with a numerous train of substances adhering to this interesting 
formation. In the same manner as the strata of granite in gneiaa 
are changed into a granulated quartz, the strata of primitive 
limestone turn into a compact homstone, in which the metals of 
the mica slate on one side, and those of the clay slate on the 
other, are frequently deposited. Instead of a regular continua* 
tion of the above-mentioned substratum of the amphibolic or 
hornblende slate, a variety of amphibolic rocks accompany the 
limestone as well as the homstone, and these two substances 
produce in their variations, and in their peculiar mixtures, an 
endless variety of very interesting ornamental stones. 

The clay slate occurs in all its modifications in colour and mix- 
ture, being a compound of quartz, clay, and lined with calcareous 



THE ROCK SYSTEM. 261 

and magnesian aubstancea, which frequently enter into ita com- 
poaition; the rock retaina a predominant grey colour, and changea 
only in some parta into blue alate, and in othera into white. 
Thia clay ia atratified with thick walla of quartz, which, by ita 
reaiating hardneaa against the dissolving power of the atmosphere, 
jata out of the alate like hilla, and often disappoints the expecta- 
tion of the wanderer/' 

In order to be more easily referred to, I have 
arranged the list of rock formations and minerals 
found in the colony according to the usual classi- 
fications, taking ** Phillips" and " Page's " works 
as guides. Many of those here enumerated, were 
forwarded by Governor Grey to the British Museum, 
having been principally collected by Deputy 
Surveyor-General Burr, from whose published notes I 
have derived much valuable information in compiling 
these chapters. 

THE BOCK SYSTEM. 

1. Pbimary. 

Oranite. Of the farietiea — 

Coarae porphyritic, fine red, and grey granite ; also binary, 
with green tourmalinea. 
Chieiss, 

Mica and chlorite ickist. Hornblende schist. 
Quartz rock, with ahorl, primitiTe limeatone, and marhlea, or 

cryataUine limeatone. 
Clay slates. 

2. Transition or Intbrmcdiatb. 

Flinty slates. 

Slaty sandstones^ graumacke* 

Red and green porphyritic rocks. 



262 CLASSIFICATION 

3. SECONDASy. 

Sandstone, red and micaceous^ soft slate, ir&n stone and clay. 

Magnesian limestone, 

Congtomerate ieds. 

Oypsum ; fine white grained sandstone^ like chalk. 

4. Tertiary Strata. 
Tertiary limestone and clays. 

1. Earthy Mineral.s. 
SileXy alumina, glucina, ^c. 
Quartz of the crystallized, compacty zeolite, woodstone, flint 

and hornstone species. 
P/>a/«— (viz. precious, wax, catseye, ribbon, and jasper opal ;) 

also hydrophane, id est, devoid of transparency unless im- 
mersed in water (Menge). 
Beryl, emerald, topaz, ^c. (Menge.) 
Chalcedony, various kinds; also cachalong and agates, cornelian, 

onyx, woodstone, &c. 
Jasper, Oarnet and cinnamon stone. Idoerase, Epidote. 
Hornblende in its several species, sahlite, grammatite, asbestos, 

actynolite, sappare, &c. 
Slate, (for roofing purposes in abundance). 
A great many kinds of clay alumina, pipe and other clays of a 

variety of colours ; also a fine variety of porcelain earth; 

Cyanite, 

2. Alkaline Earthy Minerals. 
Mica, in all its varieties. 
Schorl, rubbalite, beryl, tourmaline, (black and apple green,) 

nephrite, chlorite. 
Talc, steatite, and meerschaum magnesite, soapstone, fuller's 

earth, agalmatolythe, &c. 
Feldspar, 
Lava, red and black, from Mount Schanck, and cellular wacke. 

3. AciDiFEROUS Earthy Minerals. 
Wavellite. 

Dolomite (species dolomite magnesian limestone.) 
Bitter Spar, particularly in silicious veins, containing gold 

(Menge). 



OF MINERALS. 263 

Limestone, every variety, inclading carrara, white aad grey 

marble. 
Tuffa (siliciouB and calcareoas.) 
Oyptum, Barytes, 

4. AciDiFEROVs Alealine Earthy Minerals. 
Ahim. Sulphate of soda, or Olauberite and nitrate of soda. 

5. Metalliferous Minerals. 
Iron. 

Manganese. 

T^n, (small qoaotity f jund.) 
Titanium. 

Antimony. (Native, small quantity.) 
Coppe}\ 
Lead. 

Native Quicksilver, (locality as yet unknown). 
Zinc, (reported) 

Oold, (exact locality uncertain,) specimen in the Museum at 
Derby, brought home by Colonel Gawler. 
6. Combustible Minerals. 
Plumbago. Bitumen, 
Coal, (reported, but locality unknown.) 

Before entering upon the details of the more 
valuable metals, I may briefly allude to the iron 
ores, which, probably, will at no distant period be 
likewise made available for our uses, when the 
arrangements for smelting have been completed. 

The existence of iron ores in the greatest abun- 
dance and purity, has long been known ; owing to 
the want of coal (the existence of which, like that of 
gold and quicksilver, is rumoured, but not yet veri- 
fied,) and the depression under which the colony so 
long laboured, this useful metal has never been re- 
garded with that attention which it deserves, and 



264 lUON ORES 

now, for the time being, its value is thrown into 
the shade by the abundance of copper and lead 
recently discovered, the working of which oflTers a 
certain profit. It may therefore not be out of place 
to insert here, the difierent qualities which are known 
to exist, and which, doubtless, will at some fiiture 
period be made available. They are as follows : — 

SULPHURETS. 

Pyrites in cabes^ in limeBtone, and also in qoarts. 

do. hepatic, in pentagonal dodecahedrons on qnarts. 

do. in clay slate. 1 25 feet below the surface, 

do. in quartz, traversing day slate, 

do. in gneiss, 

do. in homstone. 

do. in bitter spar. 

do. with copper ore, And hornblende in feldspar, 

do with hornblende and quartz. 

Oxides. 
Magnetic ore, possessing polarity. 

do. crystallized, in limestone. 

do. with grammatite. 
Specular iron ore. 
Micaceous iron ore. 
Black and red Hoematite. 
Titaneous iron ore. 
Red, brown, and yellow oxides combined with quartz, 

asbestos, grammatite and actynolite. 
Red oxide with cellular opal. 
Fine specimens of ironglance. 
Native iron in many places, in large amorphous masses. 

Mr. Fortnum remarks on this subject :— 

** It is worthy of remark, that the difierent iron 



IN GREAT ABUNDANCE. 265 

ores discovered in South Australia, are, with very 
few exceptions, entirely free from arsenic. In many 
places large veins of iron ore of 16, 20, and even 40 
feet in width exist, consisting of settled lodes of 
heavy compact oxide of iron, entirely free from 
either arsenic or sulphur, and cropping out on the 
sur&ce, ready, in fact, to be broken up for the pur- 
pose of reduction ; many of these are more or less 
magnetic. Some samples have been reduced and 
found to yield excellent iron, with but one 
smelting.^' 

It must also be borne in mind, that the iron pro- 
duced from wood-smelting is the best of all, and 
that, although we have not as yet any coals, the 
supply of wood is almost inexhaustible. The iron 
ores will therefore, doubtless, at a future period, 
command considerable attention. 



CHAPTER XL 

THE COPPER AND LEAD MINES. 
The Kapunda Copper Mine, 

This mine is situated close to the river Light, 45 
miles due north of Adelaide. 

It was discovered in the latter part of 1 842, by 
the youngest son of Captain Bagot, whilst gathering 
some wild flowers in the plain, and shortly after- 
wards by myself, not far from the same spot, but on 
a rise or hillock, to the top of which I had ridden in 
order to obtain a view of the surrounding country ; 
one of our flocks of sheep having been dispersed 
during a thunder-storm, and I being at the time in 
search of them. After being out nearly the whole 
day in drenching rain, and benumbed with cold, I 
ascended this little hill, prior to returning home, for 
one last survey of the surrounding country ; the 
very spot I pulled the horse up at, was beside a large 
protruding mass of clay slate, strongly tinged and 
impregnated with the green carbonate of copper. My 
first impression was that the rock was covered with a 
beautiful green moss, but, on getting ofi* the horse, I 
quickly found, by breaking off* a piece from* it, that 
the tinge was as bright in the fracture as on the 
surface. My acquaintance with mineralogy was 
not sufficient to enable me to pronounce on the 



I *^ — -. 



***•»,, .^■. 



THE KAPUNDA COPPER MINE. 267 

precise character of the rock, but I had little doubt 
it was tinged with copper, from the close resem- 
blance of the colour to verdigris. Ever since my 
school days I had retained the habit of examining 
rocks or stones, whenever my attention was arrested 
by my curious appearance in them ; a habit which 
I acquired at Hofwyl, Mr. de Fellenberg's cele- 
brated institute, where I passed three happy years of 
^y youth ; it. being the custom for the pnpils to 
make annual pedestrian tours through the mountain 
districts of Switzerland, in which, beautiful minerals 
abound ; and I am happy to have the opportunity of 
recording the grateful recollection I retain of that 
admirable educational establishment. * 

To Captain Bagot, with whom I had long been on 
intimate terms, I confided my discovery, when he 
also produced a similar specimen which was found 
by his son, and on a subsequent visit to the place, 
we found that the two spots were within close prox- 
imity of each other, aldiough, at first, from the one 
being on a hill and the other in the plain, we 
thought they were two diflferent places. To make 
a long, story short, we soon ascertained that the 
specimens were undoubtedly copper ores ; the dis- 
covery was kept of course secret ; we got 80 acres 
surveyed, all the forms as laid down by the old 
land -sales regulations were complied with; the 
section was advertised for a Whole month in the 
Government Gazette, and we became the "purchasers 
of it at the fixed Government price for Svaste lands 



268 THE KAPUNDA 

of £1 per acre* At that time there were still a 
number of ''eighty-acre land orders" unexercised in 
the colony, any one of which might have claimed 
this section ; nor could we attempt to buy one of 
them without running the risk of exciting attention, 
and we therefore preferred quietly waiting for the 
expiration of the usual time required, and then ten- 
dering the money, trusting to the general depres- 
sion of the times, that no one would feel inclined 
just then to become possessed of any more land, in 
which we were not mistaken. 

Having secured the land, the next step was to 
ascertain the value of the ores, and whether they 
would remlmerate us in working them. To ascer- 
tain this we sent a box of specimens to England, 
and did not begin working the mine till the en- 
couraging report of Mr. Perceval Johnston reached 
us, which gave an average of 23 per cent, for the 
suriace out-croppings. We then lost no time to 
begin working with a small body of men. The day 
fixed for commencing the mine was made a holiday ; 
the weather being hot. Captain Bagot fitted up one of 
the drays with a canvas hood, for the accommoda- 
tion of the ladies, and in this primitive fashion of 
travelling, the gentlemen being on horseback, a 
large party proceeded to the mine (distant from 
Captain Bagot's residence of Koonunga about five 
miles) where Mr. Menge opened the proceedings by 
an interesting address on mining in general, and the 
Kapundamine in particular, after which *• the first 



•COPPER MINE. 269 

ground was broken ;" the ceremony ending in by 
far the most interesting portion of our labours, of 
discussing the cold collation, Mrs. Bagot and the 
other ladies had meanwhile been unpacking from 
sundry hampers and boxes. 

Amongst the general population of the colony 
there were some few Cornish miners, who were 
quietly following pastoral and agricultural pursuits ; 
when we gave notice of intending to commence 
working the mine, the pickaxe was quickly re- 
sumed by them, and we gave them a liberal 
" tribute '' for the first year, (3«. 6rf. per £1) to set 
the thing going. These men were highly successful, 
and raised a considerable quantity of rich ore. 

The place itself was a perfect wilderness; the 
men had to live for some months in tents, until 
we could get houses built for them ; the nearest 
drinkwater was in the " Light," half a mile oflT, and 
that very brackish ; nor was it till we had sank 
wells in several parts of the property that we suc- 
ceeded in finding good fresh spring water, all the 
other wells that we sank being tainted by the cop- 
per. The locality has now a very different appear- 
ance ; several rows of substantial stone cottages, on a 
uniform plan, are already erected, a hill of clay slate 
on the property affording excellent building stone, 
which being tinged more or less with copper, give 
the walls of the cottages a pretty mottled appear- 
ance. The miners having their families now living 
with them, are happy and contented, and are not 



270 THE KAPUNDA 

continually interrupting the progress of the works 
by wanting to go to town as they formerly did A 
blacksmith's forge is also erected on the property, 
where the miner's tools are made and repaired, the 
iron and steel being sent out for that purpose from 
England. A chapel, which will also serve as a 
school-house, is by this time completed. 

The whole of the intervening country between 
Kapunda and Port Adelaide, is very easy and prac- 
ticable for the transport of the ores ; at the com- 
mencement of our operations it soon became appa- 
rent, that unless the drays, on passing to and fro, all 
kept the same road, they would only cut up the 
ground without consolidating the track. To obviate 
this. Captain Bagot, with his usual energy, hit upon 
an ingenious and novel plan. He started with a 
bullock-dray, to which a plough was attached, and 
planting small flag-staffs as guides in advance, 
he had a single furrow thrown up, a few inches 
deep, the whole way from the mine to Gawler 
Town, a distance of eighteen miles. About two 
miles from where the mine road joins the Gawler 
Town road the plough broke, the day being then 
already far advanced ; but, nothing daunted, he 
caused the men to lop off a limb of a tree having a 
fork at one end, substituting this for the plough, 
the line or furrow was completed by sundown. 

A plough furrow is not easily effaced, so the 
drays had a good guiding line to follow, and by 
always keeping on the same track, the road in a 



COPPER MINE. 271 

very short time became completely formed, and is 
now one of the best beaten roads in the colony. 
From Gawler Town to Port Adelaide, the whole 
distance is over a plain as level as a bowling-green, 
and well beaten. 

The ore is all carted to the shipping port on 
these drays, holding two tons each, and drawn in 
summer by six bullocks, during the wet weather by 
eight. They reach Gawler Town the first night, 
eighteen miles ; next day to the Dry Creek eighteen 
miles more, and the following morning they are 
early at the Port; the convoys consist of eight or 
ten teams, and are enabled to make the journey 
with ease, once every ten days, besides carrying up 
to the mine, on their return, all supplies, Sec. that 
may be wanted there. The cartage is all done 
by contract; for last year, (1846,) the contracts 
were taken at 22^. 6d. per ton, which is probably 
as cheap as it could be carted for the same distance 
in England. 

The original property consisted of eighty acres : 
we thought at the time, we had taken in our survey 
all the copper ground that was apparent to the eye 
from surface indications. We were, however, mis- 
taken. To the south of our boundary, and close to 
it, other out-croppings, though less extensive than on 
our land, were soon discovered, not alone by our 
men but by other people; the consequence was, 
that applicants soon came forward to have the land 
to the south of our mine surveyed, which was done 



272 THE KAPUNDA 

by the Government to the extent of 100 acres more; 
this section was put up to auction last April, and 
bought after a sharp contest by Captain Bagot, on 
our joint account, for the large sum of £2,210 : the 
competition shewing how the attention of the colonists 
had already then been drawn to the importance of 
mining operations. The little ground that has as yet 
been broken in this 100 acre block, laid open lodes 
of the richest copper, close to the surface, and of 
considerable extent ; so much so, that a very few 
weeks suf&ced to extract sufficient ore to pay for the 
cost of the whole. 

The copper ground runs through nearly the 
whole length and breadth of these 180 acres, from 
a direction bearing a point or two of north and 
south ; wherever a shaft has been sunk, up to the 
present time, numbers of small strings of ore were 
cut in following down the main veins, which descend 
with a south underlay, in regular defined lodes, on 
an inclination, a few degrees removed from the per- 
pendicular ; indeed, the appearance of the sides of 
the shafts, is in many places very beautiful, the 
matrix being indurated, and decomposed clay-slate, 
veined throughout with green, blue, and brown 
colours, making it resemble, in appearance, some of 
the variegated Italian marbles. 

The description of ore found in the Kapunda 
mines is principally composed of the carbonates and 
sulphurets. A large number of specimens of every 
variety, were, as soon as we began working, trans- 



COPPER MINB. 



273 



mitted to England for analysis, we keeping half of 
the specimens at the myies for subsequent refer- 
ence. The average produce, gave a result of 
29| per cent of copper, for 39 specimens, good, 
bad, and indifferent, taken from every part of the 
property, — the following being the different de- 
scriptions found : — 

Orey snlphnret with green carbonate ; prodace, 53| per cent. 
Black Bulphoret with ditto ; 23i, 24, 33^, 44}, 50^» 59i per cent. 
iPak green carbonate ; 26|, 33, 34), 40), 4Ii, 48i per cent. 
Blue carbonate, (hydrocarbonate ;) 21| per cent. 
Orey caibonate with red oxide } 28) per cent. 
Daik green carbonate ; 28| per cent. 

These assays were conducted by Mr. Penrose, 
the Government assayer at Swansea, and their 
correctness was fully substantiated by the sales at 
Swansea of part of our first year's (1844) produce, 
which were as follows, leaving out fractional parts : 

8AI.X8 OF Kafdnda Coppsr Orbs at Swansea, 1845. 

£. i. d. 
210 



10 tons sold in the first instance at Liverpool 



At Swansea : 

23|tons 
59 do. 
31 i do. 
4(»i do. 
47 do. 
141 do. 



July. 



to 



October 



at 



^21 9 6 

23 5 

30 7 6 

25 15 6 

23 II 

24 11 6 



505 

1374 

964 

1050 

1116 

1006 



252^ 
Average of the whole ^24. 8«. 6J. 



^6225 



374 THB KAPUNDA 

The number of miners employed during the first 
year's operations at Kapunda, namely in 1844, was 
as follows : — 



Janoaiy • . 3 


Angiut 


• 12 


Febnuury - - 4 


September • 


- 12 


March - . 5 


October - 


• 10 


April . . 8 


November - 


. 13 


May - - 12 


Deeember - 


- 12 


June • • 13 






July . . 11 




116 



116 divided by 12 gives an average of 9 J men 
employed for each month. Only 252 tons, as 
above, was shipped; the total quantity raised in 
1844 was considerably more, not counting large 
heaps of what we thought at the time was refuse 
4md poor ore, but which I have ascertained frota 
samples brought with me to England, to be worth 
£19. 5^. per ton. 

The work was all done by tribute and tutwork, as 
in the Cornish mines. 

The principal workings at Kapunda are called 
respectively Wheal Dutton, and Wheal Charles, 
after their discoverers. In Wheal Charles, being 
low ground, water was cut at 10 fathoms; and 
Captain Bagot, (to whose activity, difficulties act 
only as additional incentives,) shortly after my 
departure, himself directed the construction of a 
horse whim, with which the workings are now being 
vigorously prosecuted. In sinking a larger shaft 
in Wheal Charles, to unwater the others, the clay. 



COPPER MINE. S3J^ 

ht first white, became darker and darker, till at about 
^ght fathoms depth, it was of an inky colour. Out of 
mere curiosity I took a handful from one of the 
buckets as it came up, the last day I was at the 
mine, in February 1845, which I brought with me, 
and to my utter astonishment, on having it assayed, 
found it impregnated with the black oxide of copper 
to the extent of 46 per cent. 

Wheal Dutton is a hill of indurated clay slate ; 
it is from this hill we obtain the excellent stone for 
building purposes ; being situated higher than 
Wheal Charles, no water has as yet been met with 
here. From this part of the property, that very 
rare mineral, muriate of copper, or acatamite, has 
been extracted; it is found combined with green 
carbonate, in solid veins, and exceedingly beautiful 
specimens, in a foliated state of crystalization, 
have been met with. Dr. Ure's chemical analysis 
of this mineral (March 1846) produced the follow- 
ing result : — 

Specific gravity 3.05. 
•* 100 parts consist of— 

1. Submariate of Copper - - 39.5 
(Containing 27 of copper> considered in the state of an oxide.) 

2. Carbonate of copper (30 of oxide) - - 60.5 



100.0 



" There is a trace of oxide of iron in it. Thus 1 00 parts of that 
metal contain 57 of oxide of copper, equivalent to 45.6 of metallic 
copper^worth^35 per ton." 

T 2 



276 THE KAPUNDA 

I believe this ore has never before come to Eng-. 
land in a marketable state ; it has hitherto been prin- 
cipally confined to what is known to mineralogists 
as the " green sand of Peru/' and is found in very 
small quantities in the River Lipas, in the Desert of 
Acatama, which separates Chili from Peru, (whence 
acatamite.)* 

The chemical analyses of the grey sulphuret of 
copper from Kapunda, under Dr. Ure's treatment, 
gave the following interesting result : — 

" Specific gravity 4.36. 

100 parts lose 15 by calcination ; the remainder 
being acted upon by nitric acid, and the solution 
after filtration precipitated by. soda, washed and 
ignited, yields 68 parts of oxide of copper, equi- 
valent to 54.4 of metallic copper (worth £40 per 
ton,) residuum 8.5, of insoluble silicious matter. 
It contains a trace of silver in the state of a 
chloride, and is to be extracted by digesting the 
roasted ore in water of ammonia, and then saturating 
the filtered solution with muriatic acid.'* 

This is of much importance to know, as some of the 
grey sulphurets of the mines at Freyberg contain, 

* A Tery fine specimen, weighing 201b8. of this mineral was 
presented by me to the British Museum, and has been honoured 
by being placed in a conspicuous place, where the curious can 
view it ; the label designates it as Carbonate and Chloride ,of 
Copper, the latter name being synonymous to muriate ; I belieTe 
it is the only specimen of the kind in the Museum. 



COPPER MINE. 277 

according to Prof. Rose, 31.29 of silver, those of 
Fiirstenberg 17.71 parts. 

The Eapunda copper ores, as well as the rich 
pyrites from the Montacute mine, are in high repute 
at Swansea, owing to their great fusibility, the 
small quantity of sulphur contained in them, and 
the fineness of the metal they produce. At the sale 
at Swansea, in October, the Kapunda ores fetched 
the very unusual excess of 20* per ton above the 
value, calculated by assay according to the 
standard of the day. I may also remark, that 
neither, the Cuba or South American mines send any 
ore, in its rough state (not regulus) to Swansea, 
vhich comes up to the average of the Eapunda 
ores. 

Since February 1845, the number of miners and 
others employed at Eapunda, have considerably in- 
creased to what they were in 1844 ; the prosecution 
of the works has been highly successful ; the accounts 
reach up to the close of last year, when 1200 tons 
of ore, equal to any that has as yet been sent 
to England, had already been raised. An ex- 
perienced mining captain is on the point of pro- 
ceeding to South Australia, to take charge and 
conduct the works at the Kapunda mine on syste- 
matic principles. 

It is sufficient, in the above brief and authentic 
particulars of this mine, to give a general idea as 
to its productiveness. For obvious reasons, being 
myself interested in it, I do not dilate on this mine 



278 THE MONTACUTE 

further; the object of this volume is, to give aii^ 
account of what Jias been done in the colony ; tiie 
Swansea Sales lists will be the fiuthful chroniclers 
of what may be done hereafter. 

Some handsome specimens of the blue malachite, 
or hydrocarbonate of copper, have been worked up 
and polished by jewellers, for brooches, &;c.^ and 
look very well. 

No. 2. The Montacute Copper Mine. 

This mine is situated in the Mount Lofty rai^ 
of hills, abutting on the Adelaide Plains; it m 
distant from Adelaide ten miles ; from the port six- 
teen miles. 

It was discovered by Mr. Andrew Henderson, 
the overseer of Mr. Fortnum ; being in search of 
a bullock who had strayed away during the night, 
. he determined to climb that spur in the range, now 
known as the mine ; during his ascent he remarked 
the green colour of a perpendicular &ce of rock, and 
on reaching the summit of this, observed a singular 
mass of brown and green mineral, a piece of which 
he broke, and brought home a fragment. Mr. 
Fortnum, himsdf a chemist and mineralogist, 
at a glance recognized it as copper ore of a rich 
quality. The old sapng, that ^^ discretion is the 
better part of valour,'' ought to have been recol- 
lected by the discoverers ; the secret was entrusted to 
some, who again entrusted it to others^ until it 
reached the Survey Office, when, of course, the origi-^ 



COPPBR MIKE. 279 

nal discoverer, and Mr. Fortnum, both lost their 
chance of securing possession of it, without the com* 
pdtition of a public sale. The Government had 
eighty acres surveyed, which was brought to auction 
on the 16th February, 1844, (the new regulations 
having, at that period, come into operation). 

The out^croppings of copper on this section were 
very extensive, and considerable excitement pre* 
vailed on tlie day of sale, as to who would become 
the purchaser; at that time little certain was 
known about the value of the Kapunda ores, and 
Btill less about the value of the ore on this section ; 
whilst many people were therefore inclined to bid, 
few were confident enou^ to give any very high 
.price for it: my brother, Mr. Frederick Dutton, 
was the chief mover amongst those who had suffi* 
dent confidence in ultimate results, and after some 
persuasion, Messrs. Baker, Hagen» and Hart, acceded 
in his views. On the day of sale, Mr. Baker 
was deputed to bid as high as £4000. for the section; 
when the bidding reached £1550. their opponents 
lost courage, aud Mr. Baker became the purchaser 
at that price. A few hours after the sale they re* 
sold thirty hundred parts for the cost of the whole, 
(at a value of £5000. for the whole,) in £50. shares, 
the property being merged into the present Monta- 
cute Mining Company. 

The ore found in this mine is a rich *^ Pyrites,^' 
with the variety called " peacock ore," and at their 
deepest level, about ten fathoms^ having the appear- 



280 THB MONTACUTE 

ance of mei^ing into the carbonates and sulphurets; 
the matrix or rock is composed of clay slate, of a 
hard ^xture. A stream of beautiful fresh wafer 
runs, the whole year round, through this property, 
affording great facilities for washing the ore, and 
other purposes; the workings are by levels and shafts; 
being situated high up the face of the hill, with a 
steep fall, they are neither obstructed in their works 
by the presence of water, or the accumulation of 
rubbish. 

. The mine is separated from the Adelaide Plain by 
a steep wall of hills, which the dra3rs transporting 
the ores have to cross ; once over this, the road is 
perfectly level all the way to the port* That the 
difficulties of this pass were not insurmountable, 
may be gleaned from the fact, that the contractor 
for the transport undertook to make a road across 
the hill, and deliver 500 tons of ore at the port 
for £500., or £1. per ton; after the expiration of 
that contract, the cost of transport would be less 
than half. 

The mine hsis been actively worked since Fe- 
bruary 1844 ; during that year about 600 tons were 
raised, 331 tons of which reached England during 
1845, and realised in the aggregate the sum of 
£4548. lOs. The ores are not so rich as those from 
Kapunda ; specimens have been analysed as high as 
33 per cent, andabove; but the average cannot as yet 
be taken higher than 18 or 18^ per cent ; or about 
the average of a large portion of the Santiago ores. 



COPPBR MINB. 281 

The produce for 1845 is, as fer as the accounts 
reach, estimated at from 6 to 800 tons ; quality of 
ore and size of lodes improving. 

Mr. Burr, Mr. Menge, and other practical autho- 
rities, consider the mine as 6ne of great promise. 
The interests of the proprietors of this and the other 
copper and lead mines will undoubtedly be furthered 
by their engaging, as soon as possible, the assistance 
of practical Cornish mining captains, as the pro- 
prietors of the Kapimda mine have done. There 
are doubtless many people now in the colony, who, 
in their own estimation at least, think themsdves 
quite clever enough to conduct the works of a mine ; 
but what in England requires the practical expe- 
jrience of a lifetime to qualify a person to give 
an opinion on, can surely not be less wanted in 
the colony, where mistakes made in opening 
the mines may in a few years take thousands of 
pounds to rectify; and the success which has 
hitherto attended them all, is more owing to the 
extraordinary quantity of the mineral deposit near 
the sur&ce, than to any discrimination on the part 
of those, who have hitherto been allowed, by the dif- 
ferent proprietors, to direct the smking of shafb and 
driving of levels. 

. Fine specimens of native copper have been found 
here, and also at Kapunda. 

Several sections, with mineral indications, have 
since been surveyed by Government all round, and 
adjoining the Montacute mine ; several of these 



282 THU UONTACUTE MINE. 

hare been purchased by that company ; there are, 
however, two sections, immediately adjoining the 
original 80 acres, which are still in the hands of the 
Government; on one of these, a solid lode of ore, 
four feet in width, of dean pyrites, without a particle 
of mundic or spar in it, was laid bare a few inches 
under the surfieu^ soil ;* the Montacute Company 
long since applied to have this section put up to 
auction with the others, but up to the latest dates; 
the Qovemor has refused to accede to this; his 
Excellency's refusal gave rise to a long and unplea- 
sant correspondence between the company and the 
colonial authorities, which ended by the whole 
matter being referred by Governor Grey to Lord 
Stanley, the result of which has not yet been known. 
Although the Governor has a certain discretion 
allowed him by the provisions of the Land Sales 
Act, with regard to putting up land to auction, he 
must have had very cogent reasons for withholding 
this section, whilst he was monthly selling other 
mineral lands ; thus apparently punishing the colo-^ 
nists generally, (by preventing them acquiring a 
valuable property, before they had to compete with 
English capital since gone out to the colony,) for the 
misunderstanding between his Excellency and a pri- 
vate company. Knowing the ill-feeling this unex- 
plained matter created at the time in the colony, and 

* I presented a fine specimen of ibis lode of ore, amongat a 
variety of others, to the Museum of the Royal Geological Society. 



THB MUKURTA COPPBR MINE. 283 

from the great respect I indiyidually entertain for 
his Excellency Governor Grey, I have much wished 
to have had it in my power in this volume to clear 
mp the matter ; but the official reserve with which 
the Colonial office is surrounded, is not calculated 
to facilitate the obtaining of information, even on sub* 
jectSy which, so hr from being state secrets, would 
be better for all parties concerned, to be elucidated. 
I have, however, to record my thanks to Lord Stanley, 
for allowing me the use of the official map of the 
colony, from the latest surveys of the Surveyor-Gene« 
ral, by the aid of which I was enabled to present to my 
readers the map accompanying this volume, engraved 
by the well-known and talented hydrographer Mr. 
Arrowsmith ; on this map all the mines in work, 
and other mineral localities are accurately laid down. 

No. 3. The Mukurta Copper Mine* 

This mine is the property of George Anstey, 
Esq., of Highercombe; it is situated about three 
miles north-east of the Montacute mine, and was 
discovered, like the preceding one, by Mr. A. 
Henderson, who, with other gentlemen,, hold 
shares in it. This mine has not as yet been 
worked, further than exploring the lodes. Mr. 
Anstey succeeded in becoming the purchaser of 
this section, 150 acres, at the upset price, the 
existence of the metallic veins being at the time 
unknown to the surveyors. Mr. Fortnum describes 
this mine as follows : ^' This large vein is on the 



384 THE MUKURTA MINE. 

side of a steep hill of clay slate, at the base of 
which the river Torrens runs ; unlike the other 
copper lodes, this one takes, a course within a few 
points of £. and W. The lode of gossan is from 
two to four feet in width, and contains all the 
indications of a rich course of ore, but as fer as the 
workings at present extend, it has not settled ; the 
ore only occurring in bunches, surrounded with a 
gossan of the most favourable kind, and varying in 
colour; in some cases resembling snuff; a kindly 
spar is intermingled with copper ore; "sugary spar" 
is in considerable quantity, and the walls of the 
lode are very clearly defined ; one piece of ore was 
met with weighing upwards of 701b. : at one part 
the lode (gossan) swelled out to a width of ten 
feet, between two. well defined walls, intermingled 
with sugary spar and green stains ; the rock is in 
every direction filled with indications of the imme- 
diate vicinity of a very strong lode; the mine is 
represented by 128 scrip certificates, held in the 
colony.** 

No. 4. The Yattagolinga Copper and Lead Mine. 

This mine was purchased from Government on 
the same day that the Montacute mine was sold. 
Mr. Phillips became the purchaser for £350. ^ He 
has kindly favoured me with the following par- 
ticulars regarding it : — 

" The Yattagolinga mine at Rapid Bay, is situated 
at the southern extremity of the range of mountains 



YATTAGOUNGA MINE. 285 

which intersect South Australia, commencing at 
Cape Jervis, in the south, and running north, as far 
as the country has heen explored. The mine is on 
a section of 86 acres, which comprises a range 
of hills extending nearly east and west, with a 
valley on either side, north and south, and bounded 
by the sea on the west, with cliffs from 600 to 
800 feet high. Originally it was merely supposed 
that the section contained lead, but it was soon 
discovered that it was quite as rich in copper. 

^* The lodes of lead are found on the sur&ce in 
numerous places, and are worked with great fecility 
and little expense : some of the ore is almost pure, 
and the average yields, 75 per cent, of lead, and 
18 to 20oz. of silver, per ton of ore. There are 
also found galena, carbonate of lead, steel-grained 
and potter's ore. 

** The copper lodes are discovered in several places 
on the top of the mountain, and are also visible in 
the cliff at a depth of 500 feet, the lodes aven^ng 
three to six feet, there are the same facilities for 
working this as the lead, by driving adits into 
the side of the hill, which wiU also serve as an 
outlet for any water that may be met with. There 
is grey, yellow, peacock, purple, and some nearly 
pure ore ; the produce, by assay, is 20 to 25 per 
cent, of copper. There can be but little doubt 
that the lode which is visible in the cliff will be 
found to communicate with that which is on the 



286 SOUTH AUSTRALIAN COMPAKY's MINE. 

top of the mountain^ as they ran in the direction 
of each other. 

'^ Hitherto the mine has only been worked on 
a small scale^ and about ten tons of ore raised per 
month, the cost of which has been from £2. to 
£3. per ton, and with all expenses free on board at 
Adelaide, has not exceeded £5. There is a river 
constantly flowing through the valley, which is 
used for washing the ores, and they are shipped 
from ike Bay and conveyed by small craft to 
Adelaide for lOs. per ton, whence they are re-shipped 
to England, as ballast for the wool ships. 

" The locality offers unusual facilities for opera- 
tions, as, being on an eminence, the lodes can be inter* 
sected by adits in the side of the mountain, iserving 
at the same time, as an outlet for water and refuse, 
and being so near the place of shipment, all 
expense of transit by land is avoided. Although 
the mine has not been worked to any extent, the 
lodes are all much larger than those of the 
Montacute, which have been worked with so much 
success/' 

J^o. 5. The South Australian Company's Copper 
afut Lead Mines. 

This mine was discovered on some land belonging 
to the above Company, and is situated also at Rapid 
Bay, not for from Mr. Phillips' mine ; a few tons 
have as yet only been sent home by way of ascer- 
taining the value of the ores ; the produce of which 



MR. anoas'b mine. 287 

has been, of the copper ore 19 per cent, and of the 
lead, 66 per cent., and 14oz. 15dwtB. of silver ; these 
assays are an average of several samples of each de- 
scription ; the result is therefore highly satis&ctory; 
the same fecilities for working and shipping apply 
to this, as to the Yattagolinga mine. 

No. 6. The Oncaparinga Capper Mines. 

Half way between Rapid Bay and Adelaide is the 
River Oncaparinga, on which extensive indications 
of copper have been discovered ; the curious manner 
in which the proprietors of the several sections in this 
locality became possessed of them, was noticed in the 
chapter on the Land Sales Regulations. They have 
been too recently acquired to have been extensively 
explored. 

No. 7. Mr* Angas^s Copper Mine. 

Mr* George Fife Angas has had the good fortune 
to find (or, rather, Mr. Menge found for him) a rich 
vein of copper on part of his extensive estates in 
South Australia* I have received, from Mr. Angas, 
the following particulars : he says, '^ The copper ore 
I had assayed by Messrs* Johnson and Son, produced 
33 per cent* of fine copper. Two well-defined cop* 
per lodes, running nearly east and west, have already 
been discovered in the lands; the back of one of 
these lodes has been traced for upwards of 200 yards; 
the examination led to the discovery of rich strings 
of ore, (from which the above was taken) tending 
downward between the two well-defined walls about 
seven feet apart, both lodes take their course into the 



288 Mn. ANGAS'S 

hills on either »de of the valley of the Oawler. I 
have also Bpecimens of black oxide of copper from 
my lands/' 

The distance from the port is much about the^ 
same as the Kapunda mine, though ten miles of the 
road is not through so easy a country as in the 
former case. Mr. Angas has lately formed a private 
company amongst his own friends, to whom he has 
leased the mine and surrounding land^ on advan- 
tageous terms, and all the colonists will be glad if 
the mine turns out to answer his most sanguine 
expectations, to reward him for the untiring friend^ 
ship he has, from the earliest days of the existence 
of the colony, entertained towards it. I may here 
mention that the son of this gentleman, a young 
artist of very great promise, has just returned to 
England, with a lai^e collection of paintings, the 
firiits of three years persevering labour in New Zea- 
land and South Australia, descriptive of the scenery, 
portraits of the natives, &c., in those two colonies* 
Mr. Angas is now exhibiting his interesting paint- 
ings in London, prior to their being engraved for 
publication. 

The above, with many other indications, which 
do not require to be here particularized, formed the 
principal discoveries amongst the copper mines in 
South Australia, up to the period of my departure 
from its shores, in February, 1 846 ; some months 
previous to that, reports had been rife as to the ex- 
istence in the " far north " of a " monster mine," as 



COPPER MIKES. 289 

it was termed, which, to belieye the vague reports 
current, was of such extent as to eclipse every thing 
which had hitherto been seen or heard of. A shep- 
herd was said to have brought into town rich speci- 
mens of grey sulphuret of copper, but the locality 
for a long time remained wrapped up in mystery ; 
many a search was made for this mine, and long 
was the search in vain, till every body believed, it 
was nothing more than a clever hoax to give mine- 
hunters a jaunt into the country for nothing. At 
length the mystery was cleared up ; the mine really 
did exist in sober earnest, and the precise spot de- 
signated. The excitement which this discovery 
caused in South Australia was unprecedented ; the 
richness of the ores, and the extensive nature of the 
surface out-croppings, were all placed beyond the 
shadow of a doubt ; on the one hand, the colonists 
were in daily expectation of arrivals from England, 
which might bring out a large amount of English 
capital, and thus carry off the prize in spite of any 
thing they could do to secure it for themselves ; on 
the other hand, it soon became evident that nothing 
short of a special survey block of 20,000 acres would 
enable them to obtain this mineral district; that 
being the only means left to them under the regula- 
tion for the sales of waste lands, where they had no 
competition from public auction to contend against. 
The negociations, and heart-burnings, the rivalries 
of different interests, the protests and correspondence, 
with which the papers were filled for several weeks, 

u 



290 BT7RRA CREEK 

were no doubt highly interesting to the parties en- 
gs^ed in them, but are quite foreign to the object of 
this volume ; so I shall confine myself to stating, 
thaty after an immensity of trouble, two several asso* 
ciations, composed of the principal monied interest 
in the colony, united their forces,* and paid into the 
colonial treasury twenty thousand sovereigns, by 
virtue of which they, on the 18th of August, 1845, 
claimed a special survey of 20,000 acres of land, in 
the vicinity of the Razorback Mountain, about 100 
miles north of Adelaide, now known as the 

* For the information of the friends of the several parties in- 
terested, in England, I sabjoin the list of the appropriation of 
the several shares, as it was published in the Soath Australian 
Gazette. 

The following parties represent one section:-^ 
Messrs. Aston and Grainger . ' A ' ' ^500 

Captain Bagot, for self, F. S. Dutton, and other proprietors 

of the Kapnnda mines .... 1000 

Ditto for two parties in England . . . ] OOO 

Mr. T. Shepherd, Hindley Street . . . 20OO 

Mr. Joseph Johnston, Reed Beds . . . 20OO 

Mr. F. Button ...... lOOO 

Mr. G. Tinline . . . . . . 500 



Total iBl 0,000 



The remaining section is represented by Captain Allen, Messrs. 
Stocks, Beck, Hallet, Bunce, Penny, Graham, Featherstone, 
Waterhouse, W. Sanders, Peacock, Drew, Bouch, M. Smith, and 
others, including the members of the Mining Association; but the 
names or the amountof the particular interests of this numerous 
proprietary, it iff of course impossible to state with accuracy 
sufficient to warrant their publication. 



COPPER MINES. 291 

No. 8. Burra Creek Copper Mines. 

The following is the official report forwarded to 
England of this survey, by a gentleman of scientific 
and practical experience, who was deputed to the 
ground for that purpose by the purchasers. 

Locality of the Mineral DiatricL'-The hilk in which the 
minerals occor, lie beyond the northern boundary of county 
" light,*' in latitude 33<> 40^ south, and longitude ISQ"" 8' east, 
bearing from Adelaide north by east about 85 miles^ in a direct 
line, or by the route we travelled about 100 miles distant. 

Character of the road from Adelaide, — The road from 
Adelaide to these minelral hills, is> for the most part, over level 
or gently undulating country, opposing no obstacles to the pro- 
gress of heavy carriages. 

Oeological features of the Mineral District, — The hills range 
generally north and south—the altitude of their summits varying 
from about two thousand to two thousand five hundred feet 
above the level of the sea. Their geological character evidently 
appertains to tB^ ^' transition," or secondary formation ; vast 
rocks of quartz are protruded abruptly, through the oldest series 
of aqueous deposits, having dislodged the primary Schistos so 
completely, that in many places it appears in perfectly perpen- 
dicular stratification, intermixed with large quartz boulders, and 
fragments of the old red sandstone. There is not even the 
slightest external indication of any volcanic action ever having 
been exhibited in the district. 

Indications ofcopjjer ore. — Having walked over the " Floetz" 
formation, we approached a hill which is almost detached from 
the main range, and ascending it from its south-western base, 
we quickly found ourselves travelling over the older series of 
rocks, where quartz and greenstone, with fragments of imperfect 
porphyry have been thrust up boldly through the old clay slate, 
and there we saw, at almost every step, strong indications of the 
presence of rich copper lodes. 

u 2 



292 BURRA CREEK 

These indications at first appeared to as in the shape of spar, 
containing crystals of the azure blue carbonate of copper, and as 
we ascended higher on the hill, we found numerous fragments of 
grey and green sulphuret of cqpper, attached to quarts and 
greenstone ; ascending still higher we found a continuous out- 
crop of grey sulphuret of copper exhibited on the surface, 
averaging about eighteen feet in breadth, and extending over the 
brow of the hill and down again to the south-eastern base or 
gully more than a mile in length. From this gully another hill 
arose, which was not so much detached as the first one we 
inspected, but rather appeared to be a spur from the main 
range ; and just at the point of junction where the above-men- 
tioned extensive out-cropof grey sulphuret of copper disappeared 
in the gully, we saw a broad and beautiful display of azure blue 
carbonate of copper, intermixed with quartz, cropping out 
through the surface, and traceable for upwards of two hundred 
paces, exposing an average breadth of about fifteen feet. At 
this place we oi)ened the ground about three or four feet, and 
found the most favourable indications of a large and regular lode 
being near at hand; abundance of '^ gossan" presented itself, 
and masses of spar containing highly crystalline carbonate of 
copper, were frequently encountered. 

We then proceeded higher up the hill, and found at dififerent 
elevations, three other distinct and well defined traces of ore ; 
indeed, the hills appeared to be full of it I almost every stone 
we picked up, betrayed either directly or inferentially, the 
presence of rich copper lodes. A fragment struck off at random 
from the comer of a large quartz boulder, exhibited no less than 
three varieties of ore, (the grey sulphuret, the blue carbonate, and 
the copper pyrites,) and we could scarcely move a step without 
observing some kind of mineralogical evidence, indicating the 
proximity of metalliferous runs. 

Probability of more valuable discoveries. — ^We had not time 
enough to pursue our search amongst the larger hills, but their 
geological features are apparently similar, and they evidently 
belong to the same geological era* 



COPPER MINES. 



293 



As regards the chemical analyses of these ores, 
they were, I believe, conducted by Dr. Davis, whose 
qualifications for that operation have been suffi- 
ciently often tested to allow of reliance being placed 
in their accuracy. They are as follows : — 

Analyses of Jive specimens of copper ore from the lodes at 
Burra Creek. 



CRUDB RB8ULT. 

62*09 oxide of copper. 
2*05 oxide of iron. 
18-29 arBeniate of lead. 
28-04 insolable matter. 



110-47 
10*98 deduct weight of lead used 
to separate the arsenic. 



99-49 

74-46 oxide of copper. 

2*60 oxide of iron. 

8 '60 arseniate of iron. 
19*86 insoluble matter. 



(2.) 



REDUCED RESULT. 

49*95 metallic copper. 

1*41 metallic iron. 

7*31 arsenic add. 
28*04 insoluble matter. 

86-71 

12*78 weight of oxygen 

— — combined. 
99-49 

59*44 metallic copper. 

1*79 metallic iron. 

2*00 arsenic add. 
19*86 insoluble matter. 



105*52 
6*60 deduct wdghtof iron used 
to separate the arsenic. 



98*92 

66*67 oxyde of copper. 
2-00 oxyde of iron. 
1 1 -66 arseniate of iron. 
19*20 insoluble matter. 



109-53 
10-00 deduct weight of iron used 

■ to separate the arsemc. 

99*53 



(3.) 



83-69 

15*83 oxygen in combi- 

nation. 

98.92 

53*23 metallic copper. 

1 -39 metallic iron. 

1*66 arsenic acid. 
29*20 insoluble matter. 

85*48 

. 14-05 oxygen in oorobi- 

nation. 

99-53 



294 



BURRA CREEK 



(4.) 
59*44 metallic copper. 

179 metallic iron. 

2*00 arsenic acid. 
19*83 insolable matter. 



S309 

15*83 oxygen in combination. 



(5.) 
44*94 metallic copper. 
'69 metallic iron. 
'50 arsenic acid. 
8*20 salphur. 
11*67 oxygen. 
34*00 insoluble matter. 



98-92 



100-00 



The analyses of Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, were obtained from the 
same character of ore — 1 and 2 from one specimen, 3 and 
4 from another. The portions analysed were taken from 
different parts of the specimens. In the two first cases, lead was 
used to separate the arsenic ; in the two latter, iron was used for 
that purpose. This is considered the best means of cleanaiBg 
a solution from arsenic. In No. 5 iron was used, and the quan- 
tity of sulphur was ascertained by the loss, as that substance was 
burned without haying being weighed. This specimen belonged 
to the variety termed '' grey copper ore,'* and is the only sped* 
men I have seen from the locality which contains sulphur. The 
insoluble portions, in all cases, appear to contain antimony and 
silica, but they have not been analysed to ascertain their true 
composition. 

The value of these ores in England, according to the scale 
forwarded lately to the proprietors of the Kapunda mine, which 
shewed ore yielding 53.50 per cent., to be worth ^39. 15f. 
would be respectively: — 

1. 49-95. . . ^37 2 



2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 



59*44 
53 23 
59 44 
44-94 



44 3 
39 10 
44 3 
35 6 



o 
3 
9 
3 
6 



Mean value of the ores from the survey on the Burrs 
Creek, £38. lOs. Id. 



COPPER MINES. 295 

Should the main bulk of the ore turn out to be 
of equal or approximate value to these assays of 
small specimens, the value of this mine would 
appear to be very great indeed. In a few months 
time, the first consignment of ores from this mine 
wiU reach England. 

I may add, that the two associations, who each 
subscribed £10,000 towards this survey, did not 
think fit to keep the property as an undivided 
whole (whether judiciously or not time will prove), 
but had it divided into two equal portions, the first 
choice being decided by lot. 

The northern half fell to the Adelaide Mining 
Association, and has been called Wheal Grey, after 
our respected Governor; the southern portion, " or 
Princess Royal Mines," was apportioned to the 
section of subscribers, represented by Messrs. Bagot, 
Aston, and others. The Adelaide Papera I have re- 
ceived reach to the end of October ; at that period 
the Mining Association had commenced working at 
Wheal Grey with a few men, who, in three weeks 
time, quarried out 200 tons of what is described as 
pure red oxide of copper ! The papers contain an 
advertisement calling for tenders for 60 to 100 
drays, to cart down the ore to the Port, which of 
itself speaks volumes. 

The " Princess Royal" Company were just about 
commencing working at the end of October. 

Finally, I may be allowed to insert here, the fol- 



296 THE LEAD MIKES. 

lowing comparison of the average value of ores, frotn 
all the principal mines in the world, compiled from 
the Swansea Sales' Lists for the past year, 1845; 
full details of which are given in the Appendix. 

COMPARATIYB PRODIJCB. 

Aferage produce of the principal Mines in the world. (For par- 
ticulars vide Appendix.) 



i Cobre Mine - average 



Cuba v Santiago 
V San Joae 
r Chili (principally regulus) 

SOUTB Ttt 1 

4( Valparauo ore 
Amkbica. Jcopiapo 

New Zealand - 



£ ». 


d. 


U 9 


1 per ton, 


14 10 


6 


12 11 


9 


29 13 


6 


15 11 


H 


18 14 





10 10 


8 


5 15 


6 


6 8 


8 


13 11 


2 


24 15 


3 



Average prodaee .of Corniah Mines 

Ditto Irish 

Ditto of South Australian Mines 

Montacute - - - 

Kapunda ... 
The average produce of the Kapunda mine is, therefore, at pre- 
senty the highest of any copper mine in the world. 

The Lead Mines. 

The existence of the ores of lead, or, more cor- 
rectly speaking, argentiferous galena, (for they all 
contain silver) has been ascertained to be widely 
disseminated throughout South Australia; the 



TH£ OLEN OSMOND MINE. 297 

proximity, of the veins to the surface, and the pro- 
duce of metal, are no less encouraging than those of 
the copper mines. The Ranges, immediately at the 
back of Adelaide, are at present the principal loca- 
lity where this ore has been met with in great 
abundance. The situation of the lead mines, being 
generally speaking on the western slope of the hills, 
is very convenient, and of the easiest access ; the 
whole distance from the port to the mouth of the 
mines being perfectly level. These mines are con- 
sequently worked at a trifling expense. 

1. The Glen Osmond Lead Mine 

Is three miles from Adelaide, and nine from the 
port. The proprietor is Osmond Gilles, Esq., one 
of the oldest colonists, who was possessed of this 
property for several years before the existence of 
lead ore was discovered. The casual displacement 
of a few inches of soil, by the wheel of a dray pass* 
ing over it, laid bare the shining galena underneath 
it. Six or seven different lodes have been opened 
up the &ce of the hill ; the quantity raised is above 
200 tons, and the produce 76 per cent, of lead, 
with 18 oz. of silver, which averaged a price of 
£13. 13^« per ton, and leaves a large profit, the cost 
of the ore being stated to be not more than £4. 45. 
Copper has also been found on the property. A 



298 THE WHEAL WATKINS MINE. 

compauy has lately been formed in London, called 
the " Glen Osmond Union Mining Company," with 
a paid up capital of £30,000, to work this and other 
mines in the colony. 

The lead ores are of the varieties, galena^ steel- 
grained, and carbonate of lead. 

Adjoining the Glen Osmond is the 

2. Wheal Watkins Lead Mine, 

The property of Mr. Watkins, of Worthing. This 
is likewise a very rich and promising mine ; a large 
quantity of compact carbonate of lead has been 
raised here. In many places the metallic vein con- 
sists entirely of this mineral for a considerable 
depth, varying with steel-grained galena; it is 
occasionally of a green cblour, from the presence of 
carbonate of copper, and is sometimes associated 
with small particles of minium, yellow oxide, 
&c. This ore is generally of a dirty white or 
slate colour, and is of a very rich quality. The 
matrix is, throughout these hills, day slate, and is 
extensively impregnated with the foliated manga- 
nese, many of the specimens being remarkable for 
their beauty. Quantity of ore raised about 250 
tons, of same quality and produce as the Glen 
Osmond ores. 

Half a mile further on is the 



THE WHEAL GAWLER MINE. 299 

3. Wheal Oawler Lead Mine, 

Belonging to several gentlemen in Adelaide. This 
was, I believe, the first discovered of all, (1841) but 
the times were then so bad, that no attempt was 
made to explore it beyond raising two or three tons; 
the works are now lately resumed. The ore is much 
the same as in the other lead mines. 

Besides these, already in full work, there is lead 
on the property of Mr. Metcalfe, five miles from 
Adelaide, and on a section purchased by Mr. Mac- 
Farlane, one mile and a half at the back of Glen Os- 
mond, with numerous indications in many other 
parts of the colony, which will all by degrees be 
brought into operation, as capital is brought to bear 
upon them. 

The system adopted in working these several 
copper and lead mines is similar to what obtains in 
Cornwall and other English mining districts, 
namely tribute and tutwork ; Cornish miners who 
happen to have emigrated to the other Australian 
colonies, were not slow in finding their way to South 
Australia, to resume those occupations most con- 
genial to the pursuits they had been accustomed to 
in the mother country. These men have all made 
large profits : 1 may instance, in particular, two bro- 
thers of the names of Nicholls, (I believe from the 
parish of Gwennap in Cornwall) who obtained the 



300 THE LEAD MINES. 

first set, for the space of twelve months, at Kapunda, 
and whose tribute for that period amounted to 
above £500 ; these men were a short time before 
working on wages of IO5. per week ; they are both 
experienced underground men, and have continued 
to be as successful as ever in their " sets." 



CHAPTER XII. 

PROSPECTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA BECOMING AN 
EXTENSIVE MINING COUNTRY. 

It must be allowed by an impartial observer, on 
perusing the preceding chapter, (already in the first 
year of our operations, and unassisted by extraneous 
aid, showing such extraordinary results) that our 
prospects for the future are very cheering. This 
subject intimately affects a large and important 
interest of home industry, and cannot fail, in a short 
time, to draw powerful attention to it. Any new 
field of enterprise is generally looked upon for a 
long time with indifference and incredulity, so also 
may it perhaps be with the mining capabilities of 
South Australia ; the very general want of informa- 
tion prevailing in England of everything relating to 
the different Australian colonies, will have no slight 
effect in increasing the first difficulties we have to 
contend with; foreign mining speculations, have 
also for so many years been held in such bad odour, 
that there is no slight prejudice to overcome. 

But there are some arguments which are all-con- 
vincing; amongst these may be ranked as the 
principal, the Swansea Sales lists : when people see, 
(as see it they will) month after month large quan* 
tities of South Austi-alian copper ore arrive, and sell 
at far higher prices than either Cuba or South 



302 SOME COMPANIES ALREADY FORMED. 

American ores, (which have hitherto been the 
richest in the world), then they will begin to think 
there may be something in it after all !* However, 
in considering all the disadvantages South Australia 
had to contend with in making a commencement in 
this most important branch of industry, it must be 
confessed, that considerable interest has already been 
excited amongst a good many intelligent capitalists 
in London, — and London is England. Several 
companies have already been organized, and this 
promising field for the investment of British capi- 
tal, will doubtless soon, by its own intrinsic merits, 
command that attention it deserves. Those who 
have already embarked in mining operations in this 
colony, will assuredly have no cause to regret that 
they were amongst the first ; and the time is parti- 
cularly opportune, as the West India and South 
American mines have for some years past been 
gradually falling off in quality of produce; the 
rich South Australian ores, will therefore be much 
sought after by the Swansea smelters, to mix with 
those of lower produce. 

It will be my endeavour, in the present chapter^ 

* A mining gentleman in DevonBhire, with whom I convened 
on this subject daring my rambles amongst the English mines, 
said, ** Pooh ! pooh ! my dear sir, all the ore yon will ever «end 
from South Australia will be but as a drop in a backet of water!*' 
Time will show ; bat I can inform him, that the quantity of ore 
which will arrive in Swansea even this year ttam South Australia 
will be a drop of no inconsiderable size. 



ACCESSIBILITY OF MINES. 303 

,to describe those several accessary circumstances 
which are of the utmost importance in successfully 
facilitating the development of our mineral riches ; 
it is not alone necessary to show that we have rich 
mines, but to show how the ore can be brought to a 
market. In South America it is a well known fact 
that thousands of tons of ore are lying at the mouth 
of the mines, without the means of bringing them to 
the coast, except at a ruinous expense, the mining 
districts there being so mountainous that the only 
available transport is by mules. 

In South Australia the whole mineral district, as 
already explored, between Cape Jervis in the south, 
and Mount Bryant in the north, a distance of 150 
miles, is easily accessible in every direction; the 
hills are of moderate elevation, and present no in- 
surmountable barriers to the passage of wheel car- 
riages; the roads, passing either across extensive 
level plains, or winding round grassy hills and 
through fertile valleys, are naturally very good ; the 
climate being dry, the toads are not liable to be 
rendered impassable for any length of time by the 
rains, as these are seldom of more than a few days' 
continuance at one period, with intervals of fine 
bright weather, which quickly dries and consoli- 
dates the surface again. The transport is carried 
on by means of drays drawn by six or eight bul- 
locks, each dray having two tons of ore on it, with 
which they travel from fifteen to eighteen miles 
a day. In every direction along the road there is 



304 MEANS OF SHIPPING ORE. 

abundance of natural pasture to feed the bullocks on 
when they arrive at the end of * the day's sts^e. 
The supply of bullocks is very great in the colony, 
and can be increased to an unlimited extent from 
the neighbouring colonies of New South Wales 
and Port Phillip, should ours •prove insufficient, 
(where they have for some time past been boiling 
them down for the sake of extracting the tallow, 
they not having sale for the increasing numbers of 
which their herds are composed) ; the cost of trans- 
port by this means is at present less than sixpence 
per ton per mile ; at this price the ore is delivered 
alongside of the ships at the port that convey it to 
England. 

The next point to consider is, the means we pos- 
sess to transmit to England (our present only 
market) the ore in such quantities as will hencefor- 
ward be raised in South Australia. 

The great staple of all the Australian colonies — 
wool — is of immense assistance to us for this pur- 
pose ; the quantity already sent to England is very 
great, and annually increasing. The last circular 
of the woolbrokers gives an amount little short of 
80,000 bales. Wool is a light and bulky article, re- 
quiring a considerable quantity of dead weight to bal- 
last the ships with prior to taking it in; it is therefore 
obvious that these ships will find it answer their pur- 
pose much better to take the dead weight they require 
from our ore, at a moderate freight, instead of 
having to pay from 25. 6d. to 35, 6rf. per ton for 



AT A MODERATE FREIGHT. 305 

sand ballast ; the wool ships require rather better 
than a third part of their registry tonnage as ballast, 
which, taking the number of ships that annually 
load at Port Phillip, Sydney, Hobarton, Laun- 
ceston, and Adelaide, at, say 100, and each ship at 
an average of 300 tons burthen, would enable us, 
after making every allowance for other heavy 
articles, such as oil, wheat, tallow, &c., (for which 
purpose I have considerably underrated the number 
of ships and their average tonnage) to send to Eng- 
land 1 0,000 tons, without encroaching on the room 
required for wool. The wool ships have often to 
wait in the ports above enumerated for two, three, 
or more months, whilst their cargo of wool is accu- 
mulating ; now that all port charges are taken off* 
the shipping who resort to Port Adelaide, by the 
wise and enlightened ipeasure of our late Governor, 
these ships will surely find it worth their while to 
go to South Australia for their dead weight, in 
those intervals ; besides which they would carry 
many passengers backwards and forwards, and light 
measurement goods, which would pay them well. In 
addition to this means, which is well worthy of the 
early attention of the English ship-owners trading 
to the Australian colonies, there are a vast number 
of colonial vessels, which will find constant freight by 
carrying the ore from Adelaide to the neighbouring 
ports to be transhipped on board of English ships. 
Hitherto we have not paid more than 12^. 6rf. per 
ton for the ore shipped direct from Adelaide to 

X 



306 PROBABLE SCALE OF FREIGHTS. 

England. The following scale of freights, however, 
is what will probably beobtained in future : — 
From Adelaide to ports in England direct, quan- 
tity sufficient to ballast the ship — £1 per 
ton; above that quantity from 10« to £1 
per ton additional, according to the number 
of tons taken. 
From Adelaide to either Sydney, Melbourne, 
Hobarton, * or Launceston, for tranship- 
ment by colonial traders, 10^ per ton, and 
from those ports 10s to £1 extra, as ballast, 
in wool ships, &c«, as above. 
The navigation to Adelaide is free from all dan- 
gers, and underwriters would easily be induced to 
include the intermediate trip to Adelaide in their 
policies ; we have ourselves latterly adopted a 
running policy of insurance on our ores (at a trifling 
advance of the rates), embracing not alone the 
route to England direct, but all intermediate ports 
east of the Cape of Good Hope. There is another 
point I beg to draw the attention of English ship- 
owners to, namely, the great difference between the 
passage home, round Cape Horn, as compared to 
the route adopted by ships from South Australia, 
round Cape Leeuwin and Cape of Good Hope ; the 
latter is nearly the whole way a fine weather pas- 
sage, where their ships would not be liable to be so 
strained as the copper ships from Chili are that 
round the Horn. 

We need, therefore, not entertain any apprehen- 



SUPPLY OP LABOUR. 307 

sion that there will not be plenty of shipping found to 
bring home our ore. 

The amount of labour which will be available to 
us in the colony, next claims our attention; our 
prospects in this respect are no less satisfactory; 
though we can hardly hope, for some years to 
come, to have a supply commensurate with the de- 
mand which will take place ; there is no fear of 
overstocking the labour market in Adelaide now» 
not only will our mines give employment to a 
vast number of men, but the very increase which 
this will cause to our population will require an 
additional number of people to grow food for ; we 
are, therefore, in the enviable position, that the 
increasing supply of our mining population will not 
only of itself increase the wealth of the country, 
" but, by their consumption," as Mr. C. Foster says 
in his work, alluding to the mining industry of 
Ireland, *^ increase the available market for the pro- 
duce of the industry of others. " 

The fame of the South Australian mines being 
spread through the neighbouring settlements, and 
when once it became known that every one who 
went there, found immediate and profitable employ- 
ment, we began shortly to receive a large accession to 
our population, by voluntary free immigration from 
New Zealand, New South Wales, Port Phillip, and 
Van Diemen's Land. The tables of immigration, 
given at page 134, shew the increase, in 1844, to be 
973 ; for the first quarter of 1 845 the number amounted 

X 2 



308 SMELTING OF THE ORE. 

to 617, and I have since learnt that in the month of 
August, last year, upwards of 500 people had arrived 
at Adelaide ! This immigration is of course at no cost 
to the colony. The large sums that are accruing 
from the sale of mineral lands in the colony, make a 
plentiful fund, available for the sending out of free 
emigrants from the mother country; from Ger- 
many, too, an extensive emigration has set in to 
our colony, to which the success which has at- 
tended the first German emigrants has not a little 
contributed. I have, in a former chapter, taken 
occasion to speak in very favourable terms of them, 
and it would be well if the British Government could 
give them more fecilities to emigrate to South 
Australia 

The subject, however, which is of more importance 
to the South Australian mining interest than any 
other, is the reduction of the ore into a smaller bulk 
— by calcination, to economise the freight ; and even- 
tually, when sufficient capital shall be available, the 
production, through the means of smelting establish- 
ments, of copper in pure metal, to supply the India 
market with. If we can once succeed in producing 
a regulus of between 40 and 60 per cent., we may 
then look to the future with perfect confidence. The 
ore, in its rough state, containing 25 per cent, of 
metal, and from that upwards, can afford to pay a 
freight which will, at the same time, remunerate the 
ships that carry it to England ; but the large heaps 
of ore, of a less produce, accumulating at the dif- 
ferent mines, either from inferior veins, or from 



ABUNDANCE OP WOOD. 309 

" dressing" the richer ores, must sooner or later be 
turned to some account to make these mining 
operations as fully remunerative as they give us a 
right to expect they should. The existence of coal 
has several times been reported, but has not yet been 
verified ; but we have no reason to lose courage, 
when we ponsider the unbounded extent of our 
forests, containing, as they do, a description of wood 
which will produce a large proportion of charcoal ; 
the wood itself, when billeted and dried, bums with 
intense heat and steady blaze, owing to the quantity 
of resinous matter it contains ; smelting with wood 
and charcoal produces the finest metal, and there is 
no reason why we should not be able to efiect, by 
means of our virgin and now unprofitable forests, that 
which for centuries has been successfully adopted 
in Germany, Russia, and other countries where 
there exists no coal in the mining districts. A 
number of German smelters and charcoal burners 
from Clausthal, in the Hartz, will this spring pro- 
ceed to the colony; where they will, I trust, 
speedily be followed by numerous other parties, 
and form the nucleus of a smelting industry, 
similar to that of the place they are leaving. I 
mention these facts, to prove, that, although 
the subject is one which requires much caution 
and prudence to enter upon, we at the same 
time will leave no means unemployed to place 
South Australia on a footing to derive every^ pos- 
sible good result from those means which nature 



310 LEAD ORE EASILY SMELTED. 

has 80 bountifully bestowed upon our Province. 
There is an old German maxim which says — 
** Help yomselTeg, and Ood will hdp you likewise." 

The energy, which the colonists of South Australia 
have displayed during the whole period of their past 
trying difficulties, will, so tax from slumbering now, 
only acquire additional stimulus from the present 
encouraging prospects. 

The lead ore is so easily run into pigs, that as 
regards this branch, the success of smelting in the 
colony cannot for a moment be questioned. Copper 
is a more difficult article to deal with; the ores raised 
in South Australia are very generally free from sul- 
phur, as compared with English and other ores ; this 
circumstance, and the readiness with which it is fused, 
is one reason why it is so highly prized in the Swan- 
sea smelting establishments. The real difficulties we 
have to contend with in South Australia are the com- 
parative deamess of labour, and the want of expe- 
rienced people to conduct these operations; for 
although it would be easy to make the ore melt, 
it is not so easy to prevent a great loss of metal, by 
the imperfect separation of the slag from it : it is a 
well-known fact that in Chili, where regulus is 
sometimes produced at the mines, the slag oflen 
contains, from the slovenly way of their operations, 
a large per centage of copper, which is thus lost 
Our difficulties are anything but insuperable, but 
the prudence which has characterized all the mining 
operations in South Australia hitherto, will cause 



HAVE WE GOT COAL? 311 

the smelting of the ore to be begun, with equal 
caution, and continued by a gradual but sure 
development. 

The discovery of such seams of coal as are found 
in the Newcastle Basin, on the Hunter's River, in 
New South Wales, would, of course, be of far more 
use to us than even the forests we possess. Several 
times have reports been current that coal had been 
discovered ; if it really is the case, the discoverers 
are obviously keeping the locality secret, with a 
view to purchasing the ground at a fitting time. 
The question naturally arises, in a geological point 
of view, ** does the formation of the country lead us 
to expect that coal strata exist in South Australia?" 
In elucidation of this interesting subject, Mr. Fort- 
num has kindly favoured me with the views his ex- 
perience of this colony suggested, and illustrated it 
by the following section of the ranges : — 




EXPLANATION. 

a. Very recent formation, as, calcareous sand, clay, &c., con« 

taining shells of species at present living in the sea. 
ft. Very recent limestone, of oolitic structure generally. 

c. The great mass of primitive rocks, as clay slate, roicaschist, 

in many places carrying up the old red sandstone, d. 

d. Old red sandstone. 
JE» Granite. 

F. Probable position of the carboniferous deposits. 



312 MR. FORTNUM ON THE 

He says, 

In the annexed sketch I have endeavoured to give a general 
idea of the positions of the strata, in reference to the probable 
existence of coal beds in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, 
or South Australia generally. It is to be borne in mind, that 
this sketch is only a theoretical one, and is supposed to be a sec- 
tion through the mountain chain, east and west. This mountain 
chain, which may be considered the back-bone of the country, 
extends north and south for a distance of 150 miles, during 
which its features of course vary considerably, but generally 
speaking, the clay slate, mica schists, gneiss, &c., are the 
most abundantly met with : the peaks are sometimes granite, at 
others, clay slate; in many instances, as shewn in the sketch, 
they are capped with the old red sandstone (d). ItwiU be seen 
that the plains are of recent origin, consisting of alluvium, clay, 
calcareous sand, with abundance of shells of recent species; 
soft limestone, limestone of oolitic structure, granite, &c. &c. ; 
and on ascending the hills, the recent limestone (b) extends 
some distance up their sides, immediately covering the clay and 
mica slates ; on arriving at the top, we frequently meet, as before 
stated, with insulated masses of the old red sandstone (d) ; it 
necessarily follows, that the great mass of this formation, from 
which these insulated blocks were separated by the upheaving of 
the older strata, must exist beneath the surface of the plain, 
and it is a question of the greatest importance to ascertain what 
strata intervene between the recent limestone (b) and this sand- 
stone 'y for in that space should we look for the important de> 
posits of the carboniferous series. 

It is evident that the most probable localities for the discovery 
of the coal formation, will be at those points immediately at the 
base of the hills, where the recent deposits forming the plains are 
necessarily of less thickness; and more particularly in such 
spots as may be exposed by the water-courses or other similar 
means. 

To ascertain to what depth the recent formations extend 



'CARBONIFEROUS DEPOSITS. 313 

in such situations is of very great importance, but it is at the 
same time by no means a matter of certainty that the carboni- 
ferous series exist at all, for it is possible that the recent strata 
may rest directly upon the old red sandstone. In some parts of 
the colony, as in the neighbourhood of the Hutt River, &c., the 
magnesian limestone occurs, and this is the rock which, in the 
series, immediately covers the coal formation. In other parts, 
sandstones occur, differing from the old red sandstone in struc- 
ture, being generally of lighter colour, and less indurated, and 
agreeing in character with the sandstones of the saliferous group. 
Unfortunately, sufficient attention has not yet been paid to the 
fossil shells that may occur in these rocks, by reference to which 
a more accurate idea could be formed of their proximity to the 
coal series. As the main range of hills is chiefly of old forma- 
tion, it would be useless to search among them for coal, but at 
their bases, and in those deep gullies and ravines that are found 
in many parts of the country in water-courses, which by their 
depth expose the various strata, search should be made ; but the 
adventurer must recoUect, that although he may actually discover 
tlie coal, it by no means follows that it will be, even on sinking 
deep into the earth, in sufficient quantity to be worth working : 
it is much to be wished that the Government would institute in- 
quiries into this important question, that boring rods should be 
used, under the direction of an experienced person, on such places 
as may be deemed most likely, (from the occurrence of those rocks 
that are generally found near the carboniferous series) to yield 
this most important mineral. The use of the boring rods by the 
surveyors of the Government establishment, directed in their 
operations by Mr. Burr, might lead to most important results, 
as, from the geological knowledge of that gentleman, they would 
search only in such places as would be likely to lead to success. 

It is not too much to expect that the necessary 
explorations should be conducted by the Govern- 
ment themselves ; and I may be allowed to express 



314 ABUNDANCE OF COAL ON THE HUNTEr's RIVER. 

a hope that this important subject may meet with 
some attention on their part. 

The extensive coal fields north of Sydney, will 
probably, some time or other, be made available for 
the above purposes; the Australian Agricultural 
Company, in whose hands is the monopoly of the 
coal mines, ought to be the first on that very account 
to turn their attention to this subject ; a chartered 
company like theirs, with large capital, and special 
privileges, would consult the interest of all the share- 
holders, by opening this new source of demand for 
their coal : the port of Newcastle on the Hunter's 
River, is quite as convenient for the erection of smelt- 
ing establishments, as Swansea is ; South Australia 
would not be long in sending the copper to be 
smelted, once the furnaces were erected ; the coal 
exists there to an unlimited extent, and the present 
demand does not take off their hands a tithe of the 
quantity they could raise from the three pits, over 
which powerful engines are already erected. The 
price at the pit's mouth, when I was there last, was 
88 per ton. and is now I believe 6* 6d. 

The great abundance and cheapness * of animal 
and vegetable food of every description in South 
Australia, will support an immense and concentrated 
population. It is a strange anomaly, that one part 
of the world possesses food and wants population, 
and another part, possesses population and wants 

* Id the Appendix will be foand the market prices of pro- 
visionB, &c. 



ENCOTJRAGB EMIGRATION. 315 

food. It is scarcely credible that, in spite of the 
march of civilization, whilst there is, like South 
Australia, (and in feet all the Australian provinces) 
a country, which will supply the bodily wants and 
comforts of human beings, to an unlimited ex- 
tent, there exists within the sphere of the British 
Isles, a population of whom an eye-witness, no less 
an authority than the Times' Commissioner, says : 
** It is shocking to see the dreadful privations-— the 
destitution — the mode of living." Right sorry am 
I, (who am but one individual out of thousands 
who will think in like manner) that he has arrayed 
himself foremost in the ranks of those who oppose 
emigration as a relief to these poor people, — because 
Ireland has the elements within itself of giving 
employment and comfort to its population ; but in 
spite of which year after year passes away without 
bringing any alteration or relief to the *^ indescri- 
bable" poverty of the people. Because emigration 
is not thought to be a radical remedy for the whole 
evil, may it not be adopted by Government to 
relieve even a few of the very poorest ? It is said 
emigration takes off the best of the population, 
meaning, those with small capital : I say, if we 
cannot have people with *' small capital," give us 
those whose poverty is, as you tell us, "indescribable;" 
let them be but healthy, able, willing to work, and 
of good character, we will give than plenty 
of work, plenty of food,* and wages, which will 

* The oftQal scale of rationB giren to each adult is lOlbs. of 
flour, lOlbs. of fresh meat, jib. of tea, and 21b8. of sugar per 



316 EFFECT OF IMPORTATION OF ORB 

support them and their families in affluence and 
independence, and make them bless those who have 
been the means of bringing about such a change 
in their earthly lot 

Now as regards the influence the large quantity 
of copper which will in some years be imported into 
England may have on the market, it need not be 
regarded by the least anxiety, by those who might 
fear that the price can be materially affected by it. 
Copper is a metal of such general utility and 
applied to so numerous purposes, that the greater 
the supply the more extensively will it come into 
use; the development of the South Australian 
mines will not be regarded with a je^ous eye by 
the Cornish mining interest,* as it does not in the 
least interfere with their prospects, the produce of 
both countries being essentially necessary the one 
to the other, for admixture by the smelter. Indeed, 
of such importance to the latter is the abundant 
supply of the rich carbonates and sulphurets, such as 
are produced from our mines, that in the latter end 
of March this year, a deputation from the copper 
manufacturers memorialised Sir Robert Peel to 
repeal the duty on foreign copper ores, with a view 

week, in addition to the wages, which latter of coarse vary, 
according to the work performedi but are in no case under ^18. 
per annum for an adult. 

* The reader is referred to some very interesting statistics re- 
garding the English and foreign mines and copper trade, compiled 
by and extracted from the Mining Journal, which are inserted in 
the Appendix. 



ON PRICE OF COPPER. 317 

of increasing the importation from South America. 
Sir Robert Peel did not accede to their representa- 
tions ; and it is to be hoped, that if any restrictions 
are taken off, they will be, not from South American 
or other foreign ores, but from the mineral produce of 
British colonies, and that the distinction which by 
the imposition of duties have so long placed the 
Australian colonies more in the light of a foreign 
state than a dependency of the British Oown, may 
at once cease, and thus help to encourage, as the 
British Government is bound to do by every tie of 
kindred, nationality, and justice to its distant sub- 
jects, their industry and exertions. 

The memorial presented to Parliament by the 
copper manufacturers, states, " that it is an increas- 
ing trade," " that it is of the utmost importance 
that a supply of copper be obtained at the cheapest 
rate " — " that therefore raw ores should be intrc- 
duced duty free, &c." This is all very true ; but 
forming, as our province does, a portion of this 
empire, it behoves the Government, to recollect the 
claims of their own subjects, before those of foreign 
States. Give us every encouragement to send to 
England the rich ores from South Australia ; take 
off the duty from ores raised in your own colonies ; 
give us every possible facility, by encouraging the 
emigration of those who, by their labour, will put 
the ore we have in abundance, on board of the 
ships which will bring it to Swansea, and a very 
short time will shew, that the British copper manu- 



318 PROFECTED RAILBOAD 

facturers need not fear any diminution of the supply 
of the raw material. The necessity for smelting in 
the colony and seeking a market in India for the 
metal, will chiefly be forced upon us by the invidious 
duties levied on colonial produce, and other difficul- 
ties we may at such a distance have to contend with. 

I have, in a preceding chapter (page 1 15), alluded 
to the projected railroad to connect Adelaide with 
the shipping. This project is intimately connected 
with our mining operations, for it would make 
available for the transport of ores from the distant 
mines, all those bullocks and drays which are now 
employed on the rpad^ (a very considerable number) 
bringing cargo from and to the shipping and town. 
This project is, in every particular, not only highly 
desirable, but very feasible, and, as far as profits are 
concerned, very promising. The gentlemen who 
have given it support in England, have, however, 
very properly determined to let all the details of the 
plan emanate from the colonists themselves ; for 
which purpose Mr. J. B. Montefiore, (who, with his 
whole family, proceeds to South Australia, in a few 
days, for the purpose oi settling in that flourishing 
colony), takes out all necessary powers to make the 
preliminary arrangements for the formation of the 
company. 

Owing to the want of sufficient accommodation 
at the present site of Port Adelaide, and the shal- 
lowness of the water, close to the wharfs, it will be 
a subject for consideration whether it would not be 



APPROVED OF BT COLOKEL GAWLER. 319 

better at once to direct the line of railway to the 
''North Ann/' opposite Torrens Island, as was 
originally intended by Colonel Gawler. The money 
necessary to enlarge the existing road through the 
swamp, to give room for a railroad, and the many 
and ezpensiye alterations which will soon be re- 
quired at the wharfs at present in use, would go far to 
make available this new site for the port (vide Map\ 
and I see by late Adelaide papers, that the idea has 
there also been taken up again. Colonel Gawler 
approves of and supports the scheme, and his nu- 
merous friends in the colony will be glad to perceive, 
that, though separated from them, he still takes a 
lively interest in everything which appears condu* 
cive to their interests. 

The claims of South Australia to take up a very 
important station amongst the great mining countries 
of the world, may therefore, in conclusion, be 
summed up as follows : — 

An already explored extent of country, abounding 
in metalliferous deposits, of 150 miles in length, by 
upwards of 30 miles in breadth. The absolute fee- 
simple of the soil, vested in the purchaser. 

Unsurpassed richness of the ores found, whether 
copper, lead, or iron. 

Unparalleled abundance of the ores, in those 
mines, already at work, cropping out at the surface 
of the ground. 

Easy access to all parts of the colony, and un- 
limited supply of transport for bringing the ore to 
the port. 



320 GENERAL SUMMARY. 

A constantly increasing supply of labour. Facili- 
ties for sending the ores to England at a moderate 
freight. 

Abundance of animal and vegetable food produced 
in the colony to support a large population, such as 
an extensive mining country will concentrate in a 
small space — added to the most healthy climate. 

Favourable prospects for being able to reduce the 
bulk of the ore by calcination and smelting, thereby 
saving cost of freight — and in the course of time 
supplying the India market with the metal. 

A thoroughly well organized Government; a 
flouiishing state of the colonial finance ; the greatest 
security for life and property prevailing in the colony ; 
a free, highly industrious, and well disposed popu- 
lation ; and the British laws, administered ably and 
impartially. 

Much further might I pursue this grateful theme, 
of enumerating the advantages of our colony ; but the 
above will suffice to convince those who are not deaf to 
conviction, that a bright futurity is in store for South 
Australia ; and that the fostering aid of British 
capitalists may be safely directed to this new and 
interesting field for enterprise, with confident hopes 
of its proving both safe and highly profitable. 



CHAPTER XIIL 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
THE NATIVES. 

Proud as England may justly be, to see in all 
parts of the glpbe» even the most distant, her cus- 
toms, language, religion, in a word the counterpart 
of herself spring up,— there is one subject, which 
cannot fail to be looked upon with sorrow and 
regret; that, whilst this great empire is constantly 
creating new nations as it were, after her own 
image ; daily bringing into use, for the benefit of 
her own offspring, the untouched treasures of new 
hemispheres ; and boasting, as England does, that 
her name carries with it into the wilderness, the 
blessings of Christianity, religion, and civilization, 
transforming the desert into a smiling garden; 
still, this course of events has invariably been 
the means of gradually, but surely, causing the 
extinction of those aboriginal tribes inhabiting 
the countries invaded, thus apparently bringing 
about effects, the very contrary of what we profess to 
do, and most certainly of what is directly opposed 
to the fundamental philanthropic and humane prin- 
ciples engrafted on the British character. 

The history of the colonization of the great 
American continent, does not belong to the present 
day ; the nations, which once inhabited that vast 



322 THE NATIVES. 

countryi strong in the battle field, and not mean in 
the intellectual scale of humanity, are already num- 
bered amongst the things that were ; the few that 
remain, have resigned, long since, the name of a 
nation ; the land, once theirs, now belongs to others. 

In the vast continent of Australia, and its adja- 
cent islands, nature also planted tribes of human 
beings, (I will not call them nations,) and in doing 
so, provided them with the means of obtaining 
partly from the soil, partly by the beasts and birds 
of the forests, and the fish of the rivers, a scanty, no 
doubt, but still a sufficient livelihood. Sixty years 
ago, the native roamed over the vast plains of 
this new world, master of that which the hand of 
nature placed there for his use ; now, hundreds of 
miles are occupied by the white man, the native is 
seldom met with, and if his wanderings bring him 
within the sphere of our boasted civilization, he is 
looked upon as an unwelcome intruder, he is watched 
like a suspected criminal would be, and if driven by 
hunger, (that stem necessity which knows no re- 
straint, but the impulse of the moment,) to appro- 
priate a portion of our abundance to feed himself 
and his children, he is punished by our laws, and 
he also is made to feel that " his day is gone by." 

In all parts of the world, the British character is 
respected ; the British name is the terror of its 
enemies; from the fountains of British education 
has sprung genius, in the most exalted form, 
unmatched virtues, and talents without parallel; 



TBS NATIVES. 323 

wherever the children of that small island have 
gone, the effects of that vast influence extends with 
them ; at a distance of many thousands of miles, we 
are happy, we possess every comfort, we are pro- 
tected and secured in the possession of our homes, 
but incomprehensible as it may appear, those human 
beings, whose rights are paramount to ours, whose 
claims to the country we appropriate to our use, 
are superior to ours, (although we are too eager on 
all occasions, by casuistical reasonings, to persuade 
ourselves that such is not the case) ; the black inha- 
bitant gradually dwindles away "before the blighting 
effects of civilization," and another half century will 
most probably also see the end of the Australian abo- 
riginal race ;* if not in the far interior, at all events 
within the settled districts. 

* ** It has already been stated, that in all the colonies we have 
hitherto established upon the continent, the aborigines are gra- 
daally decreasing in number, or have already disappeared in 
proportion to the time their country has been occupied by 
Europeans, or to the number of settlers who have been located 
upon it. Of the blighting and exterminating effects produced 
upon simple and untutored races, by the advance of civilization 
upon them, we have many and painful proofs. History records 
innumerable instances of nations who were once numerous and 
powerful, decaying and disappearing before this fatal and inex- 
plicable influence ; history will record, I fear, similar results, for 
the many nations who are now struggling, alas how vainly, 

against this desolating cause W.e are almost, in 

spite of ourselves, forced to the conviction that the first appear- 
ance of the white man in any new country, sounds the funeral 
knell of the children of the soil."— £'yr«, vol. ii. page 412. 

Y 2 



324 THE NATIVBS. 

In Van Diemen's Land, there once were natives* 
there is now not one left; in Australia, they have a 
greater extent of country to fall back upon, it is 
true ; but the native has his predilections for the 
place he was born in, as well as we have ; unwilling, 
because unaccustomed to labour for his subsistence, 
he now drags on a miserable and precarious exist- 
ence within those settled districts, which he looks 
upon as his own ; his means of procuring food are 
becoming daily more circumscribed; his usual 
haunts are occupied by others, nor does he find 
sympathy from his more fortunate sable brethren 
further in the interior ; for should he encroach or 
settle upon their territory, he is quickly made to 
feel, that there also, is he looked upon as an 
intruder. 

But let it not be supposed that the British Govern- 
ment has been either blind to their claims, or deaf 
to the reasonings of humanity in their behalf.* 

* The following noble Bentiments of Lord Stanley, on this sub- 
ject, deserve to find a place in every work on the colonies. In his 
despatch to Sir George Gipps, of Dec. 20,1842, his Lordship says, 
" I cannot condade this despatch without expressing my sense 
of the importance of the subject of it, and my hope that your ex* 
perience may enable you to suggest some general plan, by which 
we may acquit ourselves of the obligations which we owe towards 
this helpless race of beings. I should not, without extreme re- 
luctance, admit that nothing could be done — that with respect 
to them alone, the doctrines of Christianity must be inoperatiye, 
and the advantages of civilization incommunicable. I cannot 
acquiesce in the theory that they are incapable of improvement. 



TH£ NATIVES. 325 

Much has been tried for their benefit, and vast sums 
have been expended to improve their social condition, 
and all to no purpose. The wisdom which has for 
centuries directed, and watched over the destinies of 
the British Nation, which has been equal to meet, 
and cope with any emergency which the world could 
produce, has been as yet unable to devise the means 
of rescuing from the, I fear, too certain doom of an 
early and total extinction, a few thousand simple 
minded black people. 

Their hard fate has repeatedly occupied the atten- 
tion of our ablest statesmen, as the parliamentary 
annals can prove ; their benevolent intentions have 
been seconded to the utmost of their power, by the 
representatives of the Government in the colonies ; 
but nothing can be shewn to prove that the Austra- 
lian savage is in the least better off now than he was 
twenty, or more, years ago. The large sum. of 
nearly £80,000 has been expended, since 1821, in 
New South Wales, in keeping up a widely ramified 
establishment of Protectors; the Protectorate has 
cost during that period £51,807, and half the ex- 
pense of the border police, £27,700 more. Had the 
money been annually dropped into the sea, outside 

and that their extinction, before the advance of the white settler 
is a necessity which it is impossible to control. I recommend 
them to yoar protection^ and favourable consideration, with 
the greatest earnestness, but at the same time, witli perfect 
confidence, and I assure you that I shall be willing and anxious 
to co-operate with you in any arrangement for their civilization, 
which may hold out a fair prospect of success.'' 



326 THE NATIVES. 

Sydney Heads, the loss bould not be more regretted, 
than its resuldess application in redeeming the 
savage, and it would have saved both Sir George 
Gipps and Lord Stanley the trouble of writing the 
immensity of despatches they did ; the protectorate 
plan has, I believe, been now abandoned in despair, as 
being productive of no good ; and although the expe* 
riments in South Australia have been made on a £ar 
more moderate scale, no better results can be shewn, 
with us, than in the neighbouring colonies ; — but 
the effects of our civilizing influence is shewn, a» 
Mr. Eyre says, *'in their diminished numbers." 
Again, he says, '^ many attempts, upon a limited 
scale, have already been made in all the colonies^ 
but none have in the least degree tended to check 
the gradual, but certain, extinction that is menacing 
this ill-&ted people ; nor is it in my recollection, 
that throughout the whole length and breadth of 
New Holland, a single real and permanent convert 
to Christianity has yet been made amongst them*^ 

It is next to impossible to make any estimate as 
to the actual numbers of the different tribes who are 
located in South Australia; their wandering and 
unsettled habits do not allow of any correct census 
being taken. Mr. Protector Moorhouse estimates 
their number at about 3000. Mr. Eyre thinks there 
may be twice as many. The funds which the colonial 
government apply to their use is by an annual vote 
placed on the estimates ; and in a former chapter I 
have taken occasion to remark on the continued 



THE NATIVES. 327 

and fiitile efforts which are made to educate a few 
children, whilst the bulk of the natives are left to 
drag on a miserable existence, subsisting partly on 
charity, partly on the precarious and uncertain 
means of obtaining food still at their command. Mr. 
Braim says, very justly, in alluding to the expense 
incurred in New South Wales, ** that no one would 
r^ret its extent, could any corresponding good 
be shewn to have been effected by it." The sum 
voted for 1846 was £820., which is appropriated, in 
salaries, to Protectors, schoolmasters, and school- 
mistresses, and the Protector himself states that only 
three children have been in regular attendance. 
Their parents being accustomed to have the assist- 
ance of their children in their hunting, fishing, or 
other employments, cannot be made to comprehend 
in what way they will be benefited by being deprived 
of their services ; on that account they never willingly 
consent to allow their children to absent themselves 
from them, for more than a few day^s,* and it does 
certainly appear to be contrary to the general ac- 
ceptation of the term common sense, and humanity 
generally, that as the result of the money spent, 
every now and then reports are issued by the super- 
intendents of the native locations, stating that some 

* ^* With all my past experience I canDot persuade myself, that 
any real or permanent good will ever be effected until the influ- 
ence exercised over the young by the adults be destroyed, and 
they be freed from the ooptagions effects of their example.'' — 
Ep'e^ Yol. vu page 430. 



328 THE NATIVES. 

half dozen children are able to read " polysyllables '' 
or " monosyllables," that they are able to repeat the 
Lord's prayer and commandments, (parrots are 
taught to utter sentences as well) but of which I 
defy any one to prove that they understand a par- 
ticle of their meaning; and within five minutes 
afterwards, in walking through the streets, you may 
possibly meet tribes of adults in the very acme of 
squalidness and filth, clothed in rags, picking up, 
as food, offal,* from which a dog would turn away in. 
disgust. This may appear overdrawn, but let any 
impartial observer give testimony whether the most 
disgusting and revolting sights are not constantly 
occurring under our eyes in the centre of the town. 
For this reason, I repeat what I said before, unless 
the civilization and education of the natives, both 
adult and child, can be carried on, on a sufficiently 
extended scale, to include both parent and child 
within its sphere, it is a flat contradiction to the 
boasted philanthropy which the English are ready 
on all occasions to put forward, to spend large sums 
in useless attempts to teach a half-dozen children to 
spell, or scratch unintelligible hieroglyphics on slates, 
whilst hundreds of wretched outcasts are wandering 
through the country unheeded, uncared for, without 
food, clothing, or home, who might be both fed and 
clothed with the money. 

I do not mean to say, that the aborigines are 

* ** Many are aapported by the offal of a place, u here so much 
animal food is consumed.'*— £iyre, vol. ii page 445. 



THE NATIVES. 329 

beyond all redemption, incapable of being civilized ; 
quite the contrary. I think, with many others, 
that they are capable of improvement, and the valu- 
able writings of Captain Grey,* and more lately Mr. 
Eyre, on this subject, would convince me, had not 
examples of great intelligence fallen under my own 
observation. But it is not that, what we have to do 
with, in the present limited means at the command 
of the authorities for carrying out their views ; in 
my humble opinion, the first steps in their civiliza- 
tion ought to be to teach them to work, and to feed 
them ; teach the native to look up to you for a cer- 
tain and regular subsistence in the first instance; 
deprive him of the inducement he now has of con- 
tinually wandering from one place to another in 
search of that food ; break him by that means, fii*st9 
of his roving disposition, and he may become tract- 
able and settled in his habits; begin the work of 
civilization by teaching him the use of the spade, 
instead of the pen or pencil, or before you vainly 
strive to christianize him, by those things, of which 
his simplicity cannot possibly understand one iota — 
and there may be some hopes for tliem after all. 

But I fear it will continue to be a hopeless case 
altogether, until the powerful hand of the British 

* In speaking of Capt. Grey's work, aud the shortness of the 
time during ^hich he collected the materials, Mr. Eyre says : 
"it is perfectly surprising that the amount of information 
amassed should he so great, and so generally correct.'/ — Eyre, 
Tbl. ii. page 152. 



330 THE NATIVES. 

Government interfere : unless something emanates 
from head-quarters itself, the native will continue to 
wander about, as is his wont at present ; his " gin'* 
will ply the ^^ yamstick/' and dig from the soil the 
same miserable subsistence as heretofore, whilst her 
lazy husband, will " lie basking in the sun, or 
crouching over his fire." The British law looks 
upon the native, as a British subject ; consequently, 
his liberty must be respected ; he must on no ac- 
count be placed under the least personal restraint, or 
be persuaded to work for his livelihood, with the 
sweat on his brow, as the white man does, and in 
consequence of his glorious privilege of being a 
British subject, a few years more will infallibly see 
the extinction of his race. The whole subject is so 
extensively entered upon, by Mr. Eyre, in his lately 
published work, that it is impossible to add any new 
features to the sad theme. In Mr. Eyre's work is 
embodied the Experience of several years close 
application to the study of the relations between the 
European and native ; it forms altogether the most 
complete history of the aboriginal race which has 
ever been published, and those who would wish to 
become intimately acquainted with their customs, 
manners, traditions, &c., would do well to peruse 
it. 

With such an elaborate work already before the 
public, it would not be becoming in me to offer the 
few particulars descriptive of the aborigines, which 
my personal observation in South Australia might 




V 




THE NATIVES. 331 

safest ; the plan Mr. Eyre proposes for improving 
the natives has many good points about it, but the 
greatest difficulty such an extended plan would have 
to contend with, is the great expense it would entail 
on the Colony, which, saddled as it is with the 
liquidation of the debts of former mismanage- 
ment, is certainly not in a position to furnish funds 
for the purpose. The more reason, therefore, that 
the Home Government should not cease to direct 
their attention, and extend a helping hand to this 
subject. 

The establishment of the Government Post at 
Moorunde, on the Murray River, 85 miles from 
Adelaide, at which place Mr. Edward John Eyre 
was stationed as Resident Magistrate, was deter- 
mined upon by Governor Grey in the latter 
part of 1841, in consequence of the numerous out- 
rages which had taken place by the natives, upon 
parties coming overland from New South Wales, 
with stock ; many Europeans had been from time 
to time killed, and their property destroyed or 
plundered, whilst, on the other hand, whenever the 
parties of whites happened to be in sufficient force, 
a great slaughter was sure to be committed upon 
the blacks. The Governor, therefore, had apparently 
sufficient grounds for going to the expense of that 
establishment, even at a time when the colonial 
finances were at the lowest possible ebb : and Mr. 
Eyre has certainly succeeded in an eminent degree 
in effecting the object contemplated, as the whole 



332 THE NATIVES. 

length of the River Murray, from the great northern 
bend to the coast, is occupied at the present moment 
with sheep and cattle stations, and no single outrage 
of a fatal nature, has, since the establishment of that 
post, been committed by the natives ; whilst at the 
same time a great moral control and influence has 
been obtained over the more distant and warlike 
tribes, who were either periodically visited in their 
own districts by Mr, Eyre, or used to come down to 
Moorunde to receive the meagre distribution of flour 
and blankets now and then allowed them by the 
Government. 

Some Members of Council at Adelaide, do not 
however appear to concur in this view of the case ; 
and every year witnesses a fresh motion on their 
part, to withdraw the establishment, as useless. 
During the session of June, 1845, the same motion 
was again made, and His Excellency the Governor 
appears to have been under the impression that Mr 
Eyre himself had considered the station might be 
abandoned. 

This being a misapprehension dn the part of His 
Excellency, Mr. Eyre addressed a letter to the 
Colonial Secretary at Adelaide on the subject, which 
will be found in the appendix • 

If any additional proof were wanting that benefi- 
cial results have been effected, by the influence 
exercised by Mr. Eyre over the still powerful tribes 
on the upper part of the Murray, the Rufus, 
Darling, &c. ; it is shewn by the friendly feeling 



CAPTAIN STURt's EXPLORATION. 333 

evinced to Captain Sturt*s party in passing safely 
through those same tribes, who only a few years ago 
were arrayed in deadly warfare against the white 
man, whenever he ventured within the limits of 
their tribes. 

Mr. Eyre brought two native boys with him to 
England, whom he has placed at school, where they 
are being educated ; short as their stay has been in 
England, they have already made great progress in 
the English language, and their intellectual capaci- 
ties are not a whit inferior to what an English boy 
of the same age would be, with the same length of 
time employed in developing them. Her Majesty 
was graciously pleased to command their being 
brought to Buckingham Palace, and expressed 
herself pleased with their appearance ; Mr. Eyre 
had the honour of being present on the occasion. 



CAPTAIN STURTS EXPLORATION. 

The Australian colonies have furnished for many 
years, men of undaunted courage and hardihood, 
who have ventured into the unexplored wilderness, 
exposed to all the hardships, dangers, and difficulties, 
incident to travelling in so arid a country, as 
the interior of that vast continent consists of, at 
least so far as has been yet ascertained. Little do 
people in England know of the sufferings to which 



334 CAPTAIN sturt's bxploration. 

the Australian explorer exposes himself; the pub* 
lished accounts of these undertakings do not often 
meet ^ith that attention they deserve, owing to 
the generally uninteresting nature of the country 
traversed, and the most distinguished merit is thus 
but little apprecial^, because hitherto so few great 
results of public utility, have been brought about 
by them; South Australia boasts with no little 
pride, of having, at one time, numbered amongst its 
inhabitants, no less than three individuals, Sturt, 
Grey, and Eyre, who each of them rank at the top 
of the list of those, who have threaded the thorny 
paths of the Australian desert; it is amidst such 
trying perils as they each have in their turn 
experienced, that that true moral courage shines 
forth, which is superior to the same feeling which 
in the din of battle leads the soldier to rush to 
the conflict, and look destruction in the face; 
hunger and thirst are more fearful opponents to 
encounter, than the roar of cannon. 

Pre-eminent amongst all explorers ranks he, who 
even at this moment is again in the field ; who has once 
more, left the bosom of his family, and the circle of 
his unnumbered friends, who is .even now, devoting 
the renewed ardour of his youth, combined with 
the experience of maturer years, and risking his 
life for the solution of that geographical problem, 
which has hitherto baffled the utmost exertions of 
all who have tried to unravel its mysteries. The 



CAPTAIN STURt'b EXPLORATION. 335 

gallant Captain Sturt, the revered "father of Austra- 
lian exploration/' is once more striving to lift the veil, 
^hichhaSytill this moment, confined the habitations of 
the white man to a narrow strip of ground on the 
coast line of that vast continent. Captain Sturt 
was the person who laid open the South Australian 
district, which now constitutes the happy home of 
thousands of his fellow creatures; it was by his 
indomitable perseverance and courage, and that of 
his little band, that he ventured into the " heart of 
the desert," "an enterprise," of which Colonel 
Napier so beautifully remarks, " unanimated by the 
glory of battle, yet accompanied by the hardships of 
a campaign, without splendour, without reward ;" 
it was through the means of his correct judgment, 
that ftirther examinations of the country were 
undertaken, which was speedily followed by an 
extensive settlement. But I trust, that history will 
not hereafter record that such services, were left 
without " reward ;" the love and esteem of a whole 
population, must be acceptable and gratifying to 
his feelings as a man ; but let not this be his only 
reward. Her Majesty's government will doubtless 
not forget him, when he shall have returned in 
safety, to spend the remainder of his life, amongst 
his admiring friends ; and let the colonists them- 
selves, or rather the Legislative Council in their 
name, set the noble example, by awarding him in 
addition, an annual grant on the revenues of the 



33(> CAPTAIN STDRT's EXPLORATION. 

colony, he was mainly instrumental in giving ris^ 
to, which I feel convinced will meet the hearty 
approval of the whole population. 

Captain Sturt has long entertained the theory, 
founded on certain considerations connected with the 
physical formation of the continent, and appearances 
on its surface, coupled with observations made by 
him, on his former explorations, and the reports of 
natives, that a high range of mountains exists in the 
far interior ; and further, that an immense inland 
sea is also there situated. Having memorialized 
the Home Government on the subject, Lord Stanley 
with praiseworthy liberality, and actuated by the 
importance of ascertaining, if possible, what the 
interior of Australia is composed of, felt himself 
justified in applying a considerable sum of money 
to its accomplishment ; for which he subsequently 
obtained the sanction of a vote from Parliament. 
All details of the expedition, and the selection of the 
party who were to accompany him, were left to 
Captain Sturt himself: and nothing was omitted 
which would be likely to bring it to a successful 
issue. It may give some idea of the estimation in 
which Captain Sturt is held, and the confidence 
placed in him as a leader, when I say, that he had 
several hundred applications from parties, who volun- 
teered to go with him ; and I feel convinced, that 
through the length and breadth of the colony, there 
was not one individual who would not have felt 



CAPTAIN STURT's EXPLORATION. 337 

honoured in being selected to make one of the party, 
and have readily, and with alacrity, followed 
him. Indeed, one of the greatest difficulties Captain 
Sturt had to contend with to make a final start, was 
the number of persons who constantly beset his 
path, from morning to night, all eager to share the 
dangers and glory of this great enterprise. By the 
beginning of August, 1844, all the ^^matineV was 
in readiness, and the party organized; the latter 
was constituted as follows : — 

Chief of the eiqpedition— Captain C. Sturt. 

AB8ittant-**J. Poole, Esq. 

Braftaman— Mr. J. M. Stuart. 

Medical Officer — ^John Browne, Esq. 

Armourer, and collector of natural history, &c. — Mr. D. G. 

Brock. 
Storekeeper— Mr. Louis Piesse. 
Attendants — ^Daniel Morgan, Richard Turpin, Hugh Foulkes, 

Joseph Cowley, George DaTcnport, Robert Flood, John 

Kirby, John SuUivan, John Lewis, John Mack, John 

Jones, 
5 bullock drays, of eight bullocks each. 
1 three-horse dray. 
1 three-horse spring cart. 
A boat. 
200 sheep, and ample supply of provisions, implements, &c. 

for twelve months. 

On the 10th of August a total suspension of all 
business took place in Adelaide ; a farewell break- 
fast was given to Captain Sturt and his companions, 
-which was attended by his Excellency the Governor, 



338 CAPTAIN sturt's exploration. 

and between two and three hundred of the leading 
colonists. Major O'Halloran occupied the chair; 
and, after the usual loyal toasts, and the health of 
his Excellency, who, in returning thanks, bestowed 
upon Captain Sturt the appropriate appellation of 
the " Father of Australian Exploration," which will 
ever after be his title, the Chairman proposed the 
following : — 

** Health and all happiness to our honoured guest — may the 
sun of prosperity shine on his path through the desert, and crown 
his exertions with the most brilliant success, so that the results 
shall be alike glorious to our country and to our guest, — beneficial 
to the interests of South Australia and her neighbours — and a 
source of enthusiastic rejoicing to the countless friends and ad- 
mirers of the gallant Sturt.'* 

Which of course elicited most universal and long 
continued applause. Captain Sturt made a very 
feeling speech in return, and more than one sturdy 
settler, who had long since given up the whimpering 
mood, found to his astonishment an unaccountable 
dimness come over his eyes ; the scene was rendered 
doubly interesting, by the presence of Captain 
Sturt*s youthful son, Evelyn, at his side, to whom 
in the course of his address he pointed, saying he 
had brought him, that the recollection of the scene 
might remain with him in after years, and stimulate 
him through life. 

Captain Sturt was escorted for some miles from 
town by an immense cavalcade, the drays, &c. 
having preceded him some days ; at Gawler Town, 



CAPTAIN STURT's EXPLORATION. 339 

twenty-five miles from Adelaide, another party of 
friends, myself among the rest, were awaiting him, 
and aeoompanied him during his next day's stage to 
Koonunga, where we finally bid him good bye. 

The last accounts received from Captain Sturt, 
were dated 5th June, 1845: he was then encamped 
on the confines of the colony, in lat. 28"* IT 15", 
long. 141** 22', and the whole party had already 
undergone great sufferings, most of them having 
been attacked by scurvy, and the heat having at 
times been as high as 135 degrees Fahrenheit in the 
shade, whilst the direct rays of the sun caused it to 
rise to 157 degrees. The second in command, my 
poor friend Poole, had succumbed to the fatigues, 
and, after a lengthened period of illness, expired, the 
day after he left the expedition with part of the men, 
on their return to Adelaide ; Captain Sturt having 
thought it advisable to reduce their numbers, to 
economise the provisions, in order to make a final 
push for the interior, from the point he had then 
reached. 

The reader will already be familiar with Captain 
Sturt's despatches, as they have appeared in almost 
every English paper ; I do not deem it desirable to 
republish them now, not to forestall any part of 
Captain Sturt's own work, which, on his return, will 
doubtless be published. I cannot conclude this 
brief notice better, than by quoting the words of his 
brother explorer, Mr. Eyre : — 

z2 



340 CAPTAIN STURT's EXPLORATION. 

"May he be successful to the utmost of his 
wishes, and may he again rejoin, in health and 
safety, his numerous friends, to forget in their 
approbation and admiration, the toils he has en- 
countered, and to enjoy the rewards and laurels 
which will have been so hardly earned, and so well 
deserved," 



APPENDIX. 



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342 



APPENDIX. 



No. II,— An Account of all Goods, Wares, and Merchandise, with their respective value^ 
imported into the Colony of South Australia, in the year ending January 6, 1845. 



Articles Imporled. Totali. 


Articles Imported. 


Totals. 




Articles Imported. 


Touts. 


Anna and ammu- £. a. 


d. 




£. .. 


d. 




jC. a. d. 


nition— 




Cheese 


. 67 





Salt . . 


721 16 


Firearms . 66 


Clocks . • 


. 68 





Saddlery 


282 6 4 


Onnpowder 191 13 


Dairy implements. 7 6 





Seeds 


83 6 


Agricultural im- 




Drugs 


. 29 10 





Shot 


55 


plements . 639 


Cement 


2433 6 


1 


Soap 


2268 2 9 


Apparel& slops 13.887 17 


Drapery 


16950 9 


3 


Stones and Slates. 


98 3 4 


AlkaU . . 262 


7 


Earthenware 


913 12 


6 


Millstones 


60 


Animals, living- 




Fruit- 






Grindstones 


80 5 


Horses . . 654 





Dried 


13iO 14 


6 


Soccades . 


39 


Bams . . 372 





Fresh 


. 313 8 


8 


Spirits- 




Cows .20 





Flax . 


. 10 





Braudy . 


3236 10 


Bacon and Hams. 236 10 





Furs and skins 


. 146 12 


9 


Geneva 


603 12 0, 


Beer, porter, &c .6410 14 


8 


Furniture . 


1199 19 





Gin 


449 5 


Blacking . . 116 





Fish . 


. 56 3 


4 


Rum 


2019 16 


Books and Sta- 




Glass . 


. 351 12 





Whiskey . 


534 16 


tionery . .2177 11 


Glue . 


. 6 





Cordials . 


40 


Boots and shoes .1622 8 


9 


Grindery . 


. 93 6 





Eau de Cologne 


80 4 


Boat . . . 20 





Hair . 


. 42 





Spices 


229 13 7 


Brushes and combs 95 16 





Hardware & iron- 




Sago . . . 


3 2 0{ 


Butter • . 71 





mongery . 


3800 10 


9 


Sugar 


6282 8 


Bottling-waz 1 16 


4 


Hats . 


1686 18 





Starch 


41 


Bricks (Bath; . 7 





Hops . 


. 964 11 


6 


Solder 


5 0' 


Billiard table . 16 





Hay . . 


. 2 10 





Suiigical instru- 


1 


Bagatelle table . 5 





Haberdashery 


1664 12 


2 


ments 


20 Ol 


Blocks . . 62 2 


4 


Iron • 


1611 15 


2 


Specie 


2680 0, 


Bottles . . 11 3 


4 


Jewellery 


. 610 





Specimens Nat. 




Blue ... 9 6 


8 


Kegs (empty) 


1 12 


O: History . 


3 2 0| 


Baskets . .06 





Lead . 


. 280 


OlTea . 


4436 11 2 


Candles . 486 17 


10 


Leather 


. 466 6 


7 


Tin . . . 


356 6 10 


Canvassand bagg- 




Lime juice 


. 12 8 





Tools . 


140 


ing . . . 5337 2 


9 


Lucifers 


. 209 7 


9 


Tallow 


79 11 10 


Carriages and carU 220 16 





Mirrois 


. 10 





Tobacco- 




Cocoa and choco- 




Mats 


. 22 17 


6 


Stems 


337 1 10 


late . . 32 17 


6 


Machinery . 


1099 4 





Manufactured . 


1809 12 0; 


Coffee . . 641 5 


3 


Musical instru • 






Cigars 


1160 4 o: 


Coals . 66 





meuU 


. 170 





Leaf 


15 


Colours and paints 239 6 


6 


Molasses 


. 89 





Snuff . 


32 14 


Cider . . 20 





Nails . 


. 860 11 


10 


Pipes . . 


230 6 


Confectionary . 34 11 





Netting 


. 17 10 





Tinware 


35 10 O! 


Copper . . 30 





Oakum 


. 6 12 





Trees and plants • 


376 


Cordage and rope 687 10 


8 


Oil— Olive . 


. 6 10 





Turnery and toys . 


94 3 6 


Cocoa-nuU . 2 





Paint 


. 112 9 


6 


Turpentine^spiritof 


130 11 9| 


Corks . . .106 12 


6 


Black 


. 268 9 





Vineflrar 


87 3 01 


Corn- 




Sperm 


. 142 10 





Wii.e' 


3671 3 3 


Barley . . 511 15 


7 


Oilman's storen 


1295 16 


8 


Whaling imple- 




Beans 


. 101 4 





Pictures & Prints 


106 





ments 


61 


Flour 


1 





Pitch, tar, and 






Wood , 


629 3 2 


Oatmeal 


. 17 3 


8 


rosin 


. 469 1 


6 


Woollen manufac- 




Wheat 


8 8 





Potatoes 


. 465 6 





tures 


1689 19 8 


Malt 


. 60 10 





Pork and Beef 


. 205 10 





Wow] presses 


10 


Bran 


14 





Provisions . 


. 82 





Whalebone 


36 0, 


Maize 


. 76 10 


4 


Perfumery . 


. 60 9 


6 


Wool . 


8 0, 


Oats 


. 308 11 


9 


Rice ' . 


. 87 8 





Whitning . 


15 u; 


Cottons &lii] 


ens 10,:i76 3 


2 


Rattans 


3 10 





Miscellaneous 

Totals . 1 


86 14 2 ' 








18^16 6 11 



Custom House, Adelaide. 



ROBERT TORRENS, Collector. 



APPENDIX. 



343 






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3,433 acres reierved for the Aborigines, 
bat DOt granted by coo?eyanee. 



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APPKNDIX. 345 



No. V. 



NEW WASTE LAND REGULATIONS. 

Colonka Seeretary'g Qffiee, Adelaide^ Augutt 13, 1845. 
His Excellency the Governor has been pleased to direct the 
publication of the following regulations for the guidance of the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands, made in pursuance of the power 
▼ested in his Excellency by the provisions of the Act of Council, 
6th Victoria, No. 8, intituled " An Act for protecting the Waste 
Lands of the Crown in South Australia from encroachment, 
intrusion, and trespass." 

By his Excellency's command. 

A. M. MUNDY, 
Colonial Secretary, 



COMMON LANDS. 

1. All Waste Lands of the Crown, which may lie within three 
miles of the boundaries of any purchased lands, will in general 
be regarded as common lands ; but in any case where such an 
extent of common land may appear to the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, greater than is necessary for the number of cattle 
for which a right of pasturage thereon may be claimed in terms 
of these regulations, he will assign such reduced limits as may 
appear to him sufficient. 

2. Every person who may occupy purchased land which is 
situated within one mile of any common land, will, upon taking 
out an occupation or depasturing license, be entitled to a right of 
pasturage on such common land, in the proportion of sixteen 
head of homed cattle or horses, or one hundred sheep, for every 
eighty acres of such purchased land. No person, however, will 
be entitled to depasture cattle on the common lands in virtue of 
purchased land situated more than three miles from the residence 



346 APPENDIX. 

or station on which the cattle are kept ; nor will the right of 
commonage, in any case, extend beyond the same limits. 

3. Whenever any common land may adjoin any Waste Land 
of the Crown which is in the occupation of any licensed person 
as a defined ran, the boundaries of sach ran shall be regarded 
also as the boundaries of the adjoining common land, unless 
the Commissioner of Crown Lands shall make any order to 
the contrary. 

4. No person will be permitted to haye a station upon the 
common lands without the approval of the Commissioner. 

5. Persons who claim a right of pasturage on the common 
lands, must lodge with the Commissioner a statement of the 
particulars of their claims in the form of a Schedule annexed to 
these regulations, marked A ; and they must hand in an amended 
statement as often as any change may take place in their right 
of pasturage. 

DEFINED RUNS. 

6. The general principle upon which all claims to pasturage 
on any portion of the Waste Lands of the Crown, not being 
common lands, will be decided— is pre-occupancy. 

7. Every person who claims right of pasturage on any portion 
of the Waste Lands of the Crown, not being common lands, 
must define such of the boundaries of his ran as are not formed 
by water-courses, either by lines of marked trees, or by posts 
erected at convenient intervals, or by such other method as will 
render these boundaries easily discernible ; and they must, in as 
far as practicable, be straight lines. He must lodge at the office 
of the Commissioner of Crown Lands a description of his run, 
in which must be specified the situation, boundaries, and esti- 
mated extent of the ran, and the number and description of the 
cattle kept thereon, in the form of Schedule B, annexed to these 
regulations. Any number of stations may be included in one 
description of a run ; but when the same person claims two or 
more rans which do not adjoin, a separate description must be 
given of each. 



APPENDIX. 347 

8. Until the occupant of a ran shall have defined his boundaries 
in the manner pointed out by these regulations, and shall have 
lodged at the ofioe of the Commissioner of Crown Lands the 
above mentioned description of his run, no complaint that he 
may wish to bring against any other person fbr any encroachment 
or trespass on the ran will be entertained by the Commissioner. 

9. The names of all persons who may have lodged descriptions 
of rana at the office of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, in 
accordance with the terms of these r^ulations, will be published 
in the Oovernment Gasette, unless the Commissioner may see 
reason to disapproTe of any such description. 

iO. After the description of a run has been notified in the 
GoTernment Gazette, no claim of any other person to such run 
will be entertained, unless the matter is brought before the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands within three months after such 
notification ; and if two or more persons shall include the same 
portion of waste lands in their respective descriptions of runs, 
and neither party shall dispute the claim of the other within the 
period of three months after the date of the Gazette in which 
such descriptions were notified, the person who first lodged with 
the CommiBsioner of Crown Lands the description which included 
this portion of waste lands will be considered the proper daimant 
to it. 

11. Any licensed person may claim a ran on any unoccupied 
portion of the Waste Lands of the Crown, by giving a notice in 
writing to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, stating his inten- 
tion to occupy such run^ and showing, to the satisfaction of the 
Commissioner, that he is possessed of a sufficient quantity of 
cattle, provided he occupies the run within three months firom 
the date of giving such notice. Notices of occupation must 
state distinctly the position and extent of the run claimed : any 
Tagueness in those respects will vitiate the notice. 

12. When the boundffies of a ran have been defined before 
the expiration of the term of a notice of occupation, before the 
lands adjoining such ran are claimed, the occupant may fix his 
boundaries at such a distance from his station as he pleases. 



348 APPENDIX. 

provided the whole ran thus defined does not contain a greater 
extent of pasturage than the cattle upon it require, and provided 
the dimensions of the run are fairly proportioned with r^;ard to 
the supply of vrater and general character of the country. 

13. But in those cases in which, previously to the houndaries 
of a run having heen defined, the adjoining lands have been taken 
up by another person, and disputes as to the extent of the run 
have arisen, the occupant will be restricted to such an extent of 
pasturage as may be required for the cattle which he had upon 
the run at the time the claim to the adjoining lands first arose ; 
and this extent of pasturage will be computed from his station 
as a centre ; and the greatest extent which will in such cases be 
allowed in any direction for a sheep run, is two miles from the 
station If a run be vacated before the boundaries have been 
defined, it cannot be reclaimed, if, whilst it is so vacant, it shall 
have been taken possession of« or claimed by a notice of occu- 
pation, by any other person. 

14. It must, however, be distinctly understood, that nothing 
contained in these regulations will be construed to interfere 
with the power of the Commissiooer of Crown Lands to limit the 
extent of any run, or to order such alterations in the boundaries 
of it as may be thought proper. In the event of a run, or any 
part thereof, being left unoccupied for an unreasonable length 
of time, it will be resumed by the Government. 

Form of Complaint. 

15. The following sliaU be the form to be observed in bringing 
complaints before the Commissioner of Crown Lands :- 

The complainant, or some person on his behalf, shall apply 
personally to the Commissioner to appoint a time and place for 
the hearing of the complaint, and shall then cause a notice 
in writing, signed by the complainant, to be served on the de- 
fendant, in the form of the Schedule annexed heteto, marked C, 
stating the particulars of the complaint, and the time and place 
appointed by the Commissioner for the hearing thereof. 

16. The notice of complaint shall be served either personally 



APPENDIX. 349 

on the defendant, or by leaving the same at his usual place of 
residence, at least fourteen days previously to the day of hearing, 
unless the defendant reside more than one hundred miles from 
the place appointed by the Commissioner for hearing the com- 
plaint, in which case the service of the notice shall take place at 
least twenty-eight days previously to the day of hearing. 

17. The complaint shsll be made before the Commissioner in 
the form of the Schedule hereto annexed, marked D, accompanied 
with a duplicate of the notice served on the defendant 

18. If the defendant fail to appear at the time and place 
appointed, the Commissioner may proceed to determine the 
matter ex parte, on proof being made to his satisfaction of the 
due service of the notice of complaint : Provided, however, that 
in case it shall be afterwards shewn to the satisfaction of the 
Commissioner that the defendant has good grounds of defence^ 
and that he was prevented from appearing by some unavoidable 
cause, the Commissioner may suspend bis decision, and order a 
rehearing of the case. 

19^ Any licensed person, against whom the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands shall give a decision upon the complaint of another 
licensed person in any matter relating to the depasturing of cattle 
upon the Crown Lands, will be required to pay a fee of five pounds, 
when demanded by the said Commissioner. 



20. These regulations supersede all r^;ulations which have 
hitherto been made in pursuance of the Act of Council, 6th 
Victoria, No. 8. 



350 APPENDIX. 



No. VI. 

Copy of Letter to the Colonial Secretary^ Adelaide ; r^tive to 
abandoning Moortmde Station. 

London, Janmiy 19, 1846. 
Sim 

Having observed in the publiibed report of the proceedings 
of the Legislative Coancil of South Australia, on the 3rd June, 
1845y an account of the Debates upon the estimate for the Salary 
of the Resident Magistrate at the Murray river, I have the 
honour toi address you with reference to that subject, for the pur- 
pose of removing an error of some importance which appears to 
have oecurred, if the copy I haVe seen of the debates in question 
be correct. In the paper I have referred to His Excellency the 
Governor is reported to have said in Council : ** He thought it 
right to state, that Mr. Byre considered the station might be 
abandoned, and that opinion bad been forwarded to her Majesty's 
government.'* 

Now if His Excellency did make use of the expressions here 
assigned to him, it must have been under the influence of some 
very great misapprriieBsion, for the opinion quoted as mine is 
quite at variance with the one I held, and I can only suj^pose 
the mistake to have arisen on the part of the Governor, ften nay 
having, previous to my quitting the Colony in 1844, sent in an 
application to Lord Stanley, through His Excellency, soliciting 
an appointment to some higher and more remunerative office, 
than the one I held. The passage in my letter to Lord Stanley 
to which I allude, and which I suppose to have been the basis of 
the misinterpretation of my opinion above-mentioned runs thus : 
'< Having thus been accustomed for many years to a life of enter- 
prise and activity ; devoting myself rather to public objects than 
to private pursuits, I cannot but feel that from the very success 



APPENDIX. 351 

which has attended my exertions at the Murray river, I am no 
longer rciqaired there, and that a field no longer exists for me to 
render myself so nsefal to the public as I could leish, and as I 
feel assured I could be, if employed in any way that left me full 
scope for activity and exertion." 

In making these remarks, or any similar ones in my letter to 
Lord Stanley, I had no intention of undervaluing, or of expressing 
an opinion unfavourable, to the continuance of the Government 
Post at the Murray. On the contrary, I believe it to be one of 
the most important, and most useful establishments, formed by 
the Government, and I am quite of opinion, that if it should be 
either hastily or imprudently given up, much mischief would 
ensue. It has had a more extensive and a more beneficial 
influence than any similar institution ever had before, and it has, 
I am convinced, been the means of saving the Colony from much 
loss, and from having to incur the heavy expenses which are 
invariably entailed, by the frontiers being in a disturbed state. 
That the question of the withdrawal of the station altogether 
should have been so often, or so strongly urged, by some of the 
Members of the Council in the Colony is, I think, a matter of 
much regret. I am satisfied that if at a future time those who 
have proposed such a course are enabled to carry out their views, 
they themselves wUl eventually have great reason to repent their 
success. 

Thus far as regards my opinion of the importance and utility 
of the post and the policy of its being stOl continued. It ouly re- 
mains for me to observe, that as long as I believed that my per- 
sonally filling the office was important to its duties being suc- 
cessfully carried on, I was quite willing to do so at every sacrifice 
of private interest ; but when the difficulties of the first estab- 
lishment were thoroughly overcome, when long and uninterrupted 
success, gave strong proof that it was founded upon no tempo- 
rary or fictitious basis, and when its duties had been reduced 
almost to a matter of routine, I trust that my observing that 
they could then be carried on by any one of ordinary prudence, 
and firmness, was no proof of my undervaluing the importance 



352 APPENDIX. 

of the office ; or that my wiBhing indifidoally to be remored to 
a field of higher, and more extensiye public atility, was not over* 
rating my own qualifications, or putting forwsrd a claim to em- 
ployment beyond what my zeal and energy in discharging the 
trusts heretofore confided to me, might reasonably entitle me to 
hope for. 

I have the honour to remain, &c., 

(Signed) E. J. EYRE. 

The Honounble the Colonial Secretary, 
Adelaide. 



APPENDIX. 



353 



No. VII. 

List of the principal Copper Mines in Cornwall^ and 
all other parts of the worlds their produce during 
the year 1845, value of ore soldf and average price^ 



Bedford United . 


. 1187 . 


Amoimt. 
£8037 


AvragtPHei. 

j66 15 3 


Barrier 


. 228 . 


1292 


. 5 3 


3 


Botallaclc . 


. 1384 . 


10363 


. 7 9 


6 


Creeg Braws 
Cambom Yean . 


. 546 . 
. 2751 . 


. 2902 
. 13873 


. 5 6 
. 5 d 


3 

6 


Consolidated 


. 5754 . 


. 34096 


. 5 18 


6 


Consob 


. 3044 . 


. 17049 


. 5 10 


6 


Cook's Kitchen 


. 502 . 


. 1522 


. 3 


6 


Cam Brea 


. 6674 . 


. 39432 


. 5 19 


6 


Dolcoath 


. 3504 . 


. 16996 


. 4 17 





East Fool 


. 929 . 


. 5430 


. 5 16 


6 


Bast Wheal Croftj 

Fowey Consols 

Godolpbin 

Gramblar and St. Aubyi 

Hallenbeagle 

Holmbusb 

Llanivet Consols 


. 6173 . 
. 8976 . 
. 852 . 
1 . 1494 . 
. 2879 . 
. 1887 . 
. 1125 . 


. 36302 
. 48933 
. 7715 
. 8201 
. 10478 
. 14957 
. 6081 


. 5 17 
. 5 9 
. 9 1 
. 5 9 
. 3 12 
. 7 18 
. 5 8 


6 

1 
9 
9 
6 
1 


Levant 


. 1088 . 


. 7154 


. 6 11 


6 


North Downs 


. 306 . 


. 1731 


. 5 13 


1 


North Roskear 


. 6430 . 


. 40955 


. 6 7 


3 


Penstmthal 


. 405 . 


. 3344 


. 8 5 


1 


Far Consols 


. 5449 . 


. 29594 


. 5 8 


6 


Perran St. George 
Poldice 


. 1665 . 
. 2485 . 


. 7322 
. 10889 


. 4 7 
. 4 7 


9 
6 



354 



APPENDIX. 



Minet, 

ProTidence 
South Wheal Basset 
SoQth Caradon 
South Towan 
South Boskear 
Treleigh Consols 
Trcsavean 
Trethellan 
Tretoil 
Treyiskey 
Tincroft 
Trenow Consols 
Tresavean Barrier 
United Hills 
United Mines 
West Caradon 
Wheal Jewel 
Wheal Maria 
West Trethellan 
Wheal Oorland 
Wheal Ellen 
West Wheal Treasury 
Wheal Trenwith 
Wheal BuUer 
Wheal Providence 
Wheal Sisters . 
Wheal Trewayas . 
Wheal Prosper . 
Wheal Brewer 
Wheal Darlington 
Wheal Seton 
Wheal Virgin 
Wheal Prudence 
West Wheal Jewel 



Tont. 

639 

3390 

4631 

2267 

1464 

1637 

6433 

2862 

658 

767 

5644 

2306 

646 

3017 

14374 

4457 

1476 

11288 

295 

366 

714 

267 

171 

907 

2442 

577 

883 

5105 

1316 

649 

1590 

655 

513 

1749 



Amount. 

. 3602 

. 19961 

. 27319 

. 9652 

. 8738 

. 9269 

. 23559 

. 11013 

. 3499 

. 6435 

. 30527 

. 20365 

. 4762 

. 12938 

. 74908 

. 33273 

. 7892 
100971 

. 1067 

. 1652 

. 4373 
. 1274 

. 1131 

. 3813 

. 13783 

. 2595 

. 4855 

. 24946 

. 6266 

. 2397 

. 8636 

. 2964 

. 1477 

. 7429 



Aperoffe Priee, 



5 12 
5 17 
5 17 
4 5 



9 
9 
9 
1 
6 

1 



5 12 
5 1 
3 13 
3 16 II 
5 6 3 
8 7 
5 8 



8 16 

7 7 



4 
5 
7 
5 



9 
3 
6 
6 
6 
3 
3 



8 18 
3 12 



6 11 
6 



4 10 
6 2 
4 15 
6 12 
4 4 
5 
4 
5 
4 

4 15 

3 13 

5 8 

4 10 
2 17 
4 4 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 


12 10 
9 11 
9 11 

17 6 



3 
9 
6 
6 
3 
II 



appendix:. 



355 



Minu, 

Wheal Harriet 
Wheal Clifford 
Wheal Maiden 
Wheal Vyvyan 

Totd 



There are besides 69 other mineB'whicli 
prodaced daring the year» in the 
aggregate . . . : . 20,436 5 9 



7Vm«. 


Anumnt. 


AvtrutePriet. 


. 689 


. . 2941 


.453 


. 348 


• . 2254 


.696 


. 384 


. . 1824 


. 4 15 


. 378. 


. . 1462 


. 3 47 3 


155,671 


^99,5Q2 = 


= ^65 15 6 



Making a totol for Cornwall . ^919,938 6 





Irish Mines, 




t 


Mhua. 


T^. 




Amomt. 




AvnttPHe: 


BerehaYen 


5845 




Ab7%^ 





. 7 16 6 


Knockmahon 


6948 




. 46021 





. 6 12 6 


Ladcamor^ .. . . 


119 




. 1031 





. 8 13 6 


Coaheen 


125 




2275 





. 18 4 


Ballymnrtagh 


2773 




10)261 





. 3 14 


Cronebane 


1448 




7106 





. 4 18 1 


Tigrony 


577 




. 2940 





. 5 1 11 


Connonee 


410 




2069 





. 5 U 


5 others, aggregate 


• 


• • 


2006 12 





* 4 19 « 



Total for Ireland, £119,478 : which diyided by 18,656, the 
total number of tons, gires a general average price of £6. %$. 8d. 



Sundry Mines, principally Welsh. 

21 mines, produce 2831 tons =£15,300= at an ayonge 
▼ahie of £5. 8s. 2d. per ton. 

2 A 2 



356 



APPENDIX* 





Foreign Mines. 












7<w. 




Ammaa. 






Avtragt. 




Cobrc . . 


22741 




J6261453 






£U 9 


I 


Santii^ . . 


7930 




115197 






14 10 


6 


Chili . . 


3786 




112347 






29 13 


6 


Cuba . . 


5591 




78072 






13 18 


3 


San Jose Cobre 


2931 




36786 






12 11 


9 


Copiapo . . 


658 




12307 






18 14 





Talparaiio . . 


283 




4414 






15 11 


11 ' 


PennBylTania. 


372 




4078 








. 10 19 


3 


Nev Zealand . 


323 




4860 








. 10 10 


8 


Sooth Anatialian 
















Montacnte . 


277 




3754 








. 13 11 


2 


Eaponda . 


243 




6017 








. 24 15 


3 


Snndry Foreign 


551 




3300 


1 


6 






Totals . 


45,686 


£642,590 









N.B. The high produce of the Chilian ore is acoonntedfor by 
the greatest part of it heiDg regohis, or calcined ore. 





GRAND TOTALS. 










Tmt. 


AmtaiU. 




Cornish Mines 


, 


162,587 


^19,938 6 





Irish Mines 


• 


18,650 


119,478 





Welsh . 


. 


2,831 


15.300 





Foreign 


• 


45,686 


642,590 







229,754 


jei,699,305 17 


6 



The vhole of this vast quantity of copper ore is smelted at 
Swansea, and only hy eight houses^ as will be seen from the 
following statement) compiled from the ticketing papers of 1845. 



APPXIfJDIX. 



357 





Tons. 


Anumnt. 




Williams, Foster and Co. 


53,132 


^6430,879 13 


7 


Yivian and Sons 


. 44,733 


318,235 2 


3 


EngliBh Copper Company 


37,574 


256,640 10 


8 


OrenfeU and Sons • 


30,730 


250.569 3 


3 


Sima, Willyams and Co. • 


27,402 


221.597 15 


2 


Freeman and Co. 


23,281 


141,616 14 


1 


Mines Boyal • 


13,094 


75,536 10 10 


Crown Copper • « 


808 


4,230 7 


G 




229,754 


jei,699,305 17 


fi 



Of the produce in fine metal from the aboYCj there were 
exported to India 4,849 tons, in the past year 1845, wLich 
shows a large decrease on the year 1844^ when 7^133 tone of 
fine copper were exported to India. 



?58 



Ap^bndix* 



No. VIII. 

ADELAIDE PRICES OF PROVISIONS, PRODUCE, 
MANUFACTURES, &c. 

Extracted from an Adeknde Paper of October, 1845. 



[Every article enumerated in this list is grown, pioduoed, or 
maimftcttired in the Colony.] 



QBAJH, FLOVB, £TC. 



Wheat, per tmabel, 4s 6d to 4§ 9d 
noar, fine, per 200nM, 2S8 
Ditto, seconds, ditto, 21s 
Pollard, per 20Ibs, lid . 
Bran, per bushe!, 7d to 8d 
Barley, English, per boshel, ds to 

Ss6d 
— , Cape^ 2s to 28 6d 

-^ , pearl, per lb, 4d 

Oatmeal, per lb, 2d, 6d 
Barley»meal, per 601bs, 8s 6d 
Bread, 21b loaf, 8d 
Halt, per bashd, 56 to 6s 6d 
Biscnit, per lOOlbs, 18s 



Bwmlx, aaUot ditto, 20b, aU kiln 

dried 
Cobkett'aooBm, p«rlMidial, nous te 

the market 
Chicken, ditto, ditto 
Oats, per bushel, 9s 6d 
Maize, ditto, none in the marke 
Hay. per ton, £1 

, oaten, ditto, £8 

Peas,perbashel,5s 
Straw, per load, at the stack, is 6d 
Ale, draught, per gaUon, 2s 
, bottled, per doien, 9s 



POULTRY AND DAIBY PBODUCE. 



Fowls, per couple, 2s 0d to 3s 
Backs, perconple, 3s 6d to 48 

, wad, ditto, Is 8d 

Geese, each, 6s to 6s 
Torkeys, each, 4s to 7s 

, wild, each, 4s to 8s 

Rabbits, each, 6d to Is 
Pigeons, per pair, Is 3d 
Batter, fresh, pr. lb., 8d to lOd 



Batter, salt, per lb., 8d 
Cheese, per lb., Od to lOd 
Milk, per quart, 3d to 4d 
Bggs, per dozen, 8d 
Bacon, per lb., 6d to 8d 
Hams, ditto, 8d 
Sacking pig8,6d per lb. 
Lard, 6d to 8d 



BUTCHEBS' MBAT. 



Beef, per lb., 3d to 4d 
Mutton, ditto, 2^ to Z^d 
Veal, ditto, 4d to 6d 
Lamb, ditto 

Pork, fresh, ditto, S^d to 4d 
Corned beef, 8d to 4d per lb. 



Pork, salted, per lb. 6d 
Sausages, per lb., 6d 
Tripe, ditto, 6d 
CalvcB' heads, 28 tods 
— , feet, l8 6d per set 



APPENDIX. 



359 



FISH. 



Salmon, (sea), 3 for Is 
H uUet, 80 to 40 for It. 
Snappers, per lb., 8d to dd 
Bay or Skate, 
Plonnders, per pair, 6d 
Whitings, per dosen, 6d 
Lobsters, 2d to Is 
Crayfish, each, 6d to 3s 
Crabe, each, 8d to 6d 



Morray cod, per lb.. 2d to Sd. 

do salt, 3d 
Shrimps, per pint, 8d 
Perrlwinkles, per quart, 6d 
Bream, per doz., 8d 
Soles, small, per pair, Is 9d 
Oysters, per dos., 9d to Is 
Herrings^ dried, per doz., 4d 



The above are the usual prices of fish when in season ; but 
there is none in the market, except native herrings, Murray cod, 
and bream, all of which are excellent. 



FBTTITS. 



Alttonda 


Figs 


Apricots 


Gooseberries 


Apple* 


Grapes 


Banana & plantain 


Granadillas 


Blackberries 


Goatas 


Barberries 


Eie apples 




^^mons and 


Citrons 


oranges 


Cherries 


Loquats 


Oiesnats 


Median 



Cherlmoyer 


Mnlberries white 


Hazel nuts 


„ bhick 


Filberts 


Mangoes 


Nectarines 


OUves 


Pine ai^ples 


Pears 


Flams 


Pomegranates 


Peaches 


Priokly pears 


Quinces 




Rose apples 


Btrawberries 


Tomatoes 


Wahmts 



The greater part of these fruits have already become very 
abundant in their season, each succeeding year giving proo& 
of increase which seem to baffle calculation ; and fw surpass the 
former anticipations of the most sanguine cultivators. 



VEGETABLES AND HEBBS. 



Aroeoli 

Cauliflowers 

Beans 

„ French 
Peas 

Artichokes 
Parsley 
Mint 



Rae 

Hyssop 

Parsnips 

Sage 

Beet 

Lettuce 

Sndive 

Sea kale 



Soap, 3d to 5d 
Candles, mould, 7d 

, dips, 6d 

Bough fat, per lb., 3d 
Graves, ditto, Id 
Oil, castor, pints, 5a 
— -, sperm, per gallon, 6& 

, whale, ditto, 28 6d 

— » neat's foot, 10s 
SUrch,perlb., 8d 
Blue, ditto, Is 6d 



Thyme Shallots 

Hujoram Garlic 

Savory Cabbage 

Carrots Tnmips 
Potatoes, 9s per ewt Onions 

Vegetable marrow Squash 

Pumpkins Celery 

Hone-radish Badishes 

OEOCBSIES* 

Salt, colonial, per lb., from Id 
Blacking, paste, in tins, per doz., 6s 

, liqaid, quarts, 12s, pints, 

8s, half-pints, 4s 

-, packets, per gross, 10s 



Pickles, per quart. Is 6d 
Vinegar, per gallon, ds 
Snuff, per ounce, dd to 4d 
Tobacco, green, 
Ditto, cured, per lb., 9d 
Sauce tomato, half-pint, Od 



4 



360 



APPENDIX. 



UOB815S, CATTLE, SHEEP, ETC. 



Bullocks, working, £4 to £8 
Cows, milch, £3 to £6 10s 
Heifers and steers, £2 to £5 
Bwes, 10s to 13s 
Ewe lambs, 7s to Os 
Wethers^ 10s to 13s 



Horses, £7 to £46 
Mares, £10 to £36 
Ponies, £7 to £30 
Pigs, 3s to 30s 
Goats, Is 6d to 8s 6d 



IiEATHBK. 



" Sole leather, per lb., lOd to Is Id 
Inner soles, ditto, 9d 
Calf skin, dressed, per lb., Ss to 

4s 6d 
Kip, stoat, per lb., Is 8d to Is lOd 
Kangaroo skins, dressed, each, 2s 6d 
Wallaby skins, per dosen, 18s to 20s 
Black kid skins, line, per dozen, 30s 
Basils, per dosen, 12s to I8s 
Leather gaiters, per pair, 8s to 20s 



Seal skins, each. It Sd to Is 6d 
— — , dressed, per lb., 2b 
Raw hides, each, 9s to 12s 
Sheepskins, 3d to Is, according to 



— , (brown), door mats. 

2s6dto4s 
Parchment skint, each 28 6d to 8a 
Qluei per lb., Is 



TIHBEft AND BT7ILDIKG HATEEIALS. 



Battens, per foot, 8s to 10s 

Laths, 3-foot ditto 

Shingles, 16-inch, per 1000, 12s to 

14s 
, 2.foot, per 100, 49 to 

4s Od 
Palings, broad, per 100, 12s to 16s 
— , narrow, ditto, 6s to 6s 
Quartering, 7s 9d to 8s 4d 
Joists, 6 by 2 per 100, Os to 10s 
Split posts, 7 foot long, per 100, 34s 

to40s 

rails, 9 foot long, ditto, 34s 

Slabs, per load, of 1000 feet, 26s 
Gum logs, per foot, cubic. Is 6d 

, spokes, per 100, 14s 

Gum felloes, per set, 6s to lOs 



Sawn scantUng, per foot, cubic 
Stringy bark flooring boards, 10a to 

lis 
Bricks, per 1000, delirered, 26a to 

28s, scarce 
Slates, roofing, per 1000, £4 lOa 

, flagging, per foot, 4d 

Ridge tiles, 4d each 

Paving tiles, per 100, 16s 

Lime, per bushel, 6d 

White freestone, Is per foot squared 

and delivered in town 
Common building stone, per load, 

38 6d to 6s 
Whiting, 6s per cwt. 
Window sills. Is per foot mn 



PABHINO AND AGBICI7LTCBAL IMPLEMENTS. 



Ridley's reaping, threshing and 
dressing machine, complete, £60 

Hutchinson's reaping and threshing 
machines, £30 to £60 

Portable ditto, £40 to £100 

Winnowing machines, each, 

Harrows, each, £2 10 to £4 

Ploughs, ditto £4 

Turn furrows, per lb., 4d 

Scariliers, 3-tooth, each, £6 

Bullock chains, each, lOs 

/yokes and bows, 88 6d to 

lOsOd 



Boilers, £3 108to£4 

Wheat sieves, 8s to 10s 

Milk dishes, tin, each 2s 6d to 6a Gd 

^— pails, each, various 

— chums, round, each, 28s to 30b 

^— - ditto, square, each, 20a to 

£6 10s 
Butter casks, each, 38 to 3s 6d 
Hurdloi*, per 100. £6 
Spring carts, each, £18 to £20 
Wheelbarrows, each, 288 
J miner's, each, 20s 



APPENDIX. 



361 



MISCELLANEOUS MAKUFACTUBES. 



Beer caak8» per gallon, 6d 
Buckets, each, Ss 6d 
— — , well, each, 7s to 9s 
Brass castings, per lb., Ss 

' , heaTy,l8 6d 

Bell castings, varioos 
BiFets,perlb., 7d 



Wheelbarrow wheels, per cwt., Sis 

to 36s. or each, Os to 9s 
Track wheels, ditto, ditto 
Flag baskets, each, 6dto 6s 
Heathbrooms, ditto, from 4d to Is 
Iron work for drays, per lb., 6d 
— ^^— , for light carts, per lb., lOd 



Gnm, per ewt., 18s to 20s 
Bark, per ton, 30s to 40s 
Nans,perlb.,4dto7d 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

I Charcoal, per bushel, 6d to 6d 
Firewood, per load, 4s to 10s 



THE END. 



O. NOBMAN, PRINTBB, MAIDEN LANE, COTBMT OARDBN. 



35. 



J - 



j.--*^ 



I i 
I 



I' 

i 
■ I 



I 



■3iQi 



ii 



33_ 



I 



i&t 



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Murray S cruh 



■:bh"K 



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PUBiaSHBD BY 

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Ss tfommmitt 

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DISCOVERIES IN AUSTRALIA; 

OF THE 

VICTORIA, ADELAIDE, ALBERT, AND PITZROY RIVERS, 

EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR ; 

WITH AK ACCOUHT OF THB 

HITHERTO UNKNOWN COASTS 
SURVEYED DURING THE 

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▲ NARRATIVE OF THE VISITS OF H.M.S. BRITOMART, 
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TO THE 

ISLANDS IN THB ARAFURA SEA. 

BY J. LORT STOKES, 

COMMANDBR, R.K. 

With Maps, Charts, and numerotts lUustrationSt 2 vols. Svo. 



Thb Beagle sailed f^m England early in the year 1837, and returned 
towards the dose of 1843. Daring that period, besides the ordinary 
incidents of naval adventnrey many circtimstances of interest marked 
the progress of her voyage. Unknown shores and ontraversed plains 
upon tibie north and north-west coasts of Australia have been added to 
our geographical knowledge. An inroad into the interior, reaching 
within 500 miles of the very centre of the great Australian Continent, 
has been accomplished. The rivers Victoria, Adelaide, Albert, and 
Fitzroy^ have been discovered. Oreat additions have been made to 
the several departments of Natural History, of which the various 
specimens will be classified and described by eminent Naturalists. The 
north-west coast of Australia has been carefully surveyed ; and Bass 
Strait, heretofore so justly dreaded by the Masters of ships, may now 



be navigated witli that safety which ought to distinguish the high road 
between England and Sydney. The charts of the passage through 
Torres Strait, by the inner route, have been improved, and a safe 
channel discovered through Endeavour Strait: vhile anchorages^ 
especially at Western and Southern Australia— no w correctly laid 
down, and doubtful positions finally assigned, prove that in the 
unpretending though important duties of surveying, the officers of the 
Expedition failed not to do justice to the cause wherein they were 
engaged. 

Notices of Tenerife, San Salvador, the Brazils, the Cape of Good 
Hope, the Mauritius, its Hurricanes, and the numerous Islands, Waters, 
and Lands of Australia, now first discovered and described, will be found 
in the earlier portions of the work, and an account of the interesting 
visits of H. M.S. Britomart, to the islands in the Arafilra Sea, prepared 
by Captain Owen Stanley, in the latter part. 

In an age fertile beyond all precedent in contributions to the stores 
of geographical knowledge, it seems desirable that some authentic 
account should be prepared to record the details of a Voyage of Disco- 
very and Survey, performed under the protection of the flag of Great 
Britain. 

For a period of nearly three hundred years England has been pre- 
eminent for the grandeur and success of her naval discoveries; and a 
long line of illustrious examples, in which the names of Caboty Drake, 
Raleigh, Dampier, Anson, Cook, Byron, Vancouver, Flinders, Parry, 
Franklin, and others, are to be found, attest that in each succeeding 
generation there have arisen men, willing, at all hazards, to sustain the 
reputation of that noble service from which they derived, and to which 
they bequeathed, and owe their glory ! 

And though the present cannot emulate the great achievements of 
the past — though the adventurous wanderer may no longer hope to 
give his name to a new continent, or pass through unknown seas, 
from shore to shore — though not for him are reserved the strikin« 
triumphs of an earlier time — there are still rich prizes within his 
reach to tempt him onward I 

In the voyage which this work is intended to describe, much new 
and valuable information has been collected, new coasts have been 
visited— new scenes described— new countries explored. Fruitful in 
incident, it abounds in materials for thought. Amid the wilds of 
Australia the advancing footsteps of Christian civilization have marked 
the outlines of that wider and more beaten road, by which their further 
progress, and final triumph will be efiFected; while in the lonely 
solitudes, which the occasional visit of the roving savage serves but to 
make more desolate, — the first echoes of our language,— the first 
offerings of our faith,— have attested that the dawn is at hand — that 
the day is coming which shall give another, and an English empire, to 
the annals of the world I 

Each circumstance of that eventful history ought, as it transpires, 
to be recorded, and an account will be here attempted of that Expedi- 
tion which penetrated so far towards the interior of this great Conti- 
nent, discovering some of the largest rivers yet known to water its 
far-spread forests and extensive plains ; in the belief that the intrinsic 
importance of the subject will more than atone for any want of 
experience in the art of narration. 



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POI.BOir BVOVAFARTB, I LOBB HXIX, 

B I>T)KB OF BBUHBWICX, . | SOUIO*, DUXB OF DAUCATZA, 



Nbt, Dukb OF Elchivgeh, 

Oovirr ALTBir, 

SzB Thojiab Piciov. 



AND A FOLIO ATLAS, 

F anaqlyptographic engravings on steel, from models, containing 

2 Plans of Quatrb-Bras, shewing different Periods of the Action. 
2 - - - LiGNY -------- ditto. 

2 - - - Wayre ditto. 

3 - - - Waterloo ditto. 

WITH MAPS OF BELGIUM AND PART OF FRANCE. 



annoandng a History of the War in 1815, bj the Constructor of the celebrated Model of the Battle 
Waterloo, the Pnblishers feel confident that the undeniable proof which the latter work of art affords 
the most indefatigable perseverance and industry in the collection of materials for the accurate repre- 
ntatiou of an event so fertile in glorious achievements, and so decisive in its influence upon the destinies 
' Kurope, as alio of the professional skill with which those materials have been arranged for the com- 
ete development of that ever memorable conflict, offers a sufficient g^uaiantee for a similar application 
' the author's unwearied zeal and research in the task he has undertaken of supplying what still remains 
desideratum in our national history and military records— a true snd fidthfnl account of that last 
jnpaign in Europe, comprising the crowning triumph of the British army, and, at the same time, the 
ofiing chapter of the military life of its illustrious cbiei^ the Duke of Wetlingtcm. 

Numerous as are the accounts already published of this^rreat conflict, the infinrmation which they 
invey is generally of too vague and indistinct a natura to satisfy either the military man who seeks for 
■ofeesional instruction, or the general reader who desires to eomprehend more clearly, in sll its details, 
lat gorgeous machinery, if it may so be termed, which was put in motion, regulated, and controlled by 



the greatest masters of their art, who, in modem times, hare been sommoned forth to wield the au^ 
engines of dastraotion wherewith nation wars against nation. How lust is the ohserTEtio& of }<mm 
one of the most talented military writers of the day — " Jamais hatai|,Ie ne fut plus coafaakmmlAien 
quecellede Waterloo." On consulttnf these accounts the public glean little beyond the foetthiti 
Waterloo the allied army stood its ground during the whole day, in defiance of the reitieEated atuckdl 
the French, until theDukeof Wellington led it forward to crown its exertions with the most ipls^ 
▼ictory. The^ afford us but a faint idea of those strategical movements and combinatioBis upea wiai 
the grand design of the csmpaisrn was based by the one party, and with which it was aasaued br d 
other ; and we seek in rain for the development of those taotical diwositions by which the ikiii of 4 
commanders and the ralour of the combatants were fairly tested. From the want of due ooiisicaQi 
arrangement in the details, and the tendency too frequently manifested to compensate for this Adi6^ 
by mere anecdotic narration, the motives by which, in the great game of war, the illustiioiis players a 
actuated, are left out of view, while circumstances which especially call forth the skill of sabordistfe ai 
cersin command, as also the courage, the discipline, and the prowess of particular brigades, regizoeau, a 
even minor divisions of the contending masses, are either imperfectly elucidated, or, as is ofren the case 
unhesitatingly set aside to make way for the exploits of a few individuals whose deeds, however bersj 
they may be deemed, constitute but isolated Atiotional parts of that great sum of moral energr ad 
physical force combined, requisite to give full effect to the application of the mental pow9s t£ t^ 
chieftains under whose guidance the armies are respectively placed. These remarks lave lefaeaa^ 
more or less, not only to the generality of the accounts of the Battle of Waterloo, with whick t^ 
public have hitherto been furnished, but also to those of Quatre-Bras, Ligny, and Wavre; the fint i 
which, brilliant as was the reflection which it cast upon the glory of the victors, became eclipsed sckli 
by the more dazzling splendour of the greater, because more important, triumph of W^erioo. U 
eodoavour to remedy these deficiencies, through the medium of the evidence of eye-witziesaei, ^^ 
willingly and liberally supplied, as well as oarefully collated, examined, and, at the same time, p^J^^ 
wherever practicable, by corroborative testimony — eveiy component piece of informatmn being «»>* 
dovetail, as it were, into its adjacent and corresponding parts — is the chief object of the {Siad 
publication. 

The opportunities which Captain Sibome has enjoyed of collecting the data requisite for this ii^ 
ifnportant work, have been peculiarly favourable. Having commenced his large Model under the wtW 
rity of the government, he received pennission to address himself to the several officers who migbi )sn 
it in their power to communicate valuable information ; and, with a view to render such informatkja al 
complete as possible, and to substantiate it by corroborative testimony, he forwarded hisapplic&t>3es^ 
almost every surviving Waterloo officer — not limiting his inouiries to any one particular period ef til 
action, but extending them over the whole of the Battle of Waterloo, as also of that of Quatre*BTes.sJ 
of the entire campaign. In this manner he has succeeded in obtaining from the combined evido^^ 
eye-witnesses a mass of extremely important matter; and when the public are informed that Capt2ic^> 
borne has also been in unreserved communication with the governments of our allies in that kit, c^ 
ceming the operations of the troops they respectively brought into the field, it is ptesumed thst tbe»* 
traordmary advantages he possesses for a satisfactory fulfilment of his design will be at onee ackLC-i- 
ledged and appreciated. 

In revertmg, however, to the Model, as connected with the present history, it may not be uoinipe' 
tant to add that some objections were raised against the position thereon assigned to a portasn cf w 
Prussian troops. These objections induced Captain Siborne to investigate more cloeely the evidec^ k 
had received relative to that part of the field } and the result of such re-consideration has been a pr^ 
conviction that an error of some importance, as regards time and situation, did exist. When the Mo--' 
is again submitted to the public, which it will be very shortly, that error will no longer appear, t^ 
the circumstances under which it arose will be fully accounted for and explained in the fortbccss: 
work. 

One remarkable defect which is manifested, without a single exception, in the existmg histonei (^ 
this campaign, consists in the want of good plans upon scales sufficiently comprehensive to admit of tli« 
positions and movements being duly illustrated. By the application of the anaglyptograph to accTm^n; 
exHCuted models. Captain Siborne has succeeded in producing plans of the different fields of b^'- 
which afford so striking a representation of the features of ground-'-^ representation which has ili '>^ 
appearance of the subject being shewn in relief— that not only the military man who is accustoiDd^ ' 
examine plans, but the civilian who has never studied any thing of the kind, will be enabled thottw^l:.' 
to comprehend them even in the minutest details. 

To respond to the interest felt in the record of that glorious contest by the relatives and ftifsu>>^ 
the combatants, correct lists will be appended to the work, of the names of all officers who were \.m^ 
distinguishing those who were killed or wounded. Marginal notes will also be introduced wlere^* 
officers' names are first mentioned in the course of the work, explainiog, if surviving, their present r^^ 
and if dead, tlie date of their decease, and the rank which they then held. 

A work brought out under such favourable auspices, and grounded upon materials which, oocf^^* 
ing the advanced age of the prineipal contributors, would at no remote period have been placed brrcr- 
our reach, oannot fail to exoite, in a considerable degpree, the attention of the public ; for which re^^ 
no pains will he spared in rendering the illustrations fully commensurate with the value and impon^' 
of the design. It will comprise two handsome octavo volumes, embellished with beautifully exaca^** 
medallio portraits, and accompanied by a folio volume, containing;' military maps and ^quisitelr fs- 
graved anaglyptographio plans from models expressly i^ad^ by C&ptt^n Siborne, of tho fi^!^ of lasilt'i 
QaiAre-Bzas, Ligny, Wavre^ and Waterloo. 



1^1108P£CTUS. 



HBB MOST OBAOIOUS KAJESTT, THE QUEEN. 

HIS BOTAL HIOHKBBS PBINCE ALBERT, K.G. ; G.C.B. 

HEB MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, QUEEN ADELAIDE. 

BXB ROTAL HIGHNESS THE DUCHESS OF KENT. 

HIS BOYAL HIGHNESS, THE DUEE OF CAMBBIDGE, K.G. ; G.CJB. ; G.C.H. 

HIS BOTAL HIGHNESS, PRINCB GEOBGE OF CAMBRIDGE, K.G. 

HI8 MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, THE KING OF HANOVEB, K.G.; G.C.B.; G.C.H.' 

HIS BOYAL HIGHNESS, THE CROWN PRINCE OF HANOVER. 

HIS MAJESTY, THE KING OF PRUSSIA. 

HIS MAJESTY, THE KING OF SWEDEN. 

HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE CROWN PRINCB OF SWEDEN. 

HIS MAJESTY THE KINO OF SAXONY. 

HIS SERENE HIGHNE8S, THE REIGNING^ DUKE OF BRUNSWICK. 

HIS SERENE HIGHNESS, THE PRINCB BBRNHARD OF S0LMS-BRAUNFEL3. 



General tbe Marquen of Anglesey ,K.G.,G.C.B., O.C.H. 

ii« Grace the Duke of Bedford. 

Sis Grac« tbe Dnke of Buccleugh. 

Seneral Baoon, Portugueie Seirice. 

TDlonel BointNrlgffe, C.B., D.Q.M.G. 

rtie Earl of Bandon. 

[Jeut.-ColoiieI B&rton, K.H. ISth Lsncen. 

Colonel Thomas Hunter Blair, CB., Unatt 

Ueut.-a«n. the Hon. Sir Edw. Blakenej, K.C.B., G.C.H. 

Ueut.-Gen. Lord Bloomfleld, G.C.B., G.C.H. 

His Excellency Baron du Brunow, the Russian Minister. 

Lieut.-Geiiaral Sir John Buchan, K.C.B. 

Lieut. -General Sir John Cameron, K.C.B. 

Major-General Sir Guy Campbell, Bart. K.C.B. 

M^jor-Genaral SlrOctavius Carey, C.B., K.C.H. 

Licut.-Golonei Cator, Royal Horse ArtUiery. 

Colonel Chatterton,K.H. Commanding 4tb Drag. Guardji. 

LJeut.-Col. Sir Chas. Chichester, Commanding 8Ut Begt. 

Lieut.-Colonel Clarke, Commanding 8nd (R.N.B.) Drgs. 

Major-General Cleland. 

Major Henry CIcmenU, late of the 10th Begt. 

9enoral Sir George Cockbume, G.C.H. 

Major William H. Cockburne, late of the 0th Begt. 

William Crawford, Esq. 2nd (R.N.B.) Dragoons. 

Lieut,-Coloncl John Crone, K.iL, Unatt. 

His Excellency Earl de Grey, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

The Marquess of Downshire. K. St. P. 

M^ior-General D'Aguilar, C.B. 

Licut.-General Sir Charles Dalbiac, K.C.H. 

General Sir Ralph Darling, G.C.H. 

Ms^or-General Sir Jeremiah Dickson, K.C.B. 

LieuU-General Diokaon, Boyal ArtUtery. 

Tl^e Earl of Donoughmore, K.P. 

LicuL-Colonel Dorville, C.B. Unatt. 

Msjor-Oeneral Sir Nell Douglas, K.C.B., K.C.H. 

Mujor Edward Ward Drewe. 

Cuptain N. F. Dromgoole. h. p. 85th Begt. 

Colonel Berkeley Drumroond, Scots Fusilier Guards. 

Colonel Dyneley, C.B., Boyal Hone ArtUlery. 

The Bight Hon. Lord Eliot. 

Lieut.-General Sir De Lacy ETans, K.C.B. 

Captain the Hon. C. W. Forester, 19th Lanmrs, A.D.C. 
' Lieut.-Colonel Oawler, K.U., Unatt. 
^ Captain E. Gilbome, late of the 71st Begt.* 

* Lieut.-Oo]onel Grove. 

* Lieut.-G«iMraI Lord Greenock, K.C.B. 

* Colonel tbe Lord Viscount GuiUMnoce» Unatt 

* M^or-Oeneral Ilamerton, C.B. 

* Lieut.-G«neral the Bt. Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, K.C.B. 

* Licut.-G«neral Lord Harris, C B., K.C.H. 

* The late General Lord Tlscount Hill, Q.C.B., G.C.H. 

* Colonel George W. Horton, Unatt. 

Colonel Sir George Hoste, C.B. Boyal Enginarrt. 

* Captain W. Uumbley, b.p. RlSe Brigade. 

* Lieut-Colonel Edward Keane, Unatt. 

■ Colonel Clark Kennedy, C.B., K.H. Commanding 7tb 
Dragoon Guards. 

* Colonel James Shaw Kennady, G.B., Unatt. 

* Captain Kincaid, late of the Kifle Brigade. 

* Colonel Charles King, K.H ., late of 16th Light Dragoons. 
HU Grace the Duke of Leinster, K.G. 

* Charles Lake, Eisq. late of the Scots Fusilier Guards. 

* General Bit Jokn Lambert, G.0J3. 

* Lieut-Colonel Leach, late of the Bifle Brigade. 

* Lieut.-Golon«I Francis La Blanc, Unatt. 



Captain the Hon. James Lindsay, Grenadier Guards. 
General Sir Evan Lloyd, K.C.H. 

* Lieut. -Colonel Louis, Royal Artillery. 

General the Honourable Sir Wm. Lumley, G.C.B. 
General Sir FItiroy Maclean, Bart. 
Colonel ManseU, K.H., A.A.G. 

* Lieut-Colonel Marten, Commanding 1st Dragoons. 
The Lord Viscount Massoreene. 

The Lord Viscount Melville, K.T. 

* Lieut-Colonel A. C. Mercer, Royal ArtUlery. 

* Major-General Douglas Mercer, C.B. 

* Liamenant-Oolonel Monins, Commanding 00th Regt. 
Lieut-Colonel H. Morrieson. 

Colonel Sir George Morris. 

Colonel Monro, K.H., Royal Artillery. 

General the Right Hon. Sir George Murray,G.C.B.,G.C.lI . 

Sir William Keith Murray, Bart 

* MsJor*General the Honourable Henry Murray, CB. 

* Lieut-Colonel Muttlebury, C.B., late of 60th Regt. 
His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G. 
Mijor-General William F. P. Napier, C.B. 

The Marquees of Ormonde. 

Colonel Sir Charles O'Donnell, Unatt. 

* MiOor-Oeneral CMalley, CD. 

M^Jor-General the Hon. Sir Hercules Pakonham, K.C.B. 
General the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B. 

* Frederick Hope PattlKon, Esq., late 8Srd Regiment 
Captain Lord fV«derlck Paulet, Coldstream Guards. 
The Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 

* General Sir Geoiye Quentin, CB., K. CH. 

* His Grace the Duke of Blchmond, K.G. 

* Mi^or Held, late 88rd Regiment 

* Colonel T.W Bobbins, h.p.lSth Regiment. 

* Colonel WilUam Rowan, C.B., A.Q.M. Gen. 

Captain Lord Cosmo Russell, OSrd Highlanders, A.D.C. 
Lieut-General Shorlall. 

* Lieut-General Sleigh. CB. 

* Mi\)or-Gencral J. Wobbor Smith, CB. 

* Lieut-General Lord FItzroy Somerset, K.C.B. 
Lieut-Colonel Spottiswoode, h. p. 71st Begt. 

* Colonel Stawell, Commanding I2th Lancers. 

* General Lord Straflbrd, G.C.B., G.C.H. 
Lieut^General the Honourable Patrick Stuart. 

* The lateUeut-Gamna Lord Vhrlan, 0.0.B.» O.CH. 
Colonel Wade. C.B., D.A. Gen. 
M^jor-General J. Welsh. 

* Colonel Whinyatea, C.B., K.H., Royal ArtOlery. 
Colonel the Earl of WilUhire. 

* Lieut.-General Sir Alexander Woodford, K.C.B., K.C.H 

* M^Jor-Oeneral Sir John Woodford, K.C.B., K.C.H. 

* Colonel Yorke, Assist Q. M. Gen. 

Offioars of the Dep6t of the 97th Begt. (1 copy.) 
Officers of the DepOt of the 90th Regt. (1 copy.) 
Officers of the Dep6t of the 47tb R^ (I copy.) 
Officers of the Dep6t of the 04th Regt. (4 copies.) 
Officers of the Depdt of the 66th Regt (1 copy.) 
Officers of the Dep6t of the OGth Rest (1 copy.) 
SeijeanU of the 16th Begt (L copy.) 
Non-eommissioned Officers Library, Boyal ArtiUery, 

Woolwich (1 copy.) 
The Military Librair of the Troopa of Bmnffwick (1 copy.) 
TheBombayBrajich of the Boyal Asiatic Society (I copy.) 
Bamstapie Book Club (1 copy.) 
St George's Reading Society, Bolton (1 copy.) 
4cc. 4(C. fcc. 



The Officers marhd toith an asteritk (*) wtrtat Wattrloo, 



OPINIONS OF THB PRB88. 

" It is written in a free and impartial manner, is lucid in ita deteriptionSy anipnaioglj ecm>et i 
details, and manjr important features of the campaign, which have hitherto remained eatfaer whcl 
unnoticed, or else kept too mnoh in shadow, are now brought forward ioto proper relief; wMbt lij 
grand military operations of the period are delineated with the pen of an enlightened aoldiir. Is i 
word, by separating, with much discrimination, the gold from the dross, he baa turned to ezoell^ 
account the materiius for his undertaking, which seem to have flowed to him from ewerj quarter j ksi 
the consequence is, that a standard history has been produced, remarkable lor ita spirit and r%B87, a 
well as for its truth.*' — U, S. Journal, 

'* We hail this work as a standard history of the Battle of Waterloo and of the Campo^ t 
Flanders-^a worthy companion and seqnel to the Peninsular Campaigns of Napier. A cam}£3L:a 
from the testimonies of eye-witnesses (as this is) had they been dressed up for publication, and eobjecsed 
individually to the public judgment, would have been cold and lifeless; here all is freshnpaa, viTsdCr, 
unaffected truth ; and thus is explained the very superior style of the writer, who possetse^ a neni 
and spring of thought and a brilliant colouring of phrase, combined with a transparent clearaea al 
expression, such as is rarely attained by the purely literary writer, and seldom, if erer, fonsd ia com 
nection with profound, professional, and practical knowledge, as in this work. The moat intizB^el} 
acquainted with the scenery and incidents of the days of June, 1815, are loudest nnd moat decided a 
their admiration of the plans and portraits which embellish these volumes. The gronnd is eagnred li 
a peculiar progress, which represents in relief the slightest elevation, and sinks the smallest depzessoa 
by the peculiar carve and measure of the line. Thus, the spectator looks down upon the ground of tie 
battle itself with the clear perception of all its undulations, and its every variety of form and upect 
A second, and very different process, to which the plate is then subject, places in their poaitioes tbs 
troops exactly as they occupied the field, lliese speaking plans have an accuracy hitherto nnimagiacd, 
with sn effect which is unequalled by any previous attempt There are portraits of the Heroes of tbt 
campaign, which have as much merit aa novelty — being engraved medallions — perfect portraits m. fai^ 
relief."— A^owrZ and Military Gazette. 

'* The eventful victory which these two splendid volumes are intended to commemorate bsi hi 
many historians, but none so good or comprehensive as Captain Sibome. His facility of aooess to <Se^ 
documents, both English and foreign, the assistance which he has received from the surviying WaJfrUt! 
heroes of all ranks, and the zeal, energy, and talent, which he has displayed in the oonstmction of La 
materials, have produced a record, not only of the battle itself, but of the whole Waterloo campaija, 
which is likely to be as enduring as it is creditable to his talents as a writer, and his veputatioG ts » 
oldier. For ourselves we heartily thank Captain Siborne for his spirited volumes, and sinoerelv do ve 
hope they will meet their due reward. Of this we are certain, they cannot be too soon in the hasiiv 
not only of every Officer of the Service, but also of every civil member of the community." — Vgti^ 
Seroice Gazette. 

*' We cannot feel our debt acquitted to Captain Sibome for the pleasure and instruction his work liss 
afforded us, if we did not bring our unqualified ijestimony to the minute accuracy of detail, the hi^ ; 
honourable and soldier-like spirit, and the admirable candour and fairness by which it is everjvhai 
characterized. When the work was first announced for publication, we conceived great expecutioia 
from a history compiled by one whose access to every source of information was fovoured botii ^. 
interest in the highest Quarters, and the circumstances of an official appointment on the staff. We ven 
not disappointed. Such are the volumes before us — a Military Classic— and they will remain so vhik 
Waterloo is a word to stir the heart and nerve the arm of a British soldier." — Dublin Utuvertity, Mw^. 

" This work is precisely what such a publication should be, a fair, impartial compilation of ir&i 
authenticated testimony relative to the great events to which it has reference, interspersed with foc^ 
reflections as have appeared to the author to be needful for the gruidance of his unprofessional readers.'' 

Morning F«^ 

" This History possesses all the minute matter of fact accuracy of a gazette, combined with a virii 
and glowing power of description scarcely inferior even to Colonel Napier's admirable '< Histoiy of ^ 
Peni nsnlar War," and we know not that we can give it higher praise ; moreover, we will ventore tc- 
assert, that of all the careful and circumstantial descriptions of this campaign, none will give « 
distinct, vivid, and correct idea of its character as these eleven Maps."— Sun, 

« We can declare in all sincerity that we have perused his narrative of marches and onslaiigkt3 
with infinite satisfaction. He tells his tale with singular clearness. He is at home in all the vvkd 
movements and changes of position, &c. ; and his account of Cavalry Charges, especially in the »S%* 
of Quatre Bras, the advance of columns and cannonading, sweep yon onwaids as if the scene described 
were actually passing under your eyes. His Plans and Charts too are excellent, and eveiy way wartij 
of the modellist of the Field of Waterloo. We thank Captain S., not only for the amusement we hin 
derived from his performance, but for the opportunity with which the appearance of a genume English 
History of the Battle of Waterloo supplies us, of refuting some of the errors regarding it into wbic^ 
other historians have fiUlen." — Frater's Mag. 

n? 

PUBLISHED BY T. &. W. BOONE, 29, NEW BOND STREET, LONDON; 

AND BOLD Br 

OLIVER AND BOYD, AND FRASER AND Co. EDZNBgBOH; and J. CUMMINO, DuBur. 

.^4 



11UV O { lu^n